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1.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 265, 2021 Mar 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33731022

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Increasing arbovirus infections have been a global burden in recent decades. Many countries have experienced the periodic emergence of arbovirus diseases. However, information on the prevalence of arboviruses is largely unknown or infrequently updated because of the lack of surveillance studies, especially in Africa. METHODS: A surveillance study was conducted in Gabon, Central Africa, on arboviruses, which are a major public health concern in Africa, including: West Nile virus (WNV), dengue virus (DENV), Zika virus (ZIKV), yellow fever virus (YFV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV), and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV). Serological and molecular assays were performed to investigate past infection history and the current status of infection, using serum samples collected from healthy individuals and febrile patients, respectively. RESULTS: The overall seroprevalence during 2014-2017 was estimated to be 25.3% for WNV, 20.4% for DENV, 40.3% for ZIKV, 60.7% for YFV, 61.2% for CHIKV, and 14.3% for RVFV. No significant differences were found in the seroprevalence of any of the viruses between the male and female populations. However, a focus on the mean age in each arbovirus-seropositive individual showed a significantly younger age in WNV- and DENV-seropositive individuals than in CHIKV-seropositive individuals, indicating that WNV and DENV caused a relatively recent epidemic in the region, whereas CHIKV had actively circulated before. Of note, this indication was supported by the detection of both WNV and DENV genomes in serum samples collected from febrile patients after 2016. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed the recent re-emergence of WNV and DENV in Gabon as well as the latest seroprevalence state of the major arboviruses, which indicated the different potential risks of virus infections and virus-specific circulation patterns. This information will be helpful for public health organizations and will enable a rapid response towards these arbovirus infections, thereby preventing future spread in the country.


Subject(s)
Arboviruses/isolation & purification , Dengue/epidemiology , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology , Adolescent , Animals , Arbovirus Infections/diagnosis , Arbovirus Infections/epidemiology , Arboviruses/classification , Child , Child, Preschool , Communicable Diseases, Emerging , Dengue/diagnosis , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/virology , Gabon/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Male , Public Health , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Zika Virus Infection/diagnosis
2.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 179: 113074, 2021 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33596516

ABSTRACT

On global scale, the current situation of pandemic is symptomatic of increased incidences of contagious diseases caused by pathogens. The faster spread of these diseases, in a moderately short timeframe, is threatening the overall population wellbeing and conceivably the economy. The inadequacy of conventional diagnostic tools in terms of time consuming and complex laboratory-based diagnosis process is a major challenge to medical care. In present era, the development of point-of-care testing (POCT) is in demand for fast detection of infectious diseases along with "on-site" results that are helpful in timely and early action for better treatment. In addition, POCT devices also play a crucial role in preventing the transmission of infectious diseases by offering real-time testing and lab quality microbial diagnosis within minutes. Timely diagnosis and further treatment optimization facilitate the containment of outbreaks of infectious diseases. Presently, efforts are being made to support such POCT by the technological development in the field of internet of medical things (IoMT). The IoMT offers wireless-based operation and connectivity of POCT devices with health expert and medical centre. In this review, the recently developed POC diagnostics integrated or future possibilities of integration with IoMT are discussed with focus on emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases like malaria, dengue fever, influenza A (H1N1), human papilloma virus (HPV), Ebola virus disease (EVD), Zika virus (ZIKV), and coronavirus (COVID-19). The IoMT-assisted POCT systems are capable enough to fill the gap between bioinformatics generation, big rapid analytics, and clinical validation. An optimized IoMT-assisted POCT will be useful in understanding the diseases progression, treatment decision, and evaluation of efficacy of prescribed therapy.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation , Communicable Diseases/diagnosis , Internet of Things , Point-of-Care Testing , Animals , Artificial Intelligence , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Dengue/diagnosis , Equipment Design , HIV Infections/diagnosis , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/diagnosis , Humans , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Malaria/diagnosis , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/diagnosis , Zika Virus Infection/diagnosis
3.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 54: e01802020, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605376

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Newborn who had Zika vírus but did not show microcephaly at birth may have neuropsychomotor development problems. We aimed to evaluate the developmental and anthropometric milestones of asymptomatic children whose mothers had Zika during pregnancy in Northeastern Brazil in 2015 and 2016. METHODS: We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional case series study of children in Fortaleza born without microcephaly whose mothers had Zika during pregnancy. Home visits were undertaken to evaluate the developmental milestones and gather anthropometric data of the children and to conduct semi-structured interviews with the mothers to identify their socioeconomic and gestational profiles and assess the newborns after birth. RESULTS: In total, 30 cases were identified. Of these, 17 children and their mothers participated in the study. The median age of the mothers at the time of delivery was 26 years. All were symptomatic, and TORCH was negative. At the time of the home visit, all had growth profiles suitable for their age. However, nearly all children (15/17, 88.2%) presented at least one developmental delay, considering their age group. CONCLUSIONS: There were late changes in the neuropsychomotor development of children born to mothers who had Zika during pregnancy, suggesting the need for specialized medical follow-ups.


