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1.
Siglo cero (Madr.) ; 54(4): 29-48, oct.-dic. 2024.
Article Es | IBECS | ID: ibc-EMG-557

Esta investigación busca profundizar en la segregación escolar del alumnado con necesidades educativas especiales del segundo ciclo de Educación Infantil estimando su magnitud, determinando la incidencia de la titularidad del centro y de su adscripción al Programa Bilingüe y describiendo su evolución. Para ello, se realiza un estudio ex post facto con datos de los 10.182 estudiantes del segundo ciclo de Educación Infantil matriculados en alguno de los 77 centros ordinarios públicos y privados-concertados situados en dos ciudades de tamaño medio-grande de la Comunidad de Madrid. Los resultados indican que la magnitud de la segregación escolar está en torno al 0.20 (ISG); que la incidencia de la titularidad es baja (4.6 %), pero es alta la del Programa Bilingüe (17.2 % de promedio); y que la segregación ha descendido ligeramente en los últimos años, pero las diferencias entre centros atendiendo a su titularidad y adscripción al Programa Bilingüe han crecido. Con ello, se concluye que hay que prestar atención a la segregación en Educación Infantil y tomar medidas para combatirla. También se destaca la necesidad de replantear el Programa Bilingüe por su incidencia en la segregación escolar. (AU)


This research aims to explore the school segregation of students with special educational needs in the second cycle of Early Childhood Education by estimating its magnitude, determining the incidence of school ownership and affiliation to the Bilingual Program, and describing its evolution. To achieve this, we conduct an ex post facto study with data from the 10,182 students enrolled in one of the 77 public and private-subsidised schools in the Community of Madrid. The results indicate that the magnitude of school segregation is around 0.20 (ISG); that the incidence of school ownership is low (4.6 %), while the incidence of the Bilingual Program is high (17.2 % on average); and that segregation has slightly decreased in recent years, however the differences between schools based on ownership and affiliation to the Bilingual Program have increased. Therefore, we conclude that it is necessary to address segregation in Early Childhood Education and that measures need to be taken to combat it. We also highlight the importance of reconsidering the Bilingual Program due to its impact on school segregation. (AU)


Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Learning Disabilities , Education/statistics & numerical data
2.
Siglo cero (Madr.) ; 54(4): 65-83, oct.-dic. 2024.
Article Es | IBECS | ID: ibc-EMG-559

La falta de información sobre el uso de la tecnología en niños con trastorno del espectro autista (TEA) de diferentes perfiles puede dificultar que docentes y alumnos se estén beneficiando del apoyo tecnológico más eficaz y ajustado a sus necesidades. El objetivo de esta revisión fue analizar y sintetizar la evidencia científica sobre la eficacia de los recursos tecnológicos en la mejora de la comprensión emocional de estudiantes con TEA con perfiles de alto y bajo funcionamiento. Para ello se realizó una revisión sistemática de las publicaciones científicas indexadas en algunas de las bases de datos de mayor relevancia siguiendo los criterios establecidos en la declaración PRISMA. En total se analizaron 38 artículos que cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión preestablecidos. Los resultados muestran la importancia de diseñar sistemas versátiles que puedan personalizarse y adaptarse en tiempo real y en contextos naturales con un enfoque claramente inclusivo. Pero también sugieren que la tecnología puede no ser una herramienta de intervención complementaria adecuada para todos los niños con TEA. Lo que subraya la necesidad de ensayos adicionales bien controlados sobre las características que permitan identificar qué estudiantes podrían o no beneficiarse de diferentes modalidades de tecnología. (AU)


The lack of information on the use of technology in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) of different profiles can make it difficult for teachers and students to benefit from the most effective technology support tailored to their needs. The aim of this review was to analyze and synthesize scientific evidence on the effectiveness of technological resources in improving the emotional understanding of students with high and low functioning ASD profiles. A systematic review of the scientific publications indexed in some of the most relevant databases was carried out following the criteria established in the PRISMA declaration. A total of 38 articles that met the pre-established inclusion criteria were analyzed. The results show the importance of designing versatile systems that can be customized and adapted in real time and in natural contexts with a clearly inclusive approach. But they also suggest that technology may not be an appropriate complementary intervention tool for all children with ASD. This underlines the need for additional well-controlled tests on the characteristics that would allow identifying which students might or might not benefit from different technology modalities. (AU)


Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Educational Technology , Autism Spectrum Disorder , Autistic Disorder
3.
Siglo cero (Madr.) ; 54(4): 29-48, oct.-dic. 2024.
Article Es | IBECS | ID: ibc-229227

Esta investigación busca profundizar en la segregación escolar del alumnado con necesidades educativas especiales del segundo ciclo de Educación Infantil estimando su magnitud, determinando la incidencia de la titularidad del centro y de su adscripción al Programa Bilingüe y describiendo su evolución. Para ello, se realiza un estudio ex post facto con datos de los 10.182 estudiantes del segundo ciclo de Educación Infantil matriculados en alguno de los 77 centros ordinarios públicos y privados-concertados situados en dos ciudades de tamaño medio-grande de la Comunidad de Madrid. Los resultados indican que la magnitud de la segregación escolar está en torno al 0.20 (ISG); que la incidencia de la titularidad es baja (4.6 %), pero es alta la del Programa Bilingüe (17.2 % de promedio); y que la segregación ha descendido ligeramente en los últimos años, pero las diferencias entre centros atendiendo a su titularidad y adscripción al Programa Bilingüe han crecido. Con ello, se concluye que hay que prestar atención a la segregación en Educación Infantil y tomar medidas para combatirla. También se destaca la necesidad de replantear el Programa Bilingüe por su incidencia en la segregación escolar. (AU)


