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4.
J Health Organ Manag ; ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print)2024 Jun 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38839779

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this paper is to highlight the joint impact of competitive culture and knowledge behaviors (sharing, hoarding and hiding) on workplace happiness among healthcare professionals. It addresses a literature gap that critiques the development of happiness programs in healthcare that overlook organizational, social and economic dynamics. The study is based on the Social Exchange Theory, the Conservation of Resources Theory and the principles of Positive Psychology. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: The study analyzes a linear relationship between variables using a structural equation model and a partial least squares approach. The data are sourced from a survey of 253 healthcare professionals from Portuguese healthcare organizations. FINDINGS: The data obtained from the model illustrate a positive correlation between competitive culture and knowledge hoarding as well as knowledge hiding. Interestingly, a competitive culture also fosters workplace happiness among healthcare professionals. The complex relationship between knowledge behaviors becomes evident since both knowledge hoarding and sharing positively affected these professionals' workplace happiness. However, no direct impact was found between knowledge hiding and workplace happiness, suggesting that it negatively mediates other variables. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: This research addresses a previously identified threefold gap. First, it delves into the pressing need to comprehend behaviors that enhance healthcare professionals' workplace satisfaction. Second, it advances studies by empirically examining the varied impacts of knowledge hiding, hoarding and sharing. Finally, it sheds light on the repercussions of knowledge behaviors within an under-explored context - healthcare organizations.


Subject(s)
Happiness , Health Personnel , Workplace , Humans , Health Personnel/psychology , Workplace/psychology , Adult , Male , Female , Portugal , Surveys and Questionnaires , Middle Aged , Organizational Culture , Job Satisfaction
5.
Indian J Public Health ; 68(1): 66-74, 2024 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38847636

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity is a significant public health issue affecting working adults because it can increase the risk of noncommunicable diseases. OBJECTIVES: The objective is to determine the outcomes of a multi-component workplace environmental intervention that incorporated physical activity self-regulation (PASR) to promote physical activity (PA) among employees. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a 6-month intervention with a two-group, parallel, quasi-experimental study. A total of 11 workplaces were randomly assigned to intervention group (IG) or control group (CG) using a 1:1 allocation ratio. In each group, 84 eligible participants were recruited. The IG was exposed to the organizational support and the PA support components throughout the study. The PASR Scale, International PA Questionnaire, and pedometer were used to measure the outcome at the baseline, 3rd-month, and 6th-month follow-ups, respectively. The repeated measures-analysis of variance analysis was used to determine the changes in the PASR skills, MET-min/week, and step/week over time. RESULTS: The IG had 75 participants (51 females and 24 males) and the CG had 73 participants (52 females and 21 males) at the 6th-month follow-up. Despite there was no statistically significant difference in the outcomes between groups over time, the IG showed significant improvements in total PASR (ηp2 = 0.021), goal setting (ηp2 = 0.024), total MET-min/week (ηp2 = 0.031), housework-related PA (ηp2 = 0.101), and step/week (ηp2 = 0.827) throughout this intervention. CONCLUSION: This intervention was found to be effective in improving the PASR skills, MET-min/week, and step/week of IG participants. Meanwhile, because some effect sizes were small, these findings should be interpreted with caution.


Subject(s)
Exercise , Health Promotion , Workplace , Humans , Female , Male , Malaysia , Health Promotion/methods , Health Promotion/organization & administration , Adult , Middle Aged
6.
Syst Rev ; 13(1): 152, 2024 Jun 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38849924

