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Cancer Rep (Hoboken) ; 7(5): e2069, 2024 May.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38767518

BACKGROUND: Only a few previous studies examine immune system recovery after completed cancer treatment. AIMS: The aim of this study was to analyze immune reconstitution after childhood cancer therapy in a non-hematopoietic stem cell transplantation setting. METHODS AND RESULTS: We analyzed children (N = 79) who received chemotherapy with/without irradiation for cancer diagnosed between 2014 and 2019 at Turku University Hospital, Finland. We retrospectively collected data on baseline parameters and post-treatment immunological recovery, namely neutrophil and lymphocyte counts, IgG levels, CD19, CD4 and natural killer cell counts. Immunological parameters were followed until their normalization. Treatment intensity was stratified according to the Intensity of Treatment Rating Scale (ITR-3). We analyzed the effects of treatment intensity on normalization of immunological parameters across the entire treatment range. Treatment intensity had a major effect on immune system recovery after completion of treatment. Most patients had normal immunological parameters 1-4 months post-treatment both in high- and low-intensity treatment groups, but patients classified in the high-intensity group had low parameters more often than patients in the low-intensity group. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest a fast recovery of studied immunological parameters after the majority of current pediatric oncologic treatments. Treatment for high-risk acute lymphoblastic leukemia, acute myeloid leukemia, medulloblastoma, and mature B-cell lymphoma was associated with prolonged recovery times for a substantial proportion of cases. High treatment intensity was associated with prolonged immunological recovery.

Immune Reconstitution , Humans , Child , Male , Female , Retrospective Studies , Child, Preschool , Adolescent , Neoplasms/immunology , Neoplasms/therapy , Infant , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Finland , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Lymphocyte Count , Neutrophils/immunology
J Tradit Chin Med ; 44(3): 586-594, 2024 Jun.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38767644

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of pediatric Tuina (PT) in preventing recurrent acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) in children. METHODS: This is a retrospective cohort study based on the electronic medical records of children with recurrent ARTIs in 2016. Children were divided into a PT group or a non-PT group, according to whether they had received PT or not in 2016. The primary outcome was the number of ARTI episodes in 2017 and 2018. The secondary outcomes were the number of ARTIs leading to outpatient department visits and outpatient antibiotic prescriptions due to ARTIs in the same time period. Negative binomial regressions were used to detect the association between PT and the outcomes. RESULTS: A total of 2303 children were included in the analysis, including 94 in the PT group and 2209 in the non-PT group. Children who received PT six or more times in 2016 had fewer episodes of ARTIs in 2017 [incidence rate ratio (IRR): 0.59, 95% confidence interval (CI) (0.42-0.84)] and 2018 [IRR: 0.58, 95% CI (0.36-0.94)] and fewer outpatient department visits due to ARTIs in 2017 [IRR: 0.56, 95% CI (0.38-0.83)] than children who had not received PT in 2016. There was no significant difference in the number of outpatient antibiotic prescriptions between the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: Receiving PT six or more times within one year is associated with a decrease in recurrent ARTIs in children in the following two years. Randomized controlled trials are needed for effect evaluation prior to establishing PT as a method for preventing recurrent ARTIs among children.

Respiratory Tract Infections , Humans , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , China/epidemiology , Infant , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/administration & dosage , Recurrence , Adolescent , Acute Disease
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0303508, 2024.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38768133