Subject(s)
Microcephaly , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Adult , Brazil , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Growth and Development , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Mothers , Pregnancy , Zika Virus Infection/diagnosis
4.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200339, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33503145

ABSTRACT

We evaluated sweat, blood and urine specimens obtained from an ongoing cohort study in Brazil. Samples were collected at pre-established intervals after the initial rash presentation and tested for Zika virus (ZIKV) RNA presence by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR). From 254 participants with confirmed infection, ZIKV RNA was detected in the sweat of 46 individuals (18.1%). Sweat presented a median cycle threshold (Ct) of 34.74 [interquartile range (IQR) 33.44-36.04], comparable to plasma (Ct 35.96 - IQR 33.29-36.69) and higher than urine (Ct 30.78 - IQR 28.72-33.22). Concomitant detection with other specimens was observed in 33 (72%) of 46 participants who had a positive result in sweat. These findings represent an unusual and not yet investigated virus shedding through eccrine glands.


Subject(s)
RNA, Viral/genetics , Sweat/virology , Zika Virus Infection/diagnosis , Zika Virus/isolation & purification , Adult , Blood/virology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , RNA, Viral/classification , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Urine/virology , Zika Virus/genetics , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology
5.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 947, 2020 Dec 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308203

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Early detection of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during the viremia and viruria facilitates proper patient management and mosquito control measurement to prevent disease spread. Therefore, a cost-effective nucleic acid detection method for the diagnosis of ZIKV infection, especially in resource-deficient settings, is highly required. METHODS: In the present study, a single-tube reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay was developed for the detection of both the Asian and African-lineage ZIKV. The detection limit, strain coverage and cross-reactivity of the ZIKV RT-LAMP assay was evaluated. The sensitivity and specificity of the RT-LAMP were also evaluated using a total of 24 simulated clinical samples. The ZIKV quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) assay was used as the reference assay. RESULTS: The detection limit of the RT-LAMP assay was 3.73 ZIKV RNA copies (probit analysis, P ≤ 0.05). The RT-LAMP assay detected the ZIKV genomes of both the Asian and African lineages without cross-reacting with other arthropod-borne viruses. The sensitivity and specificity of the RT-LAMP assay were 90% (95% CI = 59.6-98.2) and 100% (95% CI = 78.5-100.0), respectively. The RT-LAMP assay detected ZIKV genome in 9 of 24 (37.5%) of the simulated clinical samples compared to 10 of 24 (41.7%) by qRT-PCR assay with a high level of concordance (κ = 0.913, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The RT-LAMP assay is applicable for the broad coverage detection of both the Asian and African ZIKV strains in resource-deficient settings.


Subject(s)
Molecular Diagnostic Techniques/methods , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , Zika Virus Infection/diagnosis , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology , Zika Virus/classification , Zika Virus/genetics , Africa/epidemiology , Asia/epidemiology , Humans , RNA, Viral/genetics , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Sensitivity and Specificity , Zika Virus Infection/virology
6.
Viruses ; 13(1)2020 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33374895

ABSTRACT

Congenital viral infections and the occurrence of septo-optic dysplasia, which is a combination of optic nerve hypoplasia, abnormal formation of structures along the midline of the brain, and pituitary hypofunction, support the biological plausibility of endocrine dysfunction in Zika-related microcephaly. In this case series we ascertained the presence and describe endocrine dysfunction in 30 children with severe Zika-related microcephaly from the MERG Pediatric Cohort, referred for endocrinological evaluation between February and August 2019. Of the 30 children, 97% had severe microcephaly. The average age at the endocrinological consultation was 41 months and 53% were female. The most frequently observed endocrine dysfunctions comprised short stature, hypothyroidism, obesity and variants early puberty. These dysfunctions occurred alone 57% or in combination 43%. We found optic nerve hypoplasia (6/21) and corpus callosum hypoplasia (20/21). Seizure crises were reported in 86% of the children. The most common-and clinically important-endocrine dysfunctions were pubertal dysfunctions, thyroid disease, growth impairment, and obesity. These dysfunctions require careful monitoring and signal the need for endocrinological evaluation in children with Zika-related microcephaly, in order to make early diagnoses and implement appropriate treatment when necessary.