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite growing interest in workplace mental health interventions, evidence of their effectiveness is mixed. Implementation science offers a valuable lens to investigate the factors influencing successful implementation. However, evidence synthesis is lacking, especially for small-to-medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) and for specific work sectors. The objectives of this review are to establish the scope of research with explicit analysis of implementation aspects of workplace mental health interventions and to identify barriers and facilitators to implementation in general and within SMEs and selected sectors. METHODS: A systematic scoping review and meta-synthesis of mixed methods process evaluation research from 11 databases, with the evaluation of methodological quality (MMAT) and confidence in findings (CERQual), was conducted. We selected information-rich studies and synthesised them using domains within the Nielsen and Randall implementation framework: context, intervention activities, implementation; and mental models. RESULTS: We included 43 studies published between 2009 and 2022, of which 22 were rated as information-rich to be analysed for barriers and facilitators. Most studies were conducted in healthcare. Facilitators reflecting 'high confidence' included: relevant and tailored content, continuous and pro-active leadership buy-in and support, internal or external change agents/champions, assistance from managers and peers, resources, and senior-level experience and awareness of mental health issues. Healthcare sector-specific facilitators included: easy accessibility with time provided, fostering relationships, clear communication, and perceptions of the intervention. Stigma and confidentiality issues were reported as barriers overall. Due to the small number of studies within SMEs reported findings did not reach 'high confidence'. A lack of studies in construction and Information and Communication Technology meant separate analyses were not possible. CONCLUSIONS: There is dependable evidence of key factors for the implementation of workplace mental health interventions which should be used to improve implementation. However, there is a lack of studies in SMEs and in a larger variety of sectors. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: Research Registry ( reviewregistry897 ).


Subject(s)
Health Promotion , Mental Health , Workplace , Humans , Workplace/psychology , Health Promotion/methods , Qualitative Research , Leadership , Occupational Health
7.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0300036, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38843145

ABSTRACT

With the continuous development of large-scale engineering projects such as construction projects, relief support, and large-scale relocation in various countries, engineering logistics has attracted much attention. This paper addresses a multimodal material route planning problem (MMRPP), which considers the transportation of engineering material from suppliers to the work zones using multiple transport modes. Due to the overall relevance and technical complexity of engineering logistics, we introduce the key processes at work zones to generate a transport solution, which is more realistic for various real-life applications. We propose a multi-objective multimodal transport route planning model that minimizes the total transport cost and the total transport time. The model by using the ε - constraint method that transforms the objective function of minimizing total transportation cost into a constraint, resulting in obtaining pareto optimal solutions. This method makes up for the lack of existing research on the combination of both engineering logistics and multimodal transportation, after which the feasibility of the model and algorithm is verified by examples. The results show that the model solution with the introduction of the key processes at work zones produces more time-efficient and less time-consuming route planning results, and that the results obtained using the ε - constraint method are more reliable than the traditional methods for solving multi-objective planning problems and are more in line with the decision maker's needs.


Subject(s)
Algorithms , Models, Theoretical , Transportation , Transportation/methods , Engineering/methods , Humans , Workplace
8.
Nurs Adm Q ; 48(3): 234-236, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38848485

ABSTRACT

Health care leaders need to measure their workforce and operational performance in a more comprehensive manner to fully understand the interplay of the many variables that influence performance and the employee experience in health systems. Nurse leaders have an opportunity to leverage that understanding to provide the clinical workforce with a measurably improved workplace.


Subject(s)
Leadership , Nurse Administrators , Humans , Nurse Administrators/trends , Workplace/standards , Workplace/psychology
9.
Nurs Adm Q ; 48(3): 218-224, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38848483

ABSTRACT

The provision of modern health care in the United States faces significant challenges, as evidenced by multiple national reports of a workforce in distress. In response to these challenges, the practice of coaching emerges as a transformative skill, recommended for individuals in high-stress environments. Coaching in health care focuses on developing nurses and building teams by fostering self-understanding, deploying strengths, improving relational strategies, and gaining moral clarity. It serves as a potent strategy for nurse leaders to navigate the complexities of their systems. This paper explores the practice of coaching as an important mindset and skill. A coaching mindset is characterized by trust, deep listening, curiosity, embracing both/and thinking, discernment over judgment, and fosters an environment where nurses can flourish. It promotes a shift from telling to asking, empowering individuals to contribute innovative ideas and solutions. Additionally, the paper provides guidance for coaching and tools for maintaining a coaching mindset in the face of chronic stress. By fostering a coaching mindset, employing powerful questions, and using tools to sustain emotional integrity, leaders can empower nurses to thrive in complexity, enhance workplace well-being, and contribute to a resilient health care culture.