PURPOSE: The resurgence of pertussis has occurred around the world. However, the epidemiological profiles of pertussis cannot be well understood by current diseases surveillance. This study was designed to understand the seroepidemiological characteristics of pertussis infection in the general population of Huzhou City, evaluate the prevalence infection of pertussis in the population, and offer insights to inform adjustments in pertussis prevention and control strategies. METHODS: From September to October 2023, a cross-sectional serosurvey was conducted in Huzhou City, involving 1015 permanent residents. Serum samples were collected from the study subjects, and pertussis toxin IgG antibodies (Anti-PT-IgG) were quantitatively measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The analysis included the geometric mean concentration (GMC) of Anti-PT-IgG, rates of GMC≥40IU/mL, ≥100IU/mL, and <5IU/mL. Stratified comparisons were made based on age, vaccination history, and human categories. RESULTS: Among the 1015 surveyed individuals, the geometric mean concentration (GMC) of Anti-PT-IgG was 10.52 (95% CI: 9.96-11.11) IU/mL, with a recent infection rate of 1.58%, a serum positivity rate of 11.43%, and a proportion with <5IU/mL of 40.49%. Among 357 children with clear vaccination history, susceptibility decreased with an increasing number of vaccine doses (Z = -6.793, P < 0.001). The concentration of Anti-PT-IgG exhibited a significant post-vaccination decline over time (Z = -5.143, P < 0.001). In women of childbearing age, the GMC of Anti-PT-IgG was 7.71 (95% CI: 6.90-8.62) IU/mL, with no significant difference in susceptibility among different age groups (χ2 = 0.545, P = 0.909). The annual pertussis infection rate in individuals aged ≥3 years was 9321 (95%CI: 3336-16039) per 100,000, with peak infection rates in the 20-29, 40-49, and 5-9 age groups at 34363 (95%CI: 6327-66918) per 100,000, 22307.72 (95%CI: 1380-47442) per 100,000, and 18020(95%CI: 1093-37266) per 100,000, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: In 2023, the actual pertussis infection rate in the population of Huzhou City was relatively high. Vaccine-induced antibodies exhibit a rapid decay, and the estimated serum infection rate increases rapidly from post-school age, peaking in the 20-29 age group. It is recommended to enhance pertussis monitoring in adolescents and adults and refine vaccine immunization strategies.

Antibodies, Bacterial , Immunoglobulin G , Whooping Cough , Humans , Whooping Cough/epidemiology , Whooping Cough/blood , Whooping Cough/immunology , Whooping Cough/prevention & control , Female , Cross-Sectional Studies , Adult , Male , China/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Child , Middle Aged , Adolescent , Child, Preschool , Young Adult , Infant , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Antibodies, Bacterial/blood , Aged , Pertussis Toxin/immunology , Prevalence , Pertussis Vaccine/immunology , Vaccination , Bordetella pertussis/immunology
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0303668, 2024.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38768151

Multiple forms of malnutrition coexist in infants and young children (IYC) in Peru. The World Health Organization has proposed double-duty actions (DDAs) to simultaneously address undernutrition and overweight/obesity. We assessed current implementation of- and priority for- government-level actions to tackle multiple forms of malnutrition in IYC in Peru. Mapping of current policy activity was undertaken against 47 indicators of good practice for five DDAs (exclusive breastfeeding, complementary feeding, food marketing, maternal nutrition, preschool nutrition; assessed by 27 indicators) and for the enabling policy environment, i.e., 'infrastructure support' (health in all policies, platforms for interactions, financing, monitoring, governance, leadership; assessed by 20 indicators). Interviews with 16 national experts explored views on the level of and barriers to implementation of DDAs and infrastructure support, as well as their prioritisation based on likely impact and feasibility. The level of implementation of actions was categorised into two groups (agenda setting/formulation vs. implementation/evaluation). Mean scores were generated for prioritisation of DDAs and infrastructure support. Deductive qualitative analysis was undertaken to identify barriers that influence policy implementation. Only 5/27 DDA indicators were reported as fully implemented by all national experts (international code that regulates the marketing of breastmilk substitutes, iron supplementation for IYC, micronutrient powders in IYC, iron/folic acid supplementation in pregnant women, paid maternity leave). Only 1/20 infrastructure support indicator (access to nutrition information) was rated as fully implemented by all experts. Barriers to implementing DDAs and infrastructure support included: legal feasibility or lack of regulations, inadequate monitoring/evaluation to ensure enforcement, commercial influences on policymakers, insufficient resources, shifting public health priorities with the COVID-19 pandemic and political instability. The experts prioritised 12 indicators across all five DDAs and eight infrastructure support indicators. Experts highlighted the need to improve implementation of all DDAs and identified ways to strengthen the enabling policy environment.