Subject(s)
Endocrine System Diseases/epidemiology , Endocrine System Diseases/etiology , Microcephaly/epidemiology , Microcephaly/etiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Zika Virus Infection/complications , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology , Zika Virus , Biomarkers , Brazil/epidemiology , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Microcephaly/diagnosis , Microcephaly/metabolism , Pregnancy , Public Health Surveillance , Symptom Assessment , Zika Virus Infection/diagnosis , Zika Virus Infection/virology
7.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33027393

ABSTRACT

The Northeast of Brazil has experienced a triple epidemic, with the simultaneous circulation of dengue virus (DENV), chikungunya virus (CHIKV) and Zika virus (ZIKV), which may have contributed to the observed increase across this region of atypical forms of disease and deaths. In view of this fact, non-congenital neurological disorders related to arboviruses were compared with other etiologies, mortality and survival rates of patients admitted to referral neurology hospitals in Pernambuco State, Northeast Brazil, from 2015 to 2018. Blood and cerebrospinal fluid samples were collected and tested using molecular and serological assays. The arbovirus-exposed groups were compared with respect to epidemiological, clinical and neurologic characteristics by using the Pearson's chi-square test. For the survival analysis, the Kaplan-Meier and Hazard Ratio (HR) tests were used, with a 95% confidence interval (CI). Encephalitis and encephalomyelitis were more frequent in arboviruses, while myelitis predominated in the neurological disorders of other etiologies. Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) was similarly distributed amongst the groups. Exposure to one of the arboviruses caused a six-fold increase in the risk of death (HR: 6.37; CI: 2.91 - 13.9). Amongst the arbovirus-exposed groups, infection (DENV/CHIKV) increased nine times the risk of death (HR: 9.07; CI: 3.67 - 22.4). The survival curve indicates that have been exposed to some arbovirus decreased the likelihood of survival compared to those with other etiologies (Log-Rank: p<0.001). Within this scenario, neurologic manifestations of DENV, CHIKV and ZIKV have the potential to increase mortality and decrease survival, and concomitant infection (DENV/CHIKV) is an aggravating factor in reducing the likelihood of survival when compared to monoinfections.


Subject(s)
Chikungunya Fever/diagnosis , Dengue Virus/isolation & purification , Dengue/diagnosis , Encephalitis, Viral/epidemiology , Encephalomyelitis/virology , Nervous System Diseases/virology , Zika Virus Infection/diagnosis , Zika Virus/isolation & purification , Adult , Brazil , Chikungunya Fever/complications , Dengue/complications , Encephalomyelitis/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Survival Analysis , Zika Virus Infection/complications
9.
Lancet Neurol ; 19(10): 826-839, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32949543

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since 2015, the arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) Zika and chikungunya have spread across the Americas causing outbreaks, accompanied by increases in immune-mediated and infectious neurological disease. The spectrum of neurological manifestations linked to these viruses, and the importance of dual infection, are not known fully. We aimed to investigate whether neurological presentations differed according to the infecting arbovirus, and whether patients with dual infection had a different disease spectrum or severity. METHODS: We report a prospective observational study done during epidemics of Zika and chikungunya viruses in Recife, Pernambuco, a dengue-endemic area of Brazil. We recruited adults aged 18 years or older referred to Hospital da Restauração, a secondary-level and tertiary-level hospital, with suspected acute neurological disease and a history of suspected arboviral infection. We looked for evidence of Zika, chikungunya, or dengue infection by viral RNA or specific IgM antibodies in serum or CSF. We grouped patients according to their arbovirus laboratory diagnosis and then compared demographic and clinical characteristics. FINDINGS: Between Dec 4, 2014, and Dec 4, 2016, 1410 patients were admitted to the hospital neurology service; 201 (14%) had symptoms consistent with arbovirus infection and sufficient samples for diagnostic testing and were included in the study. The median age was 48 years (IQR 34-60), and 106 (53%) were women. 148 (74%) of 201 patients had laboratory evidence of arboviral infection. 98 (49%) of them had a single viral infection (41 [20%] had Zika, 55 [27%] had chikungunya, and two [1%] had dengue infection), whereas 50 (25%) had evidence of dual infection, mostly with Zika and chikungunya viruses (46 [23%] patients). Patients positive for arbovirus infection presented with a broad range of CNS and peripheral nervous system (PNS) disease. Chikungunya infection was more often associated with CNS disease (26 [47%] of 55 patients with chikungunya infection vs six [15%] of 41 with Zika infection; p=0·0008), especially myelitis (12 [22%] patients). Zika infection was more often associated with PNS disease (26 [63%] of 41 patients with Zika infection vs nine [16%] of 55 with chikungunya infection; p≤0·0001), particularly Guillain-Barré syndrome (25 [61%] patients). Patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome who had Zika and chikungunya dual infection had more aggressive disease, requiring intensive care support and longer hospital stays, than those with mono-infection (median 24 days [IQR 20-30] vs 17 days [10-20]; p=0·0028). Eight (17%) of 46 patients with Zika and chikungunya dual infection had a stroke or transient ischaemic attack, compared with five (6%) of 96 patients with Zika or chikungunya mono-infection (p=0·047). INTERPRETATION: There is a wide and overlapping spectrum of neurological manifestations caused by Zika or chikungunya mono-infection and by dual infections. The possible increased risk of acute cerebrovascular disease in patients with dual infection merits further investigation. FUNDING: Fundação do Amparo a Ciência e Tecnologia de Pernambuco (FACEPE), EU's Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme, National Institute for Health Research. TRANSLATIONS: For the Portuguese and Spanish translations of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Subject(s)
Chikungunya Fever/diagnosis , Chikungunya Fever/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Zika Virus Infection/diagnosis , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Brazil/epidemiology , Chikungunya Fever/blood , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nervous System Diseases/blood , Prospective Studies , Zika Virus Infection/blood
10.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(9): e0008532, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956416