Subject(s)
Leadership , Mentoring , Humans , Mentoring/methods , United States , Nurses/psychology , Workplace/psychology , Workplace/standards , Nurse Administrators/psychology
10.
J Safety Res ; 89: 288-298, 2024 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38858052

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The occupational road-accident risk on public roads and the work conditions for professional driving is still an important issue in occupational health despite lower road-accident rates. This study presents the evolution over time of the work-related constraints for these employees based on the Sumer surveys carried out in 2003, 2010 and 2017. METHOD: Data from the 2010 and 2017 surveys were restricted to match the scope of the 2003 survey in order to enable prevalence data to be compared in equivalent populations. The main variable of interest was "driving (car, truck, bus, and other vehicles) on public thoroughfares" for work (during the last week of work: yes/no). Work time characteristics, work rhythm, autonomy and scope for initiative, collective work group, standards and evaluations variables were completed by the occupational health physicians. A self-administered questionnaire was also provided to employees and contained the Job Content Questionnaire, which assesses decision latitude, social support and psychological demands, the reward scale of Siegrist questionnaire, the hostile behaviour with inspired questions for Leymann, sick leave and work accidents during the past 12 months and job satisfaction. Finally, prevention in the workplace was also completed by the occupational health physicians. RESULTS: About 25% of employees in France were exposed to work-related driving in 2017, which was stable in comparison with 2003 and 2010. However, the population was older and there were more females, more often from the clerical staff/middle manager category and working in companies with fewer than 10 employees. Employees exposed to work-related driving were also more frequently exposed to sustained work schedules and physical constraints, but less exposed to psychosocial risks. CONCLUSIONS: The percentage of employees exposed to occupational road accident risk, i.e., exposure to work-related driving, remained stable at about 25% in 2017 compared with previous surveys. These employees were also more frequently exposed to sustained work schedules and physical constraints, but less exposed to psychosocial risks. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Prevention campaigns on work-related road accident risk should be provided to all employees in all companies since all jobs can be concerned.


Subject(s)
Automobile Driving , Workplace , Humans , France/epidemiology , Male , Female , Adult , Automobile Driving/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires , Middle Aged , Occupational Health , Job Satisfaction , Accidents, Traffic/statistics & numerical data , Accidents, Occupational/statistics & numerical data , Accidents, Occupational/prevention & control
11.
J Safety Res ; 89: 33-40, 2024 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38858057

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: A unique feature of workplace investigations is the familiarity that investigators and witnesses have with the factors involved in the adverse incident. Familiarity creates expectations that can shape investigators' and witnesses' assumptions and opinions. The current research examined the biasing effect of non-factual witness claims on investigators' judgments. These claims, which we call 'uncheckable,' included opinions about factors involved in the event and the future. We also examined how participants' a priori knowledge of an employee's history influenced their judgments. METHOD: This experiment used a 2 (background information: control or unsafe) × 2 (uncheckable content: neutral or unsafe) between-subjects design. Participants were provided with background information about a worker (control or unsafe history) and a witness statement about a workplace event that contained uncheckable claims (neutral or worker as unsafe). We tested how our manipulations biased participants' judgments of: (i) the cause of the event, (ii) the witness's confidence and credibility, and (iii) the diagnosticity of the witness's account. We also tested if biasing background information affected how factual participants found the witness's statement. RESULTS: Biasing uncheckable information (i.e., opinions) affected participants' judgments of event cause (ηp2 = 0.033) and increased their ratings of witness confidence (ηp2 = 0.074). Biasing background information about a worker affected participants' judgments of the cause of the event (ηp2 = 0.088), the diagnostic value of the witness statement (ηp2 = 0.054), and the number of factual claims in the witness statement, resulting in more uncheckable claims being misclassified as potential facts (ηp2 = 0.18). CONCLUSION: This experiment demonstrated the significant effect that non-factual witness statements and irrelevant background information can have on the interpretation of evidence and judgments about the cause of events. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Understanding how contextual information can bias investigative judgment helps workplace investigators manage its influence in their judgment practices.