Malnutrition , Humans , Peru/epidemiology , Infant , Child, Preschool , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Malnutrition/prevention & control , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Priorities , Male
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0303851, 2024.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38768174

INTRODUCTION: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) can cause neuronal damage and cerebrovascular dysfunction, leading to acute brain dysfunction and considerable physical and mental impairment long after initial injury. Our goal was to assess the impact of pediatric TBI (pTBI) on military service, completed by 65-70% of men in Finland. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective register-based nationwide cohort study. All patients aged 0 to 17 years at the time of TBI, between 1998 and 2018, were included. Operatively and conservatively treated patients with pTBI were analyzed separately. The reference group was comprised of individuals with upper and lower extremity fractures. Information on length of service time, service completion, fitness for service class, and cognitive performance in a basic cognitive test (b-test) was gathered from the Finnish Military Records for both groups. Linear and logistic regression with 95% CI were used in comparisons. RESULTS: Our study group comprised 12 281 patients with pTBI and 20 338 reference group patients who participated in conscription. A total of 8 507 (66.5%) men in the pTBI group and 14 953 (71.2%) men in the reference group completed military service during the follow-up period. Men in the reference group were more likely to complete military service (OR 1.26, CI 1.18-1.34). A total of 31 (23.3%) men with operatively treated pTBI completed the military service. Men with conservatively treated pTBI had a much higher service rate (OR 7.20, CI 4.73-11.1). In the pTBI group, men (OR 1.26, CI 1.18-1.34) and women (OR 2.05, CI 1.27-3.36) were more likely to interrupt military service than the reference group. The PTBI group scored 0.15 points (CI 0.10-0.20) less than the reference group in cognitive b-test. CONCLUSIONS: PTBI groups had slightly shorter military service periods and higher interruption rate than our reference-group. There were only minor differences between groups in cognitive b-test.

Brain Injuries, Traumatic , Cognition , Military Personnel , Registries , Humans , Finland/epidemiology , Male , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/therapy , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Infant , Female , Infant, Newborn
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0303520, 2024.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38768171

INTRODUCTION: Sickle cell disease (SCD) remains a public health problem especially in sub-Saharan Africa including Ghana. While pilot initiatives in Africa have demonstrated that neonatal screening coupled with early intervention reduces SCD-related morbidity and mortality, only 50-70% of screen-positive babies have been successfully retrieved to benefit from these interventions. Point-of-care testing (POCT) with high specificity and sensitivity for SCD screening can be integrated into existing immunization programs in Africa to improve retrieval rates. This study explored community acceptability of integrating POCT to screen for SCD in children under 5 years of age in primary healthcare facilities in Northern Ghana. METHOD: This was an exploratory study using qualitative research approach where 10 focus group discussions and 20 in-depth interviews were conducted with community members and health workers between April and June 2022. The recorded interviews were transcribed verbatim after repeatedly listening to the recordings. Data was coded into themes using QSR Nvivo 12 software before thematic analysis. RESULTS: Most participants (70.9%) described SCD as serious and potentially life-threatening condition affecting children in the area. Of 148 community members and health workers, 141 (95.2%) said the screening exercise could facilitate diagnosis of SCD in children for early management. However, discrimination, fear of being tested positive, stigmatization, negative health worker attitude linked with issues of maintaining confidentiality were reported by participants as key factors that could affect uptake of the SCD screening exercise. Most participants suggested that intensive health education (78.3%), positive attitude of health workers (69.5%), and screening health workers not being biased (58.8%) could promote community acceptability. CONCLUSION: A large majority of participants viewed screening of SCD in children as very important. However, opinions expressed by most participants suggest that health education and professionalism of health workers in keeping patients' information confidential could improve the uptake of the exercise.