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: After Zika virus (ZIKV) emerged in the Americas, laboratory-based surveillance for arboviral diseases in Puerto Rico was adapted to include ZIKV disease. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Suspected cases of arboviral disease reported to Puerto Rico Department of Health were tested for evidence of infection with Zika, dengue, and chikungunya viruses by RT-PCR and IgM ELISA. To describe spatiotemporal trends among confirmed ZIKV disease cases, we analyzed the relationship between municipality-level socio-demographic, climatic, and spatial factors, and both time to detection of the first ZIKV disease case and the midpoint of the outbreak. During November 2015-December 2016, a total of 71,618 suspected arboviral disease cases were reported, of which 39,717 (55.5%; 1.1 cases per 100 residents) tested positive for ZIKV infection. The epidemic peaked in August 2016, when 71.5% of arboviral disease cases reported weekly tested positive for ZIKV infection. Incidence of ZIKV disease was highest among 20-29-year-olds (1.6 cases per 100 residents), and most (62.3%) cases were female. The most frequently reported symptoms were rash (83.0%), headache (64.6%), and myalgia (63.3%). Few patients were hospitalized (1.2%), and 13 (<0.1%) died. Early detection of ZIKV disease cases was associated with increased population size (log hazard ratio [HR]: -0.22 [95% confidence interval -0.29, -0.14]), eastern longitude (log HR: -1.04 [-1.17, -0.91]), and proximity to a city (spline estimated degrees of freedom [edf] = 2.0). Earlier midpoints of the outbreak were associated with northern latitude (log HR: -0.30 [-0.32, -0.29]), eastern longitude (spline edf = 6.5), and higher mean monthly temperature (log HR: -0.04 [-0.05, -0.03]). Higher incidence of ZIKV disease was associated with lower mean precipitation, but not socioeconomic factors. CONCLUSIONS: During the ZIKV epidemic in Puerto Rico, 1% of residents were reported to public health authorities and had laboratory evidence of ZIKV disease. Transmission was first detected in urban areas of eastern Puerto Rico, where transmission also peaked earlier. These trends suggest that ZIKV was first introduced to Puerto Rico in the east before disseminating throughout the island.


Subject(s)
Epidemics/statistics & numerical data , Spatio-Temporal Analysis , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Puerto Rico/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Zika Virus/isolation & purification , Zika Virus Infection/diagnosis
11.
Sci Adv ; 6(39)2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32978154