Subject(s)
Judgment , Trust , Workplace , Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult
12.
J Safety Res ; 89: 306-311, 2024 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38858054

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Young workers in the United States are injured at higher rates than adults, a trend that has persisted for more than two decades. Despite known risks, young people enter the workforce with little-or-no preparation for the hazards they may face. In 2016, the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health and American Industrial Hygiene Association developed Safety Matters, a one-hour educational module to raise awareness of workplace safety and health among young people. METHOD: A pilot project was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of Safety Matters to positively change workplace safety and health knowledge and attitude scores among a sample of 283 youth in Colorado. Train-the-trainer sessions prepared volunteer safety and health professionals to deliver Safety Matters with fidelity and to conduct the assessment immediately prior to and following the program. RESULTS: After receiving Safety Matters, participants had statistically significant (p < 0.001) increased scores for both workplace safety and health knowledge (Cohen's d = 1.12; large effect size) and importance (attitude) (Cohen's d = 0.51; medium effect size). Although univariate analyses showed knowledge and attitude scores significantly increased for all demographic groups examined, there were statistically significant differences in knowledge scores by participant age (p < 0.01), ethnicity (p < 0.05), and race (p < 0.001) and statistically significant differences in attitude scores by participant race (p < 0.001). However, when race and ethnicity were both used as predictors in a regression model, only race continued to predict statistically significant (p < 0.01) changes in knowledge and attitude. CONCLUSIONS: This project introduces a promising, community-based model for a one-hour introduction to workplace safety and health on which future, job-specific safety training can be built. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: Safety and health professionals can play a critical role in promoting the health and safety of young workers. Adapting health and safety programs to diverse youth populations may enhance program relevance and receptivity.


Subject(s)
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Occupational Health , Workplace , Humans , Male , Adolescent , Female , Pilot Projects , Young Adult , Colorado , United States
13.
J Safety Res ; 89: 56-63, 2024 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38858063

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Addressing the health and safety of workers is key to achieving Sustainable Development Goals 3 and 8. The European Union urges companies in its member countries to promote measures in this regard. However, this type of program is not a general approach in European companies. This study aims to identify whether the implementation of Workplace Health Promotion measures is influenced by the company's desire to meet its employees' expectations in this area; and if this relationship involves the company's reputation and productivity. METHODS: A multi-step methodology is used (descriptive sample portrait, analysis of influences by linear regression, and double-intermediation model analysis) to find out if reputation and productivity mediate the relationship between the satisfaction of employee health expectations and the number of Workplace Health Promotion measures applied. RESULTS: The more weight the company gives to this compliance, the more motivated it is to implement a more significant number of Workplace Health Promotion measures. The increase in productivity does not seem to weigh in this relationship, but the improvement of the company's reputation does. CONCLUSIONS: The more the employees' expectations of working in a healthy company are desired to be met, the more measures the company will put in place. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS: The findings have theoretical implications, by increasing knowledge about the factors that influence a company's decision to activate Workplace Health Promotion policies. They can also serve as guidance for implementing policies that encourage health promotion in companies and contribute to the achievement of Sustainable Development Goals 3 and 8: for workers' representatives, by better understanding how these factors influence the fulfillment of their constituents' expectations; for company managers, by better knowing the variables involved in this relationship; and for researchers of this topic.


Subject(s)
Health Promotion , Occupational Health , Workplace , Humans , Health Promotion/methods , Male , Adult , Female , Middle Aged , Efficiency , European Union , Surveys and Questionnaires , Motivation
14.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0304951, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38857277

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To map the current state of precision prevention research in the workplace setting, specifically to study contexts and characteristics, and to analyze the precision prevention approach in the stages of risk assessment/data monitoring, data analytics, and the health promotion interventions implemented. METHODS: Six international databases were searched for studies published between January 2010 and May 2023, using the term "precision prevention" or its synonyms in the context of worksite health promotion. RESULTS: After screening 3,249 articles, 129 studies were reviewed. Around three-quarters of the studies addressed an intervention (95/129, 74%). Only 14% (18/129) of the articles primarily focused on risk assessment and data monitoring, and 12% of the articles (16/129) mainly included data analytics studies. Most of the studies focused on behavioral outcomes (61/160, 38%), followed by psychological (37/160, 23%) and physiological (31/160, 19%) outcomes of health (multiple answers were possible). In terms of study designs, randomized controlled trials were used in more than a third of all studies (39%), followed by cross-sectional studies (18%), while newer designs (e.g., just-in-time-adaptive-interventions) are currently rarely used. The main data analyses of all studies were regression analyses (44% with analyses of variance or linear mixed models), whereas machine learning methods (e.g., Algorithms, Markov Models) were conducted only in 8% of the articles. DISCUSSION: Although there is a growing number of precision prevention studies in the workplace, there are still research gaps in applying new data analysis methods (e.g., machine learning) and implementing innovative study designs. In the future, it is desirable to take a holistic approach to precision prevention in the workplace that encompasses all the stages of precision prevention (risk assessment/data monitoring, data analytics and interventions) and links them together as a cycle.