Anemia, Sickle Cell , Point-of-Care Testing , Primary Health Care , Humans , Anemia, Sickle Cell/diagnosis , Anemia, Sickle Cell/psychology , Ghana , Female , Male , Child, Preschool , Adult , Rural Population , Infant , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Health Personnel/psychology , Mass Screening/methods , Middle Aged , Infant, Newborn , Young Adult , Focus Groups
Am J Case Rep ; 25: e943597, 2024 May 21.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38769718

BACKGROUND Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is a rare renal disorder that can be congenital, and is caused by mutations in either aquaporin 2 or arginine vasopressin receptor 2, or it can be secondary to kidney disease or electrolyte imbalance. The clinical signs of NDI include polyuria, compensatory polydipsia, hypernatremic dehydration, and growth retardation without prompt treatment. In this report, we present the case of a patient with congenital NDI who was later diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). With dexamethasone treatment, he had uncontrolled polyuria and polydipsia. Our aim was to concentrate on the impact of steroids on the kidneys. CASE REPORT Our patient presented at the age of 9 months with signs of severe dehydration that were associated with polyuria. His laboratory examinations revealed hypernatremia and decreased urine osmolality. He was diagnosed with NDI and his exome sequence revealed a homozygous mutation at the nucleotide position AQP2 NM_000486.6: c.374C>T (p.Thr125Met). He was treated with hydrochlorothiazide and amiloride. Then, at age 19 months, he presented with gastroenteritis and a complete blood count (CBC) showed high white blood cell count and blast cells. He was diagnosed with (ALL) and began receiving chemotherapy, during which again developed polydipsia and polyuria, which could not be controlled with an increased dosage of hydrochlorothiazide. CONCLUSIONS We report a rare case of NDI caused by a missense mutation in the aquaporin 2 gene. One year later, the child developed ALL, and treatment with dexamethasone led to an uncompensated state of polydipsia and polyuria.

Aquaporin 2 , Diabetes Insipidus, Nephrogenic , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Humans , Male , Diabetes Insipidus, Nephrogenic/genetics , Aquaporin 2/genetics , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/drug therapy , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/complications , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/genetics , Infant , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Mutation , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use
J Clin Immunol ; 44(6): 126, 2024 May 22.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38773000

Alemtuzumab is used with reduced-toxicity conditioning (RTC) in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT), demonstrating efficacy and feasibility for patients with inborn errors of immunity (IEI) in Western countries; however, the clinical experience in Asian patients with IEI is limited. We retrospectively analyzed patients with IEI who underwent the first allogeneic HCT with alemtuzumab combined with RTC regimens in Japan. A total of 19 patients were included and followed up for a median of 18 months. The donors were haploidentical parents (n = 10), matched siblings (n = 2), and unrelated bone marrow donors (n = 7). Most patients received RTC regimens containing fludarabine and busulfan and were treated with 0.8 mg/kg alemtuzumab with intermediate timing. Eighteen patients survived and achieved stable engraftment, and no grade 3-4 acute graft-versus-host disease was observed. Viral infections were observed in 11 patients (58%) and 6 of them presented symptomatic. The median CD4+ T cell count was low at 6 months (241/µL) but improved at 1 year (577/µL) after HCT. Whole blood cells continued to exhibit > 80% donor type in most cases; however, 3/10 patients exhibited poor donor chimerism only among T cells and also showed undetectable levels of T-cell receptor recombination excision circles (TRECs) at 1 year post-HCT. This study demonstrated the efficacy and safety of alemtuzumab; however, patients frequently developed viral infections and slow reconstitution or low donor chimerism in T cells, emphasizing the importance of monitoring viral status and T-cell-specific chimerism. (238 < 250 words).

Alemtuzumab , Graft vs Host Disease , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Transplantation Conditioning , Transplantation, Homologous , Humans , Alemtuzumab/therapeutic use , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Male , Female , Transplantation Conditioning/methods , Child, Preschool , Child , Infant , Graft vs Host Disease/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Asian People , Treatment Outcome , Adolescent
J Med Virol ; 96(5): e29681, 2024 May.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38773815