ABSTRACT

Detection of viruses is critical for controlling disease spread. Recent emerging viral threats, including Zika virus, Ebola virus, and SARS-CoV-2 responsible for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) highlight the cost and difficulty in responding rapidly. To address these challenges, we develop a platform for low-cost and rapid detection of viral RNA with DNA nanoswitches that mechanically reconfigure in response to specific viruses. Using Zika virus as a model system, we show nonenzymatic detection of viral RNA with selective and multiplexed detection between related viruses and viral strains. For clinical-level sensitivity in biological fluids, we paired the assay with sample preparation using either RNA extraction or isothermal preamplification. Our assay requires minimal laboratory infrastructure and is adaptable to other viruses, as demonstrated by quickly developing DNA nanoswitches to detect SARS-CoV-2 RNA in saliva. Further development and field implementation will improve our ability to detect emergent viral threats and ultimately limit their impact.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , DNA, Single-Stranded/genetics , Electrophoresis, Agar Gel/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , RNA, Viral/genetics , Sequence Analysis, RNA/methods , Base Sequence , Cell Line, Tumor , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Dengue/diagnosis , Dengue/virology , Dengue Virus/genetics , Electrophoresis, Agar Gel/economics , Humans , Limit of Detection , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Saliva/virology , Sequence Analysis, RNA/economics , Zika Virus/genetics , Zika Virus Infection/diagnosis , Zika Virus Infection/virology
12.
Braz J Infect Dis ; 24(5): 405-411, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32941805

ABSTRACT

Several major epidemics of Zika fever, caused by the ZIKA virus (ZIKV), have emerged in Brazil since early 2015, eventually spreading to other countries on the South American continent. The present study describes the clinical manifestations and laboratory findings of patients with confirmed acute ZIKV infection during the first epidemic that occurred in Salvador, Brazil. All included patients were seen at the emergency room of a private tertiary hospital located in Salvador, Brazil from 2015 through 2017. Patients were considered eligible if signs of systemic viral febrile disease were present. All individuals were tested for ZIKV and Chikungunya infection using PCR, while rapid test was used to detect Dengue virus antibodies or, alternatively, the NS1 antigen. A diagnosis of acute ZIKV infection was confirmed in 78/434 (18%) individuals with systemic viral febrile illness. Positivity was mainly observed in blood, followed by saliva and urine. Coinfection with Chikungunya and/or Dengue virus was detected in 5% of the ZIKV-infected patients. The most frequent clinical findings were myalgia, arthralgia and low-grade fever. Laboratory analysis demonstrated normal levels of hematocrit, platelets and liver enzymes. In summary, in acute settings where molecular testing remains unavailable, clinicians face difficulties to confirm the diagnosis of ZIKV infection, as they rely only on clinical examinations and conventional laboratory tests.


Subject(s)
Chikungunya Fever , Chikungunya virus , Dengue Virus , Dengue , Epidemics , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Brazil/epidemiology , Chikungunya Fever/epidemiology , Dengue/epidemiology , Humans , Zika Virus Infection/diagnosis , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology
13.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 92(3): e996, jul.-set. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126768

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El zika es considerado una virosis emergente, nunca antes presente en Cuba. Objetivo: Caracterizar desde el punto de vista clínico epidemiológico a pacientes pediátricos con zika confirmado. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo transversal realizado en el Hospital Pediátrico Leonor Pérez entre 2016- 2017, en el transcurso de la epidemia. Se analizaron 140 historias clínicas de pacientes con zika confirmado por reacción en cadena de la polimerasa en suero y orina. Se midieron variables clínicas, de laboratorio y se calculó la tasa asistida. Resultados: La tasa asistida fue 44,35 × 100 casos sospechosos. De las historias clínicas analizadas, 72,1 por ciento correspondió al sexo masculino y el grupo de edad de 10 a 15 años. La reacción en cadena de la polimerasa fue positiva en mayor porcentaje en orina que en suero: 52,1 y 40,7 por ciento respectivamente y en correspondencia con el día de toma de la muestra de orina. El exantema estuvo presente en 84,3 por ciento de pacientes y la fiebre en 70 por ciento. El prurito, ojos rojos, cefalea, malestar general, dolor retroocular, odinofagia, artralgia, anorexia y edemas, se observó en menos de 35 por ciento de los casos. Los promedios de los componentes del hemograma con diferencial y la eritrosedimentación fueron normales. Conclusiones: El exantema y la fiebre son los síntomas de mayor presencia y el estudio en orina por reacción en cadena de la polimerasa informa mayor número de pacientes positivos que en suero, según el momento del ingreso. Los complementarios de rutina son poco sugerentes de zika en los casos sospechosos(AU)