This research aims to explore the school segregation of students with special educational needs in the second cycle of Early Childhood Education by estimating its magnitude, determining the incidence of school ownership and affiliation to the Bilingual Program, and describing its evolution. To achieve this, we conduct an ex post facto study with data from the 10,182 students enrolled in one of the 77 public and private-subsidised schools in the Community of Madrid. The results indicate that the magnitude of school segregation is around 0.20 (ISG); that the incidence of school ownership is low (4.6 %), while the incidence of the Bilingual Program is high (17.2 % on average); and that segregation has slightly decreased in recent years, however the differences between schools based on ownership and affiliation to the Bilingual Program have increased. Therefore, we conclude that it is necessary to address segregation in Early Childhood Education and that measures need to be taken to combat it. We also highlight the importance of reconsidering the Bilingual Program due to its impact on school segregation. (AU)


Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Learning Disabilities , Education/statistics & numerical data
4.
Siglo cero (Madr.) ; 54(4): 65-83, oct.-dic. 2024.
Article Es | IBECS | ID: ibc-229229

La falta de información sobre el uso de la tecnología en niños con trastorno del espectro autista (TEA) de diferentes perfiles puede dificultar que docentes y alumnos se estén beneficiando del apoyo tecnológico más eficaz y ajustado a sus necesidades. El objetivo de esta revisión fue analizar y sintetizar la evidencia científica sobre la eficacia de los recursos tecnológicos en la mejora de la comprensión emocional de estudiantes con TEA con perfiles de alto y bajo funcionamiento. Para ello se realizó una revisión sistemática de las publicaciones científicas indexadas en algunas de las bases de datos de mayor relevancia siguiendo los criterios establecidos en la declaración PRISMA. En total se analizaron 38 artículos que cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión preestablecidos. Los resultados muestran la importancia de diseñar sistemas versátiles que puedan personalizarse y adaptarse en tiempo real y en contextos naturales con un enfoque claramente inclusivo. Pero también sugieren que la tecnología puede no ser una herramienta de intervención complementaria adecuada para todos los niños con TEA. Lo que subraya la necesidad de ensayos adicionales bien controlados sobre las características que permitan identificar qué estudiantes podrían o no beneficiarse de diferentes modalidades de tecnología. (AU)


The lack of information on the use of technology in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) of different profiles can make it difficult for teachers and students to benefit from the most effective technology support tailored to their needs. The aim of this review was to analyze and synthesize scientific evidence on the effectiveness of technological resources in improving the emotional understanding of students with high and low functioning ASD profiles. A systematic review of the scientific publications indexed in some of the most relevant databases was carried out following the criteria established in the PRISMA declaration. A total of 38 articles that met the pre-established inclusion criteria were analyzed. The results show the importance of designing versatile systems that can be customized and adapted in real time and in natural contexts with a clearly inclusive approach. But they also suggest that technology may not be an appropriate complementary intervention tool for all children with ASD. This underlines the need for additional well-controlled tests on the characteristics that would allow identifying which students might or might not benefit from different technology modalities. (AU)


Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Educational Technology , Autism Spectrum Disorder , Autistic Disorder
5.
Cancer Rep (Hoboken) ; 7(5): e2069, 2024 May.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38767518

BACKGROUND: Only a few previous studies examine immune system recovery after completed cancer treatment. AIMS: The aim of this study was to analyze immune reconstitution after childhood cancer therapy in a non-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation setting. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed children (N = 79) who received chemotherapy with/without irradiation for cancer diagnosed between 2014 and 2019 at Turku University Hospital, Finland. We retrospectively collected data on baseline parameters and post-treatment immunological recovery, namely neutrophil and lymphocyte counts, IgG levels, CD19, CD4 and natural killer cell counts. Immunological parameters were followed until their normalization. Treatment intensity was stratified according to the Intensity of Treatment Rating Scale (ITR-3). We analyzed the effects of treatment intensity on normalization of immunological parameters across the entire treatment range. Treatment intensity had a major effect on immune system recovery after completion of treatment. Most patients had normal immunological parameters 1-4 months post-treatment both in high- and low-intensity treatment groups, but patients classified in the high-intensity group had low parameters more often than patients in the low-intensity group. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest a fast recovery of studied immunological parameters after the majority of current pediatric oncologic treatments. Treatment for high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, medulloblastoma, and mature B-cell lymphoma was associated with prolonged recovery times for a substantial proportion of cases. High treatment intensity was associated with prolonged immunological recovery.