Rotavirus gastroenteritis is accountable for an estimated 128 500 deaths among children younger than 5 years worldwide, and the majority occur in low-income countries. Although the clinical trials of rotavirus vaccines in Bangladesh revealed a significant reduction of severe rotavirus disease by around 50%, the vaccines are not yet included in the routine immunization program. The present study was designed to provide data on rotavirus diarrhea with clinical profiles and genotypes before (2017-2019) and during the COVID-19 pandemic period (2020-2021). Fecal samples were collected from 2% of the diarrheal patients at icddr,b Dhaka hospital of all ages between January 2017 and December 2021 and were tested for VP6 rotavirus antigen using ELISA. The clinical manifestations such as fever, duration of diarrhea and hospitalization, number of stools, and dehydration and so on were collected from the surveillance database (n = 3127). Of the positive samples, 10% were randomly selected for genotyping using Sanger sequencing method. A total of 12 705 fecal samples were screened for rotavirus A antigen by enzyme immunoassay. Overall, 3369 (27%) were rotavirus antigen-positive, of whom children <2 years had the highest prevalence (88.6%). The risk of rotavirus A infection was 4.2 times higher in winter than in summer. Overall, G3P[8] was the most prominent genotype (45.3%), followed by G1P[8] (32.1%), G9P[8] (6.8%), and G2P[4] (6.1%). The other unusual combinations, such as G1P[4], G1P[6], G2P[6], G3P[4], G3P[6], and G9P[6], were also present. Genetic analysis on Bangladeshi strains revealed that the selection pressure (dN/dS) was estimated as <1. The number of hospital visits showed a 37% drop during the COVID-19 pandemic relative to the years before the pandemic. Conversely, there was a notable increase in the rate of rotavirus positivity during the pandemic (34%, p < 0.00) compared to the period before COVID-19 (23%). Among the various clinical symptoms, only the occurrence of watery stool significantly increased during the pandemic. The G2P[4] strain showed a sudden rise (19%) in 2020, which then declined in 2021. In the same year, G1P[8] was more prevalent than G3P[8] (40% vs. 38%, respectively). The remaining genotypes were negligible and did not exhibit much fluctuation. This study reveals that the rotavirus burden remained high during the COVID-19 prepandemic and pandemic in Bangladesh. Considering the lack of antigenic variations between the circulating and vaccine-targeted strains, integrating the vaccine into the national immunization program could reduce the prevalence of the disease, the number of hospitalizations, and the severity of cases.

COVID-19 , Feces , Genotype , Rotavirus Infections , Rotavirus , Humans , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Rotavirus/genetics , Rotavirus/isolation & purification , Rotavirus/classification , Rotavirus Infections/epidemiology , Rotavirus Infections/virology , Child, Preschool , Infant , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Feces/virology , Female , Male , Child , Diarrhea/virology , Diarrhea/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Antigens, Viral/genetics , Infant, Newborn , Gastroenteritis/epidemiology , Gastroenteritis/virology , Young Adult , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/classification , Middle Aged , Seasons
Clin Transplant ; 38(5): e15366, 2024 May.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38775798

In children with high-risk childhood acute leukemia who undergo allogeneic hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation (allo-HSCT), relapse is still the leading cause of treatment failure. The prognosis is poor, yet prospective studies have only limited data on risk factors and outcomes. We aimed to understand the outcomes and prognostic factors for patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) who relapsed following allo-HSCT. We analyzed retrospectively 46 children with childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia who had relapsed after receiving their first alloHSCT. All these patients received salvage chemotherapy which consisted of fludarabine, cytarabine, and idarubicin before performing a second alloHSCT. The median follow-up of the 46 patients after the first transplantation was 366 days. The median time from first allo-HSCT to relapse was 278.4 ± 238.4 days. Forty-six patients received salvage chemotherapy before the second alloHSCT, and CR was achieved in 32 of 46 patients. However, only 17 (37%) of 46 patients received a second allo-HSCT, and 15 of 46 patients died from disease progression, infections, and bleeding. Twelve patients are still alive after the second allo-HSCT. Two-year overall survival (OS) was 38.9%. Local therapy was given to 10 (21.8%) patients, either as part of systemic therapy or alone. In multivariate analyses, the time of relapse and curative salvage therapy with a second allo-HSCT were identified as significant prognostic factors for OS. Children with leukemia who had relapsed after the first allo-HSCT received salvage chemotherapy. Our statistical analysis showed that the second HSCT could be beneficial for outcomes if patients relapsed beyond 180 days of the first allo-HSCT.

Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Transplantation, Homologous , Humans , Female , Male , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/therapy , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/mortality , Child , Retrospective Studies , Child, Preschool , Prognosis , Follow-Up Studies , Adolescent , Survival Rate , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/pathology , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local/therapy , Risk Factors , Infant , Graft vs Host Disease/etiology , Salvage Therapy , Transplantation Conditioning , Recurrence
J Clin Immunol ; 44(6): 130, 2024 May 22.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38776031

Dysregulation of the immune system in individuals with Down syndrome is thought to play a major role in the pathophysiology of many clinical presentations. This natural history of disease study took a comprehensive evaluation of the prevalence of different immune related diagnoses in a cohort of 1299 patients with Down syndrome compared to a 2605 patient control cohort at the Mount Sinai Health System in New York, NY over the past 18 years. We conducted a stepwise analysis of the odds of receiving a diagnosis at the Chapter, Sub-chapter and Diagnosis level of the ICD-CM-10 code system. Individuals in our Down syndrome cohort had higher odds of a diagnosis with inflammatory and autoimmune presentations such as Alopecia areata (OR 6.06, p = 0.01), Other sepsis (OR 4.79, p < 0.001, Purpura and other hemorrhagic conditions (OR 2.31, p < 0.001), and Rosacea (OR 3.11, p < 0.001). They also presented with lower odds of a diagnosis of Herpesviral infection (OR 0.42, p = 0.01), and Viral warts (OR 0.51, p = 0.04). We posit that dysregulation of the immune system in individuals with Down syndrome has impact on infectious diseases, including lowering the incidence of viral disease and increasing its severity. Our data also suggests inflammation and autoimmune mediated diseases, in particular of the skin, are exacerbated in individuals with Down syndrome. Finally, there may be a need for greater clinical attention to non-emergent conditions within the Down syndrome patient population as those can also greatly affect quality of life.

Down Syndrome , Humans , Down Syndrome/immunology , Down Syndrome/complications , Down Syndrome/epidemiology , Male , Female , Adult , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Young Adult , Middle Aged , Infant , Immune System/immunology , Cohort Studies , Immune System Diseases/immunology , Immune System Diseases/etiology , Immune System Diseases/epidemiology
Cereb Cortex ; 34(5)2024 May 02.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38715405

OBJECTIVES: This retrospective study aimed to identify quantitative magnetic resonance imaging markers in the brainstem of preterm neonates with intraventricular hemorrhages. It delves into the intricate associations between quantitative brainstem magnetic resonance imaging metrics and neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm infants with intraventricular hemorrhage, aiming to elucidate potential relationships and their clinical implications. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Neuroimaging was performed on preterm neonates with intraventricular hemorrhage using a multi-dynamic multi-echo sequence to determine T1 relaxation time, T2 relaxation time, and proton density in specific brainstem regions. Neonatal outcome scores were collected using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development. Statistical analysis aimed to explore potential correlations between magnetic resonance imaging metrics and neurodevelopmental outcomes. RESULTS: Sixty preterm neonates (mean gestational age at birth 26.26 ± 2.69 wk; n = 24 [40%] females) were included. The T2 relaxation time of the midbrain exhibited significant positive correlations with cognitive (r = 0.538, P < 0.0001, Pearson's correlation), motor (r = 0.530, P < 0.0001), and language (r = 0.449, P = 0.0008) composite scores at 1 yr of age. CONCLUSION: Quantitative magnetic resonance imaging can provide valuable insights into neurodevelopmental outcomes after intraventricular hemorrhage, potentially aiding in identifying at-risk neonates. Multi-dynamic multi-echo sequence sequences hold promise as an adjunct to conventional sequences, enhancing the sensitivity of neonatal magnetic resonance neuroimaging and supporting clinical decision-making for these vulnerable patients.