Introduction: Zika virus is considerd as an emergent virus with no previous presence in the Cuban population. Objective: To characterize clinically patients with confirmed Zika virus. Methods: Descriptive cross-sectional study conducted in Leonor Pérez Pediatric Hospital between 2016 and 2017 during the epidemics. There were analyzed 140 clinical records of patients with zika confirmed by chain reaction of polymerase in serum and urine. There were measured clinical and laboratory variables and it was calculated the assisted rate. Results: The assisted rate was 44.35 × 100 suspected cases. From the analyzed clinical records, 72.1 percent corresponded to the male sex and the average age was 10.9 ± 5.5 years. The chain reaction of polimerase was positive in a higher percentage of patients in urine than in serum: 52.1 percent and 40.7 percent, respectively and corresponding with the day when the urine sample was taken. Rash was present in 84.3 percent of the patients and fever in 70.0 percent. Pruritus, red eyes, cephalalgia, general discomfort, pain behind the eyes, odynophagia, arthralgia, anorexia and edemas were observed in less than 35.0 percent of the cases. The averages of the components of blood count with differential and the erythrocyte sedimentation were normal. Conclusions: Rash and fever are the most frequent symptoms and the study of urine by chain reaction of polimerase informs of a higher number of positive patients than in the study of serum, according to the time of admittion. The routine complementary tests are not suggestive of zika in suspected cases(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Zika Virus Infection/diagnosis , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies
14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32844907

ABSTRACT

This study analyzed possible associations between the trimester of maternal Zika virus infection (ZIKV) in pregnancy, severity of brain computed tomography (CT) findings and the presence of microcephaly at birth in children with Congenital Zika Syndrome (CZS). It was an analytical study in a cohort of children with CZS. Symptoms of maternal infection were dichotomized into the 1st trimester of pregnancy and other trimesters. Head circumference (HC) at birth was used to calculate the z-score. Mild microcephaly was defined as HC between 2 and ≥3 standard deviations (SD) below the mean for each gestational age and sex, and severe microcephaly when HC <3 SD below average. Brain CT images were evaluated by two radiologists and classified, according to the severity, into mild, moderate and severe. Fisher's exact, Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to verify the associations between variables. In 108 children, maternal infection in the 1st trimester of pregnancy was associated with more severe brain CT abnormalities (p=0.038), greater severity of microcephaly at birth (p=0.013) and lower HC z-scores at birth (p=0.021). The severity of brain CT lesions was also associated with lower HC z-scores at birth (p<0.001). Maternal ZIKV infection during the first trimester of pregnancy proved to be an important risk factor for a more severe spectrum of CZS, as it is associated with more severe brain CT abnormalities and, consequently, with lower HC z-scores at birth.


Subject(s)
Brain/diagnostic imaging , Microcephaly/virology , Pregnancy Trimester, First , Tomography, X-Ray Computed/methods , Zika Virus Infection/diagnosis , Zika Virus , Adult , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Trimesters , Severity of Illness Index , Zika Virus Infection/congenital , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology
17.
Arq Neuropsiquiatr ; 78(7): 403-411, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32627805

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The congenital Zika syndrome involves structural brain changes, including ventriculomegaly, thin cerebral cortices, abnormal gyral pattern, cortical malformations, hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, myelination delay, subcortical diffuse calcifications, brainstem hypoplasia, and microcephaly in newborns. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe the clinical characteristics of children with congenital Zika syndrome; to compare the outcomes of infants infected in the first (1T, n=20) and second trimesters of pregnancy (2T, n=11); to investigate correlations between birth weight, birth and follow-up head circumference, birth gestational age, and gross motor scores. METHODS: Participants were evaluated with Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) and part A of the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-A). ANOVA compared head circumference, birth gestational age, birth weight, and gross motor performance of 1T and 2T. RESULTS: The correlations were investigated by Pearson correlation coefficients. ANOVA showed differences in birth and follow-up head circumferences. Head circumference was smaller in 1T, compared to 2T. Motor performance was classified as below the fifth percentile in AIMS in all children and 1T showed lower scores in prone, sitting, and total AIMS score, compared to 2T. Children ranged from 8 to 78% on GMFM-A and there was a poorer motor performance of 1T. Nineteen children showed hypertonia, six showed normal tone and six showed hypotonia. Birth head circumference was correlated with AIMS prone postural control. Follow-up head circumference was correlated to prone, supine and total AIMS scores. Smaller head circumference at birth and follow-up denoted poorer postural control. DISCUSSION: Children with congenital Zika syndrome showed microcephaly at birth and follow-up. Smaller head circumferences and poorer motor outcomes were observed in 1T. Infants showed poor visual and motor outcomes. Moderate positive correlations between birth and follow-up head circumference and gross motor function were found.