Immune Reconstitution , Humans , Child , Male , Female , Retrospective Studies , Child, Preschool , Adolescent , Neoplasms/immunology , Neoplasms/therapy , Infant , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Finland , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Lymphocyte Count , Neutrophils/immunology
6.
J Tradit Chin Med ; 44(3): 586-594, 2024 Jun.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38767644

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of pediatric Tuina (PT) in preventing recurrent acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) in children. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study based on the electronic medical records of children with recurrent ARTIs in 2016. Children were divided into a PT group or a non-PT group, according to whether they had received PT or not in 2016. The primary outcome was the number of ARTI episodes in 2017 and 2018. The secondary outcomes were the number of ARTIs leading to outpatient department visits and outpatient antibiotic prescriptions due to ARTIs in the same time period. Negative binomial regressions were used to detect the association between PT and the outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 2303 children were included in the analysis, including 94 in the PT group and 2209 in the non-PT group. Children who received PT six or more times in 2016 had fewer episodes of ARTIs in 2017 [incidence rate ratio (IRR): 0.59, 95% confidence interval (CI) (0.42-0.84)] and 2018 [IRR: 0.58, 95% CI (0.36-0.94)] and fewer outpatient department visits due to ARTIs in 2017 [IRR: 0.56, 95% CI (0.38-0.83)] than children who had not received PT in 2016. There was no significant difference in the number of outpatient antibiotic prescriptions between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Receiving PT six or more times within one year is associated with a decrease in recurrent ARTIs in children in the following two years. Randomized controlled trials are needed for effect evaluation prior to establishing PT as a method for preventing recurrent ARTIs among children.


Respiratory Tract Infections , Humans , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , China/epidemiology , Infant , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/administration & dosage , Recurrence , Adolescent , Acute Disease
7.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0297767, 2024.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38768099

BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality globally, causing bacteremic pneumonia, meningitis, sepsis, and other invasive pneumococcal diseases. Evidence supports nasopharyngeal pneumococcal carriage as a reservoir for transmission and precursor of pneumococcal disease. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the pneumococcal nasopharyngeal burden in all age groups in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) before, during, and after the introduction of pneumococcal vaccine conjugate (PVC). METHODS: Systematic literature review of international, regional, and country-published and unpublished data, together with reports including data from serotype distribution in nasopharyngeal carriage in children and adults from LAC countries following Cochrane methods. The protocol was registered in PROSPERO database (ID: CRD42023392097). RESULTS: We included 54 studies with data on nasopharyngeal pneumococcal carriage and serotypes from 31,803 patients. In children under five years old, carriage was found in 41% and in adults over 65, it was 26%. During the study period, children under five showed a colonization proportion of 34% with PCV10 serotypes and 45% with PCV13 serotypes. When we analyze the carriage prevalence of PCV serotypes in all age groups between 1995 and 2019, serotypes included in PCV10 and those included in PCV13, both showed a decreasing trend along analysis by lustrum. CONCLUSION: The data presented in this study highlights the need to establish national surveillance programs to monitor pneumococcal nasopharyngeal carriage to monitor serotype prevalence and replacement before and after including new pneumococcal vaccines in the region. In addition, to analyze differences in the prevalence of serotypes between countries, emphasize the importance of approaches to local realities to reduce IPD effectively.


Carrier State , Nasopharynx , Pneumococcal Infections , Pneumococcal Vaccines , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Humans , Streptococcus pneumoniae/isolation & purification , Latin America/epidemiology , Caribbean Region/epidemiology , Nasopharynx/microbiology , Pneumococcal Infections/epidemiology , Pneumococcal Infections/prevention & control , Pneumococcal Infections/microbiology , Carrier State/epidemiology , Carrier State/microbiology , Pneumococcal Vaccines/administration & dosage , Serogroup , Child, Preschool , Adult , Child , Prevalence
8.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0303508, 2024.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38768133

PURPOSE: The resurgence of pertussis has occurred around the world. However, the epidemiological profiles of pertussis cannot be well understood by current diseases surveillance. This study was designed to understand the seroepidemiological characteristics of pertussis infection in the general population of Huzhou City, evaluate the prevalence infection of pertussis in the population, and offer insights to inform adjustments in pertussis prevention and control strategies. METHODS: From September to October 2023, a cross-sectional serosurvey was conducted in Huzhou City, involving 1015 permanent residents. Serum samples were collected from the study subjects, and pertussis toxin IgG antibodies (Anti-PT-IgG) were quantitatively measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The analysis included the geometric mean concentration (GMC) of Anti-PT-IgG, rates of GMC≥40IU/mL, ≥100IU/mL, and <5IU/mL. Stratified comparisons were made based on age, vaccination history, and human categories. RESULTS: Among the 1015 surveyed individuals, the geometric mean concentration (GMC) of Anti-PT-IgG was 10.52 (95% CI: 9.96-11.11) IU/mL, with a recent infection rate of 1.58%, a serum positivity rate of 11.43%, and a proportion with <5IU/mL of 40.49%. Among 357 children with clear vaccination history, susceptibility decreased with an increasing number of vaccine doses (Z = -6.793, P < 0.001). The concentration of Anti-PT-IgG exhibited a significant post-vaccination decline over time (Z = -5.143, P < 0.001). In women of childbearing age, the GMC of Anti-PT-IgG was 7.71 (95% CI: 6.90-8.62) IU/mL, with no significant difference in susceptibility among different age groups (χ2 = 0.545, P = 0.909). The annual pertussis infection rate in individuals aged ≥3 years was 9321 (95%CI: 3336-16039) per 100,000, with peak infection rates in the 20-29, 40-49, and 5-9 age groups at 34363 (95%CI: 6327-66918) per 100,000, 22307.72 (95%CI: 1380-47442) per 100,000, and 18020(95%CI: 1093-37266) per 100,000, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In 2023, the actual pertussis infection rate in the population of Huzhou City was relatively high. Vaccine-induced antibodies exhibit a rapid decay, and the estimated serum infection rate increases rapidly from post-school age, peaking in the 20-29 age group. It is recommended to enhance pertussis monitoring in adolescents and adults and refine vaccine immunization strategies.