Subject(s)
Health Promotion , Occupational Health , Workplace , Humans , Health Promotion/methods , Risk Assessment
15.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1568, 2024 Jun 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38862940

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To solve the problem of workplace bullying among nurses, it is necessary to review the effects of interventions and generalize the findings. We conducted a systematic literature review and meta-analysis to evaluate the effects of cognitive rehearsal programs on workplace bullying among hospital nurses. METHODS: Data were collected from March 30 to April 11, 2021, and 11,048 journal articles published in South Korea and internationally were examined across eight databases. Nine articles were selected for inclusion in the systematic literature review; five of the nine studies were included in the meta-analysis. For randomized controlled trials, the risk of bias was evaluated, and for non-randomized controlled trials, the study quality was evaluated using the Risk of Bias for Non-randomized Studies version 2.0. Egger's regression test was performed to determine publication bias. RESULTS: Of the nine articles selected for this study, two were randomized controlled trials and seven were non-randomized controlled trials. The I2 value was 18.9%, indicating non-significant heterogeneity. The overall effect size of the cognitive rehearsal programs was -0.40 (95% confidence interval: -0.604 to -0.196; Z = -3.85; p = .0001) in a random-effects model, indicating a large effect size with statistical significance. CONCLUSIONS: Therefore, cognitive rehearsal programs that address workplace bullying among hospital nurses are effective. Health policymakers must implement cognitive rehearsal programs in a policy manner to address the problems of bullying in the workplace.


Subject(s)
Bullying , Nursing Staff, Hospital , Workplace , Humans , Bullying/prevention & control , Bullying/psychology , Nursing Staff, Hospital/psychology , Workplace/psychology , Program Evaluation , Republic of Korea , Cognitive Behavioral Therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
16.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0302654, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38848406

ABSTRACT

South Korea has faced many social issues due to long working hours, lack of rest areas, and poor rest facility environments for cleaners, security guards, department store workers, etc. Discussions have been ongoing about mandating the installation of rest facilities. From August 18, 2022, Article 128-2 of the Occupational Safety and Health Act, concerning the installation of rest facilities, was enforced. Consequently, employers in all industries are required to install rest facilities, and laws have been established to ensure these facilities meet certain standards. Accordingly, this study investigated the current status of rest facility installations and the awareness of the law's enactment in Korean industrial sites. The results, analyzed by gender, age, managerial status, industry, and size of the business, indicated that younger people were less satisfied with the rest facilities. Managers were more knowledgeable about the legal regulations than workers. In the service industry, compared to other industries, smaller businesses were less likely to have rest facilities and were less aware of the legal regulations. The results of this study are expected to be used as basic data to help establish the rest facility installation laws in Korea.


Subject(s)
Occupational Health , Republic of Korea , Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Occupational Health/legislation & jurisprudence , Workplace/legislation & jurisprudence , Awareness , Surveys and Questionnaires , Industry/legislation & jurisprudence
17.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0298581, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38829912

ABSTRACT

Nursing is considered indigent and oppressed because of uneven organizational hierarchies and unsatisfactory work environments. This study aimed to highlight the critical aspects of organizational culture in the nursing profession and, in general, those propagating hostile behaviours among female nursing staff that result in dissatisfaction and intention to leave the organization. A quantitative research approach was applied and a survey research strategy was used to collect the data. Convenience sampling was applied and data were collected from female nurses who were easily accessible and willing to participate in the research. A total of 707 questionnaires were collected from 14 hospitals and the data was analyzed using SmartPLS 4. Lack of administrative support and gender discrimination positively affected person-related hostility. In contrast, person-related hostility mediated the relationship between gender discrimination and lack of administrative support with the intention to leave. Direct or indirect person-related hostility factors can severely damage organizational reputation and quality and may cause the loss of employees with specific organizational knowledge and exposure. Losing an experienced employee to a newer one cannot replace the costs incurred on hiring, training, and providing knowledge to older employees. HR managers in organizations should devise strategies and policies that allow for the timely resolution of issues of nursing staff based on fair work performance.