Subject(s)
Microcephaly/virology , Zika Virus Infection/diagnosis , Zika Virus/isolation & purification , Brain , Cephalometry , Child , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Microcephaly/diagnosis , Motor Skills , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Zika Virus Infection/complications , Zika Virus Infection/congenital
18.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 78(7): 403-411, July 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131733

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: The congenital Zika syndrome involves structural brain changes, including ventriculomegaly, thin cerebral cortices, abnormal gyral pattern, cortical malformations, hypoplasia of the corpus callosum, myelination delay, subcortical diffuse calcifications, brainstem hypoplasia, and microcephaly in newborns. Objective: This study aimed to describe the clinical characteristics of children with congenital Zika syndrome; to compare the outcomes of infants infected in the first (1T, n=20) and second trimesters of pregnancy (2T, n=11); to investigate correlations between birth weight, birth and follow-up head circumference, birth gestational age, and gross motor scores. Methods: Participants were evaluated with Alberta Infant Motor Scale (AIMS) and part A of the Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM-A). ANOVA compared head circumference, birth gestational age, birth weight, and gross motor performance of 1T and 2T. Results: The correlations were investigated by Pearson correlation coefficients. ANOVA showed differences in birth and follow-up head circumferences. Head circumference was smaller in 1T, compared to 2T. Motor performance was classified as below the fifth percentile in AIMS in all children and 1T showed lower scores in prone, sitting, and total AIMS score, compared to 2T. Children ranged from 8 to 78% on GMFM-A and there was a poorer motor performance of 1T. Nineteen children showed hypertonia, six showed normal tone and six showed hypotonia. Birth head circumference was correlated with AIMS prone postural control. Follow-up head circumference was correlated to prone, supine and total AIMS scores. Smaller head circumference at birth and follow-up denoted poorer postural control. Discussion: Children with congenital Zika syndrome showed microcephaly at birth and follow-up. Smaller head circumferences and poorer motor outcomes were observed in 1T. Infants showed poor visual and motor outcomes. Moderate positive correlations between birth and follow-up head circumference and gross motor function were found.


RESUMO Introdução: A síndrome congênita do zika envolve alterações estruturais do cérebro, incluindo ventriculomegalia, córtices finos do cérebro, padrão giral anormal, malformações corticais, hipoplasia do corpo caloso, atraso de mielinização, calcificações difusas subcorticais, hipoplasia do tronco cerebral e microcefalia em recém-nascidos. Objetivo: Este estudo teve como objetivo descrever as características clínicas de crianças com síndrome congênita do zika; comparar os resultados de bebês infectados no primeiro (1T, n=20) e no segundo trimestres da gravidez (2T, n=11); investigar correlações entre peso ao nascer, perímetro cefálico ao nascer e acompanhamento, idade gestacional ao nascer e escores motores brutos. Método: Os participantes foram avaliados com a Escala Motora Infantil de Alberta (Alberta Infant Motor Scale - AIMS) e a parte A da Medida da Função Motora Grossa (Gross Motor Function Measure - GMFM-A). A ANOVA comparou a circunferência da cabeça, a idade gestacional ao nascer, o peso ao nascer e o desempenho motor bruto de 1T e 2T. As correlações foram investigadas pelos coeficientes de correlação de Pearson. A ANOVA mostrou diferenças no perímetro cefálico ao nascimento e acompanhamento. A circunferência da cabeça foi menor no 1T, em comparação ao 2T. Resultados: O desempenho motor foi classificado como abaixo do quinto percentil na AIMS para todas as crianças e o 1T apresentou escores mais baixos na posição de bruços, sentado e no escore total da AIMS, em comparação ao 2T. As crianças variaram de 8 a 78% no GMFM-A e houve um desempenho motor pior de 1T. Dezenove crianças apresentaram hipertonia, seis apresentaram tônus normal e seis apresentaram hipotonia. A circunferência da cabeça no nascimento foi correlacionada com o controle postural em posição de bruços à AIMS. Discussão: O perímetro cefálico de acompanhamento foi correlacionado aos escores AIMS em posição de bruços, em supino e no escore total. Menor perímetro cefálico ao nascimento e acompanhamento indicaram pior controle postural. Crianças com síndrome congênita do zika apresentaram microcefalia ao nascimento e acompanhamento. Circunferências da cabeça menores e piores resultados motores foram observados no 1T. Os bebês apresentaram maus resultados visuais e motores. Foram encontradas correlações moderadas positivas entre o nascimento e a circunferência da cabeça de acompanhamento, e a função motora grossa.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child , Zika Virus/isolation & purification , Zika Virus Infection/diagnosis , Microcephaly/virology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Brain , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Cephalometry , Zika Virus Infection/complications , Zika Virus Infection/congenital , Microcephaly/diagnosis , Motor Skills
19.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 117(18): 9865-9875, 2020 05 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32321830