Antibodies, Bacterial , Immunoglobulin G , Whooping Cough , Humans , Whooping Cough/epidemiology , Whooping Cough/blood , Whooping Cough/immunology , Whooping Cough/prevention & control , Female , Cross-Sectional Studies , Adult , Male , China/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Child , Middle Aged , Adolescent , Child, Preschool , Young Adult , Infant , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Antibodies, Bacterial/blood , Aged , Pertussis Toxin/immunology , Prevalence , Pertussis Vaccine/immunology , Vaccination , Bordetella pertussis/immunology
9.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0303668, 2024.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38768151

Multiple forms of malnutrition coexist in infants and young children (IYC) in Peru. The World Health Organization has proposed double-duty actions (DDAs) to simultaneously address undernutrition and overweight/obesity. We assessed current implementation of- and priority for- government-level actions to tackle multiple forms of malnutrition in IYC in Peru. Mapping of current policy activity was undertaken against 47 indicators of good practice for five DDAs (exclusive breastfeeding, complementary feeding, food marketing, maternal nutrition, preschool nutrition; assessed by 27 indicators) and for the enabling policy environment, i.e., 'infrastructure support' (health in all policies, platforms for interactions, financing, monitoring, governance, leadership; assessed by 20 indicators). Interviews with 16 national experts explored views on the level of and barriers to implementation of DDAs and infrastructure support, as well as their prioritisation based on likely impact and feasibility. The level of implementation of actions was categorised into two groups (agenda setting/formulation vs. implementation/evaluation). Mean scores were generated for prioritisation of DDAs and infrastructure support. Deductive qualitative analysis was undertaken to identify barriers that influence policy implementation. Only 5/27 DDA indicators were reported as fully implemented by all national experts (international code that regulates the marketing of breastmilk substitutes, iron supplementation for IYC, micronutrient powders in IYC, iron/folic acid supplementation in pregnant women, paid maternity leave). Only 1/20 infrastructure support indicator (access to nutrition information) was rated as fully implemented by all experts. Barriers to implementing DDAs and infrastructure support included: legal feasibility or lack of regulations, inadequate monitoring/evaluation to ensure enforcement, commercial influences on policymakers, insufficient resources, shifting public health priorities with the COVID-19 pandemic and political instability. The experts prioritised 12 indicators across all five DDAs and eight infrastructure support indicators. Experts highlighted the need to improve implementation of all DDAs and identified ways to strengthen the enabling policy environment.


Malnutrition , Humans , Peru/epidemiology , Infant , Child, Preschool , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Malnutrition/prevention & control , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Priorities , Male
10.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0303851, 2024.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38768174

INTRODUCTION: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can cause neuronal damage and cerebrovascular dysfunction, leading to acute brain dysfunction and considerable physical and mental impairment long after initial injury. Our goal was to assess the impact of pediatric TBI (pTBI) on military service, completed by 65-70% of men in Finland. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective register-based nationwide cohort study. All patients aged 0 to 17 years at the time of TBI, between 1998 and 2018, were included. Operatively and conservatively treated patients with pTBI were analyzed separately. The reference group was comprised of individuals with upper and lower extremity fractures. Information on length of service time, service completion, fitness for service class, and cognitive performance in a basic cognitive test (b-test) was gathered from the Finnish Military Records for both groups. Linear and logistic regression with 95% CI were used in comparisons. RESULTS: Our study group comprised 12 281 patients with pTBI and 20 338 reference group patients who participated in conscription. A total of 8 507 (66.5%) men in the pTBI group and 14 953 (71.2%) men in the reference group completed military service during the follow-up period. Men in the reference group were more likely to complete military service (OR 1.26, CI 1.18-1.34). A total of 31 (23.3%) men with operatively treated pTBI completed the military service. Men with conservatively treated pTBI had a much higher service rate (OR 7.20, CI 4.73-11.1). In the pTBI group, men (OR 1.26, CI 1.18-1.34) and women (OR 2.05, CI 1.27-3.36) were more likely to interrupt military service than the reference group. The PTBI group scored 0.15 points (CI 0.10-0.20) less than the reference group in cognitive b-test. CONCLUSIONS: PTBI groups had slightly shorter military service periods and higher interruption rate than our reference-group. There were only minor differences between groups in cognitive b-test.