Subject(s)
Hostility , Humans , Female , Pakistan , Adult , Surveys and Questionnaires , Nurses/psychology , Job Satisfaction , Organizational Culture , Nursing Staff, Hospital/psychology , Health Care Sector , Middle Aged , Sexism , Male , Workplace/psychology , Personnel Turnover , Attitude of Health Personnel
18.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0303563, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38833505

ABSTRACT

As theoretical models suggest, work addiction has several adverse correlates and consequences, such as unfavorable personality traits, physical and psychological symptoms, and social conflicts. Both early and recent concepts emphasize that individuals with work addiction have more problematic social life due to obsessive overwork. This includes negative impacts on family, workplace, and other relationships. The present study aimed to systematically review and meta-analyze all the empirical studies that examined the association between work addiction and any dimension of social life, as such an analysis has never been conducted before. Studies published from 1995 to 2022 were identified through a systematic search. 102 eligible studies were included in the review, with 75 studies contributing to five different meta-analyses. The results indicated significant associations between work addiction and: (1) lower work-life balance, (2) reduced social functioning, and increased difficulties in (3) family relationships, (4) intimate relationships, and (5) relationships with the community, friends, and colleagues. The associations were found to be independent of gender and age. The meta-analytic study highlights research gaps in the field and suggests future directions, including exploring attachment styles and early social relationships in work addiction, investigating the association between social and emotional competencies and work addiction, examining the role of escape motivation, and exploring the characteristics of the partners (spouses) of workaholics. Since the quality of social relationships and social support are crucial factors in physical and mental health, the prevention and intervention of work addiction should be prioritized in organizational and clinical settings.


Subject(s)
Behavior, Addictive , Humans , Behavior, Addictive/psychology , Interpersonal Relations , Work-Life Balance , Social Support , Workplace/psychology
20.
BMC Public Health ; 24(1): 1516, 2024 Jun 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38844904

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Covid-19 pandemic initiated an enduring shift in working patterns, with many employees now working at home (w@h). This shift has exacerbated existing high levels of occupational sedentary behaviour (SB) in office workers, which is a recognised risk to health and well-being. This study aimed to use the Capability-Opportunity-Motivation-Behaviour (COM-B) model to better understand both employees' SB, and line managers behaviour to assist employees to reduce SB when w@h, and identify how employees can best be supported to reduce SB. METHODS: Three online focus groups with employees aged 18-40 working in desk-based roles (e.g. administrative / sales / customer services) (n = 21), and three with line managers (n = 21) were conducted. The focus groups facilitated discussion regarding participants' current behaviour, what impacts it, and what could be done to reduce employee SB when w@h. The focus group data were thematically analysed guided by the COM-B framework to understand influences on behaviour, and to identify promising intervention strategies. RESULTS: Most participants recognised that w@h had elevated employee occupational SB, and line managers reported the importance of supporting employees to manage their workload, and encouraging and modelling taking breaks. There were multiple influences on both employee and line manager behaviour with capability, opportunity and motivation all perceived as influential, although not equally. For example, a major theme related to the reduced physical opportunities for employees to reduce their SB when w@h, including blurred work-life boundaries. Changes in physical opportunities also made supporting employees challenging for line managers. Additionally, the w@h environment included unique social opportunities that negatively impacted the behaviour of both groups, including an expectation to always be present online, and social norms. A range of strategies for reducing SB when w@h at both individual and organisational level were suggested. CONCLUSIONS: It was evident that SB when w@h is influenced by a range of factors, and therefore multi-component intervention strategies are likely to be most effective in reducing SB. Future intervention research is a priority to evaluate and refine strategies, and inform w@h guidance to protect both the short-term and long-term health consequences of elevated SB for those who continue to w@h.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Focus Groups , Sedentary Behavior , Humans , Adult , Male , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Young Adult , Adolescent , Motivation , Workplace/psychology , Teleworking , Occupational Health
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