ABSTRACT

Recent epidemics demonstrate the global threat of Zika virus (ZIKV), a flavivirus transmitted by mosquitoes. Although infection is usually asymptomatic or mild, newborns of infected mothers can display severe symptoms, including neurodevelopmental abnormalities and microcephaly. Given the large-scale spread, symptom severity, and lack of treatment or prophylaxis, a safe and effective ZIKV vaccine is urgently needed. However, vaccine design is complicated by concern that elicited antibodies (Abs) may cross-react with other flaviviruses that share a similar envelope protein, such as dengue virus, West Nile virus, and yellow fever virus. This cross-reactivity may worsen symptoms of a subsequent infection through Ab-dependent enhancement. To better understand the neutralizing Ab response and risk of Ab-dependent enhancement, further information on germline Ab binding to ZIKV and the maturation process that gives rise to potently neutralizing Abs is needed. Here we use binding and structural studies to compare mature and inferred-germline Ab binding to envelope protein domain III of ZIKV and other flaviviruses. We show that affinity maturation of the light-chain variable domain is important for strong binding of the recurrent VH3-23/VK1-5 neutralizing Abs to ZIKV envelope protein domain III, and identify interacting residues that contribute to weak, cross-reactive binding to West Nile virus. These findings provide insight into the affinity maturation process and potential cross-reactivity of VH3-23/VK1-5 neutralizing Abs, informing precautions for protein-based vaccines designed to elicit germline versions of neutralizing Abs.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Viral Envelope Proteins/immunology , Zika Virus Infection/immunology , Zika Virus/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Dengue Virus/immunology , Dengue Virus/pathogenicity , Epitopes/immunology , Germ Cells/immunology , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Protein Domains/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology , West Nile virus/immunology , West Nile virus/pathogenicity , Yellow fever virus/immunology , Yellow fever virus/pathogenicity , Zika Virus/isolation & purification , Zika Virus Infection/diagnosis , Zika Virus Infection/virology
20.
Obstet Gynecol ; 135(5): 1185-1197, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32282593

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationship between prenatal diagnostics (ultrasound examination and amniotic fluid Zika virus testing) and postnatal congenital Zika syndrome abnormalities. DATA SOURCES: Systematic searches were performed in 27 databases, including ClinicalTrials.gov, from inception to July 1, 2019, for articles with the keywords "Zika," "prenatal," "ultrasound," and "amniocentesis." METHODS OF STUDY SELECTION: A total of 3,049 unique records were identified. Two reviewers independently assessed titles, abstracts, and full texts for relevance; 84 articles met the inclusion criteria. These articles describe 402 mother-fetus or mother-neonate dyads; 385 were included in the review of prenatal ultrasound examination, and 56 in the review of amniocentesis (39 in both). TABULATION, INTEGRATION, AND RESULTS: Among 195 fetuses with congenital Zika syndrome findings on prenatal ultrasound examination, postnatal congenital Zika syndrome abnormalities were reported for 153 (78%; 95% CI 7-84%). High proportions of microcephaly (76%; 95% CI 69-82%) and brain abnormalities (78%; 95% CI 69-86%) were confirmed postnatally. Among 190 fetuses without congenital Zika syndrome findings on prenatal ultrasound examination, 17% (95% CI 12-24%) had congenital Zika syndrome abnormalities identified postnatally. Structural congenital Zika syndrome abnormalities were identified postnatally in approximately equal proportions among dyads with and without Zika virus RNA detected in an amniotic fluid specimen (68% and 67%; 95% CI 52-82% and 95% CI 38-88%). In six pregnancies, Zika virus RNA was detected in amniotic fluid but not in a subsequent amniocentesis specimen. CONCLUSION: Prenatal ultrasound examination frequently detects structural findings associated with Zika virus infection; however, not all abnormalities are detected, and some may represent transient findings. As with other congenital infections, prenatal detection may vary with timing of infection, timing of ultrasound examination, technical expertise, and severity of abnormalities. The detection of Zika virus RNA in amniotic fluid in the included studies did not predict the risk for congenital Zika syndrome abnormalities in these cases, and clearance of Zika virus RNA from amniotic fluid appears possible after maternal infection. Diagnostic testing for Zika virus infection remains a shared decision between patients and clinicians, and more data are needed to define clinical predictors that will inform these decisions. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO, CRD42018080959.


Subject(s)
Amniocentesis/methods , Fetal Diseases/diagnosis , Ultrasonography, Prenatal/methods , Zika Virus Infection/diagnosis , Zika Virus , Adult , Female , Fetal Diseases/virology , Humans , Pregnancy , Young Adult , Zika Virus Infection/embryology , Zika Virus Infection/virology
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