Brain Injuries, Traumatic , Cognition , Military Personnel , Registries , Humans , Finland/epidemiology , Male , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/therapy , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Infant , Female , Infant, Newborn
11.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0303520, 2024.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38768171

INTRODUCTION: Sickle cell disease (SCD) remains a public health problem especially in sub-Saharan Africa including Ghana. While pilot initiatives in Africa have demonstrated that neonatal screening coupled with early intervention reduces SCD-related morbidity and mortality, only 50-70% of screen-positive babies have been successfully retrieved to benefit from these interventions. Point-of-care testing (POCT) with high specificity and sensitivity for SCD screening can be integrated into existing immunization programs in Africa to improve retrieval rates. This study explored community acceptability of integrating POCT to screen for SCD in children under 5 years of age in primary healthcare facilities in Northern Ghana. METHOD: This was an exploratory study using qualitative research approach where 10 focus group discussions and 20 in-depth interviews were conducted with community members and health workers between April and June 2022. The recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim after repeatedly listening to the recordings. Data was coded into themes using QSR Nvivo 12 software before thematic analysis. RESULTS: Most participants (70.9%) described SCD as serious and potentially life-threatening condition affecting children in the area. Of 148 community members and health workers, 141 (95.2%) said the screening exercise could facilitate diagnosis of SCD in children for early management. However, discrimination, fear of being tested positive, stigmatization, negative health worker attitude linked with issues of maintaining confidentiality were reported by participants as key factors that could affect uptake of the SCD screening exercise. Most participants suggested that intensive health education (78.3%), positive attitude of health workers (69.5%), and screening health workers not being biased (58.8%) could promote community acceptability. CONCLUSION: A large majority of participants viewed screening of SCD in children as very important. However, opinions expressed by most participants suggest that health education and professionalism of health workers in keeping patients' information confidential could improve the uptake of the exercise.


Anemia, Sickle Cell , Point-of-Care Testing , Primary Health Care , Humans , Anemia, Sickle Cell/diagnosis , Anemia, Sickle Cell/psychology , Ghana , Female , Male , Child, Preschool , Adult , Rural Population , Infant , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Health Personnel/psychology , Mass Screening/methods , Middle Aged , Infant, Newborn , Young Adult , Focus Groups
12.
J Clin Immunol ; 44(6): 126, 2024 May 22.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38773000

Alemtuzumab is used with reduced-toxicity conditioning (RTC) in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), demonstrating efficacy and feasibility for patients with inborn errors of immunity (IEI) in Western countries; however, the clinical experience in Asian patients with IEI is limited. We retrospectively analyzed patients with IEI who underwent the first allogeneic HCT with alemtuzumab combined with RTC regimens in Japan. A total of 19 patients were included and followed up for a median of 18 months. The donors were haploidentical parents (n = 10), matched siblings (n = 2), and unrelated bone marrow donors (n = 7). Most patients received RTC regimens containing fludarabine and busulfan and were treated with 0.8 mg/kg alemtuzumab with intermediate timing. Eighteen patients survived and achieved stable engraftment, and no grade 3-4 acute graft-versus-host disease was observed. Viral infections were observed in 11 patients (58%) and 6 of them presented symptomatic. The median CD4+ T cell count was low at 6 months (241/µL) but improved at 1 year (577/µL) after HCT. Whole blood cells continued to exhibit > 80% donor type in most cases; however, 3/10 patients exhibited poor donor chimerism only among T cells and also showed undetectable levels of T-cell receptor recombination excision circles (TRECs) at 1 year post-HCT. This study demonstrated the efficacy and safety of alemtuzumab; however, patients frequently developed viral infections and slow reconstitution or low donor chimerism in T cells, emphasizing the importance of monitoring viral status and T-cell-specific chimerism. (238 < 250 words).


Alemtuzumab , Graft vs Host Disease , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Transplantation Conditioning , Transplantation, Homologous , Humans , Alemtuzumab/therapeutic use , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Male , Female , Transplantation Conditioning/methods , Child, Preschool , Child , Infant , Graft vs Host Disease/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Asian People , Treatment Outcome , Adolescent
13.
J Med Virol ; 96(5): e29670, 2024 May.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38773810

This study aimed to assess the predictive capacity of emerging serological markers, serum HBV RNA and HBcrAg, for HBeAg seroconversion in children with HBeAg-positive chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Treatment-naïve HBeAg-positive CHB children who admitted to the Liver Disease Center of Hunan Children's Hospital between April 2021 and September 2022 and received treatment with the combined entecavir and interferon-alpha treatment were recruited. Serum HBV RNA and HBcrAg were measured at baseline and Weeks 12, 24, and 48 of treatment. Our study showed that serum HBV RNA (HR = 0.71, 95% CI: 0.56-0.91, p = 0.006), HBcrAg (HR = 0.60, 95% CI: 0.43-0.84, p = 0.003), and HBsAg (HR = 0.49, 95%CI: 0.36-0.69, p < 0.001) at Week 12 were independent predictors of HBeAg seroconversion. ROC curve analysis presented that serum HBV RNA decline value (ΔHBV RNA) at Week 36 and HBcrAg decline value (ΔHBcrAg) at Week 12 (AUC = 0.871, p = 0.003 and AUC = 0.810, p = 0.003, respectively) could effectively predict HBeAg seroconversion. Furthermore, the optimal critical values were determined and the children with ΔHBV RNA > 3.759 log10 copies/mL at Week 36 or ΔHBcrAg >0.350 log10 U/mL at Week 12 more likely to achieve HBeAg seroconversion. The serum HBV RNA and HBcrAg provide new insights into the treatment of CHB in children. Early assessment of serum HBV RNA and HBcrAg during treatment can assist clinical decision-making and optimize individualized therapeutic approaches.


Antiviral Agents , Hepatitis B e Antigens , Hepatitis B virus , Hepatitis B, Chronic , RNA, Viral , Seroconversion , Humans , Hepatitis B, Chronic/drug therapy , Hepatitis B, Chronic/virology , Hepatitis B, Chronic/blood , Male , Female , Child , Hepatitis B e Antigens/blood , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , RNA, Viral/blood , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Hepatitis B virus/immunology , Adolescent , Interferon-alpha/therapeutic use , Child, Preschool , Biomarkers/blood , Guanine/therapeutic use , Guanine/analogs & derivatives , Hepatitis B Core Antigens/blood , Hepatitis B Core Antigens/immunology , ROC Curve
14.
J Med Virol ; 96(5): e29681, 2024 May.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38773815

Rotavirus gastroenteritis is accountable for an estimated 128 500 deaths among children younger than 5 years worldwide, and the majority occur in low-income countries. Although the clinical trials of rotavirus vaccines in Bangladesh revealed a significant reduction of severe rotavirus disease by around 50%, the vaccines are not yet included in the routine immunization program. The present study was designed to provide data on rotavirus diarrhea with clinical profiles and genotypes before (2017-2019) and during the COVID-19 pandemic period (2020-2021). Fecal samples were collected from 2% of the diarrheal patients at icddr,b Dhaka hospital of all ages between January 2017 and December 2021 and were tested for VP6 rotavirus antigen using ELISA. The clinical manifestations such as fever, duration of diarrhea and hospitalization, number of stools, and dehydration and so on were collected from the surveillance database (n = 3127). Of the positive samples, 10% were randomly selected for genotyping using Sanger sequencing method. A total of 12 705 fecal samples were screened for rotavirus A antigen by enzyme immunoassay. Overall, 3369 (27%) were rotavirus antigen-positive, of whom children <2 years had the highest prevalence (88.6%). The risk of rotavirus A infection was 4.2 times higher in winter than in summer. Overall, G3P[8] was the most prominent genotype (45.3%), followed by G1P[8] (32.1%), G9P[8] (6.8%), and G2P[4] (6.1%). The other unusual combinations, such as G1P[4], G1P[6], G2P[6], G3P[4], G3P[6], and G9P[6], were also present. Genetic analysis on Bangladeshi strains revealed that the selection pressure (dN/dS) was estimated as <1. The number of hospital visits showed a 37% drop during the COVID-19 pandemic relative to the years before the pandemic. Conversely, there was a notable increase in the rate of rotavirus positivity during the pandemic (34%, p < 0.00) compared to the period before COVID-19 (23%). Among the various clinical symptoms, only the occurrence of watery stool significantly increased during the pandemic. The G2P[4] strain showed a sudden rise (19%) in 2020, which then declined in 2021. In the same year, G1P[8] was more prevalent than G3P[8] (40% vs. 38%, respectively). The remaining genotypes were negligible and did not exhibit much fluctuation. This study reveals that the rotavirus burden remained high during the COVID-19 prepandemic and pandemic in Bangladesh. Considering the lack of antigenic variations between the circulating and vaccine-targeted strains, integrating the vaccine into the national immunization program could reduce the prevalence of the disease, the number of hospitalizations, and the severity of cases.


COVID-19 , Feces , Genotype , Rotavirus Infections , Rotavirus , Humans , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Rotavirus/genetics , Rotavirus/isolation & purification , Rotavirus/classification , Rotavirus Infections/epidemiology , Rotavirus Infections/virology , Child, Preschool , Infant , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Feces/virology , Female , Male , Child , Diarrhea/virology , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Antigens, Viral/genetics , Infant, Newborn , Gastroenteritis/epidemiology , Gastroenteritis/virology , Young Adult , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/classification , Middle Aged , Seasons
15.
JCI Insight ; 9(10)2024 Apr 11.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38775152

Children with perinatally acquired HIV (PHIV) have special vaccination needs, as they make suboptimal immune responses. Here, we evaluated safety and immunogenicity of 2 doses of 4-component group B meningococcal vaccine in antiretroviral therapy-treated children with PHIV and healthy controls (HCs). Assessments included the standard human serum bactericidal antibody (hSBA) assay and measurement of IgG titers against capsular group B Neisseria meningitidis antigens (fHbp, NHBA, NadA). The B cell compartment and vaccine-induced antigen-specific (fHbp+) B cells were investigated by flow cytometry, and gene expression was investigated by multiplexed real-time PCR. A good safety and immunogenicity profile was shown in both groups; however, PHIV demonstrated a reduced immunogenicity compared with HCs. Additionally, PHIV showed a reduced frequency of fHbp+ and an altered B cell subset distribution, with higher fHbp+ frequency in activated memory and tissue-like memory B cells. Gene expression analyses on these cells revealed distinct mechanisms between PHIV and HC seroconverters. Overall, these data suggest that PHIV presents a diverse immune signature following vaccination. The impact of such perturbation on long-term maintenance of vaccine-induced immunity should be further evaluated in vulnerable populations, such as people with PHIV.


HIV Infections , Meningococcal Vaccines , Humans , HIV Infections/immunology , Male , Female , Child , Meningococcal Vaccines/immunology , Meningococcal Vaccines/administration & dosage , Child, Preschool , Meningococcal Infections/immunology , Meningococcal Infections/prevention & control , Antibodies, Bacterial/immunology , Antibodies, Bacterial/blood , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood
16.
Codas ; 36(4): e20230268, 2024.
Article Pt, En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38775528

PURPOSE: To check the lexical repertoire of Brazilian Portuguese-speaking children at 24 and 30 months of age and the association between the number of words spoken and the following variables: socioeconomic status, parents' education, presence of siblings in the family, whether or not they attend school, and excessive use of tablets and cell phones. METHODS: 30 parents of children aged 24 months living in the state of São Paulo participated in the study. Using videoconferencing platforms, they underwent a speech-language pathology anamnesis, an interview with social services, and then they completed the "MacArthur Communicative Development Inventory - First Words and Gestures" as soon as their children were 24 and 30 months old. Quantitative and qualitative inferential inductive statistics were applied. RESULTS: the median number of words produced was 283 at 24 months and 401 at 30 months, indicating an increase of around 118 words after six months. The child attending a school environment had a significant relationship with increased vocabulary. CONCLUSION: The study reinforces the fact that vocabulary grows with age and corroborates the fact that children aged 24 months already have a repertoire greater than 50 words. Those who attend school every day produce at least 70 more words than those who do not.


OBJETIVO: Verificar o repertório lexical de crianças falantes do português brasileiro aos 24 e 30 meses e a associação entre a quantidade de palavras faladas e as variáveis: nível socioeconômico, escolaridade dos pais, presença de irmãos no convívio familiar, frequentar ou não escola e uso exacerbado de tablets e celulares pelas crianças. MÉTODO: 30 pais de crianças com 24 meses, residentes no estado de São Paulo participaram do estudo. Por meio de plataformas de videoconferência eles foram submetidos à anamnese fonoaudiológica, entrevista com o serviço social e preencheram o "Inventário MacArthur de Desenvolvimento Comunicativo - Primeiras Palavras e Gestos", quando seus filhos tinham 24 e 30 meses. Foi aplicada estatística indutiva inferencial, quantitativa e qualitativa. RESULTADOS: A mediana das palavras emitidas foi de 283 aos 24 meses e 401 aos 30 meses, indicando aumento em torno de 118 palavras após seis meses. A criança estar frequentando ambiente escolar apresentou relação significativa com o aumento do vocabulário. CONCLUSÃO: O estudo reforça o crescimento do vocabulário conforme o avanço da idade e corrobora o fato de as crianças com 24 meses já possuírem um repertório maior que 50 palavras. Aqueles que frequentam escola diariamente produzem pelo menos 70 palavras a mais dos que não frequentam.


Vocabulary , Humans , Brazil , Child, Preschool , Female , Male , Language Development , Socioeconomic Factors , Child Language
17.
Clin Transplant ; 38(5): e15366, 2024 May.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38775798

In children with high-risk childhood acute leukemia who undergo allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (allo-HSCT), relapse is still the leading cause of treatment failure. The prognosis is poor, yet prospective studies have only limited data on risk factors and outcomes. We aimed to understand the outcomes and prognostic factors for patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) who relapsed following allo-HSCT. We analyzed retrospectively 46 children with childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia who had relapsed after receiving their first alloHSCT. All these patients received salvage chemotherapy which consisted of fludarabine, cytarabine, and idarubicin before performing a second alloHSCT. The median follow-up of the 46 patients after the first transplantation was 366 days. The median time from first allo-HSCT to relapse was 278.4 ± 238.4 days. Forty-six patients received salvage chemotherapy before the second alloHSCT, and CR was achieved in 32 of 46 patients. However, only 17 (37%) of 46 patients received a second allo-HSCT, and 15 of 46 patients died from disease progression, infections, and bleeding. Twelve patients are still alive after the second allo-HSCT. Two-year overall survival (OS) was 38.9%. Local therapy was given to 10 (21.8%) patients, either as part of systemic therapy or alone. In multivariate analyses, the time of relapse and curative salvage therapy with a second allo-HSCT were identified as significant prognostic factors for OS. Children with leukemia who had relapsed after the first allo-HSCT received salvage chemotherapy. Our statistical analysis showed that the second HSCT could be beneficial for outcomes if patients relapsed beyond 180 days of the first allo-HSCT.


Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Transplantation, Homologous , Humans , Female , Male , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/therapy , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/mortality , Child , Retrospective Studies , Child, Preschool , Prognosis , Follow-Up Studies , Adolescent , Survival Rate , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/pathology , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/therapy , Risk Factors , Infant , Graft vs Host Disease/etiology , Salvage Therapy , Transplantation Conditioning , Recurrence
18.
J Clin Immunol ; 44(6): 130, 2024 May 22.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38776031

Dysregulation of the immune system in individuals with Down syndrome is thought to play a major role in the pathophysiology of many clinical presentations. This natural history of disease study took a comprehensive evaluation of the prevalence of different immune related diagnoses in a cohort of 1299 patients with Down syndrome compared to a 2605 patient control cohort at the Mount Sinai Health System in New York, NY over the past 18 years. We conducted a stepwise analysis of the odds of receiving a diagnosis at the Chapter, Sub-chapter and Diagnosis level of the ICD-CM-10 code system. Individuals in our Down syndrome cohort had higher odds of a diagnosis with inflammatory and autoimmune presentations such as Alopecia areata (OR 6.06, p = 0.01), Other sepsis (OR 4.79, p < 0.001, Purpura and other hemorrhagic conditions (OR 2.31, p < 0.001), and Rosacea (OR 3.11, p < 0.001). They also presented with lower odds of a diagnosis of Herpesviral infection (OR 0.42, p = 0.01), and Viral warts (OR 0.51, p = 0.04). We posit that dysregulation of the immune system in individuals with Down syndrome has impact on infectious diseases, including lowering the incidence of viral disease and increasing its severity. Our data also suggests inflammation and autoimmune mediated diseases, in particular of the skin, are exacerbated in individuals with Down syndrome. Finally, there may be a need for greater clinical attention to non-emergent conditions within the Down syndrome patient population as those can also greatly affect quality of life.


Down Syndrome , Humans , Down Syndrome/immunology , Down Syndrome/complications , Down Syndrome/epidemiology , Male , Female , Adult , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Young Adult , Middle Aged , Infant , Immune System/immunology , Cohort Studies , Immune System Diseases/immunology , Immune System Diseases/etiology , Immune System Diseases/epidemiology
19.
Transl Vis Sci Technol ; 13(5): 18, 2024 May 01.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38776108

Purpose: We aimed to design, develop, and evaluate an internet of things-enabled patch (IoT patch) for real-time remote monitoring of adherence (or patch wear time) during patch treatment in child participants in clinical trials. This study provides healthcare providers with a tool for objective, real-time, and remote assessment of adherence and for making required adjustments to treatment plans. Methods: The IoT patch had two temperature microsensors and a wireless chip. One sensor was placed closer to the skin than the other, resulting in a temperature difference depending on whether the patch was worn. When the patch was worn, it measured temperatures every 30 seconds and transmitted temperature data to a cloud server via a mobile application every 15 seconds. The patch was evaluated via 2 experiments with 30 healthy adults and 40 children with amblyopia. Results: Excellent monitoring accuracy was observed in both adults (mean delay of recorded time data, 0.4 minutes) and children (mean, 0.5 minutes). The difference between manually recorded and objectively recorded patch wear times showed good agreement in both groups. Experiment 1 showed accurate monitoring over a wide range of temperatures (from 0 to 30°C). Experiment 2 showed no significant differences in wearability (ease-of-use and comfort scores) between the IoT and conventional patches. Conclusions: The IoT patch offers an accurate, real-time, and remote system to monitor adherence to patch treatment. The patch is comfortable and easy to use. The utilization of an IoT patch may increase adherence to patch treatment based on accurate monitoring. Translational Relevance: Results show that the IoT patch can enable real-time adherence monitoring in clinical trials, improving treatment precision, and patient compliance to enhance outcomes.


Internet of Things , Wireless Technology , Humans , Female , Male , Adult , Child , Wireless Technology/instrumentation , Patient Compliance , Equipment Design/methods , Child, Preschool , Young Adult , Wearable Electronic Devices , Remote Sensing Technology/instrumentation , Remote Sensing Technology/methods
20.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0300846, 2024.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38718046

The age-standardized incidence of head trauma in 2016 was 369 per 100,000 people worldwide. The Western Pacific region, including Japan, had the highest incidence. This study aimed to extract ICD-10 code data for intracranial injury (S06) and external causes of morbidity and mortality (V01-Y89), analyze their characteristics and interrelationships, and contribute to these diseases' prevention, treatment, and prognosis. The number of deaths according to injury type and external cause type of intracranial injury published by the Japanese government was statistically analyzed using JoinPoint, and univariate distribution and multivariate correlation were conducted using JMP Software. From 1999-2021, there was a downward trend in the number of deaths because of intracranial injuries: mortality from intracranial injuries was higher among those aged ≥65 years. Conversely, mortality from intracranial injuries was lower among those aged ≤14 years. Among deaths from intracranial injury, mortality from diffuse brain injury and traumatic subdural hemorrhage was more common. Among deaths from external causes of intracranial injury, mortality from falls, transport accidents, and other unforeseen accidents was more common. Mortality because of intracranial injuries increased significantly during the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake. For some age groups and sexes, there were significant inverse correlations of mortality with traumatic subdural hemorrhage and traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage for transport accidents, intentional self-harm and assault, and diffuse brain injury and focal brain injury for falls. We believe that the data presented in this study will be useful for preventing and treating intracranial injuries and for developing administrative measures to reduce intracranial injuries.


Craniocerebral Trauma , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Female , Male , Aged , Middle Aged , Adult , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Young Adult , Infant , Craniocerebral Trauma/mortality , Craniocerebral Trauma/epidemiology , Infant, Newborn , Aged, 80 and over , Cause of Death , East Asian People
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