Brain Stem , Infant, Premature , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Humans , Male , Female , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Infant, Newborn , Retrospective Studies , Brain Stem/diagnostic imaging , Brain Stem/growth & development , Infant , Cerebral Intraventricular Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Cerebral Hemorrhage/diagnostic imaging , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/diagnostic imaging , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/etiology , Gestational Age
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 18(5): e13294, 2024 May.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38716791

BACKGROUND: Data from the sentinel surveillance system of severe acute respiratory infections in Spain were used to estimate the impact of administration of nirsevimab to children born from 1 April 2023 onwards. METHODS: Estimated RSV hospitalisations in < 1-year-olds during weeks 40, 2023, to 8, 2024, were compared to the number that would be expected after accounting for the background change in RSV circulation in the 2023/24 season, compared to 2022/23. RESULTS: We estimated 9364-9875 RSV hospitalisations less than expected, corresponding to a 74%-75% reduction.

Antiviral Agents , Hospitalization , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Humans , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/drug therapy , Spain/epidemiology , Infant , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Incidence , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Female , Male , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Sentinel Surveillance , Infant, Newborn , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0300846, 2024.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38718046

The age-standardized incidence of head trauma in 2016 was 369 per 100,000 people worldwide. The Western Pacific region, including Japan, had the highest incidence. This study aimed to extract ICD-10 code data for intracranial injury (S06) and external causes of morbidity and mortality (V01-Y89), analyze their characteristics and interrelationships, and contribute to these diseases' prevention, treatment, and prognosis. The number of deaths according to injury type and external cause type of intracranial injury published by the Japanese government was statistically analyzed using JoinPoint, and univariate distribution and multivariate correlation were conducted using JMP Software. From 1999-2021, there was a downward trend in the number of deaths because of intracranial injuries: mortality from intracranial injuries was higher among those aged ≥65 years. Conversely, mortality from intracranial injuries was lower among those aged ≤14 years. Among deaths from intracranial injury, mortality from diffuse brain injury and traumatic subdural hemorrhage was more common. Among deaths from external causes of intracranial injury, mortality from falls, transport accidents, and other unforeseen accidents was more common. Mortality because of intracranial injuries increased significantly during the 2011 Great East Japan Earthquake. For some age groups and sexes, there were significant inverse correlations of mortality with traumatic subdural hemorrhage and traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage for transport accidents, intentional self-harm and assault, and diffuse brain injury and focal brain injury for falls. We believe that the data presented in this study will be useful for preventing and treating intracranial injuries and for developing administrative measures to reduce intracranial injuries.

Craniocerebral Trauma , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Female , Male , Aged , Middle Aged , Adult , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Young Adult , Infant , Craniocerebral Trauma/mortality , Craniocerebral Trauma/epidemiology , Infant, Newborn , Aged, 80 and over , Cause of Death , East Asian People
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0303270, 2024.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38718063

INTRODUCTION: Demand for urgent and emergency health care in England has grown over the last decade, for reasons that are not clear. Changes in population demographics may be a cause. This study investigated associations between individuals' characteristics (including socioeconomic deprivation and long term health conditions (LTC)) and the frequency of emergency department (ED) attendances, in the Norfolk and Waveney subregion of the East of England. METHODS: The study population was people who were registered with 91 of 106 Norfolk and Waveney general practices during one year from 1 April 2022 to 31 March 2023. Linked primary and secondary care and geographical data included each individual's sociodemographic characteristics, and number of ED attendances during the same year and, for some individuals, LTCs and number of general practice (GP) appointments. Associations between these factors and ED attendances were estimated using Poisson regression models. RESULTS: 1,027,422 individuals were included of whom 57.4% had GP data on the presence or absence of LTC, and 43.1% had both LTC and general practitioner appointment data. In the total population ED attendances were more frequent in individuals aged under five years, (adjusted Incidence Rate Ratio (IRR) 1.25, 95% confidence interval 1.23 to 1.28) compared to 15-35 years); living in more socioeconomically deprived areas (IRR 0.61 (0.60 to 0.63)) for least deprived compared to most deprived,and living closer to the nearest ED. Among individuals with LTC data, each additional LTC was also associated with increased ED attendances (IRR 1.16 (1.15 to 1.16)). Among individuals with LTC and GP appointment data, each additional GP appointment was also associated with increased ED attendances (IRR 1.03 (1.026 to 1.027)). CONCLUSIONS: In the Norfolk and Waveney population, ED attendance rates were higher for young children and individuals living in more deprived areas and closer to EDs. In individuals with LTC and GP appointment data, both factors were also associated with higher ED attendance.

Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , England , Female , Male , Adult , Middle Aged , Adolescent , Aged , Young Adult , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Child , Infant , Sociodemographic Factors , Socioeconomic Factors , Aged, 80 and over , Infant, Newborn , General Practice/statistics & numerical data
Front Immunol ; 15: 1384640, 2024.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38720904

Background: For children with severe aplastic anemia, if the first immunosuppressive therapy (IST) fails, it is not recommended to choose a second IST. Therefore, for patients without matched sibling donor (MSD) and matched unrelated donor (MUD), haploidentical hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (Haplo-HSCT) can be chosen as a salvage treatment. This article aims to explore the comparison between upfront Haplo-HSCT and salvage Haplo-HSCT after IST. Methods: 29 patients received salvage Haplo-HSCT, and 50 patients received upfront Haplo-HSCT. The two groups received Bu (Busulfan, 3.2mg/kg/d*2d on days -9 to-8), CY (Cyclophosphamide, 60mg/kg/d*2d on days -4 to-3), Flu (fludarabine, 40mg/m2/d*5d on days -9 to -5) and rabbit ATG (Anti-thymocyte globulin, total dose 10mg/kg divided into days -4 to -2). Results: The OS of the salvage Haplo-HSCT group showed no difference to the upfront Haplo-HSCT group (80.2 ± 8.0% vs. 88.7 ± 4.8%, p=0.37). The FFS of the salvage Haplo-HSCT group also showed no difference to the frontline Haplo-HSCT group (75 ± 8.2% vs. 84.9 ± 5.3%, p=0.27). There was no significant difference in the incidence of other complications after transplantation between the two groups, except for thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA). In the grouping analysis by graft source, the incidence of II-IV aGVHD in patients using PBSC ± BM+UCB was lower than that in the PBSC ± BM group (p=0.010). Conclusion: Upfront Haplo-HSCT and salvage Haplo-HSCT after IST in children with acquired severe aplastic anemia have similar survival outcomes. However, the risk of TMA increases after salvage Haplo-HSCT. This article provides some reference value for the treatment selection of patients. In addition, co-transplantation of umbilical cord blood may reduce the incidence of GVHD.

Anemia, Aplastic , Graft vs Host Disease , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Salvage Therapy , Transplantation, Haploidentical , Humans , Anemia, Aplastic/therapy , Anemia, Aplastic/mortality , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Male , Female , Child , Child, Preschool , Salvage Therapy/methods , Adolescent , Graft vs Host Disease/etiology , Graft vs Host Disease/prevention & control , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Transplantation Conditioning/methods , Infant , Treatment Outcome , Immunosuppression Therapy/methods
Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) ; 52(3): 22-30, 2024.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38721952

BACKGROUND: Preschoolers frequently have respiratory infections (RIs), which may cause wheezing in some subjects. Type 2 polarization may favor increased susceptibility to RIs and associated wheezing. Non-pharmacological remedies are garnering increasing interest as possible add-on therapies. The present preliminary study investigated the efficacy and safety of a new multi-component nasal spray in preschoolers with frequent RIs and associated wheezing. METHODS: Some preschoolers with these characteristics randomly took this product, containing lactoferrin, dipotassium glycyrrhizinate, carboxymethyl-beta-glucan, and vitamins C and D3 (Saflovir), two sprays per nostril twice daily for 3 months. Other children were randomly treated only with standard therapy. Outcomes included the number of RIs and wheezing episodes, use of medications, and severity of clinical manifestations. RESULTS: Preschoolers treated add-on with this multicomponent product experienced fewer RIs and used fewer beta-2 agonists than untreated children (P = 0.01 and 0.029, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: This preliminary study demonstrated that a multicomponent product, administered add-on as a nasal spray, could reduce the incidence of RIs and use of symptomatic drugs for relieving wheezing in children.

Nasal Sprays , Respiratory Sounds , Respiratory Tract Infections , Humans , Child, Preschool , Respiratory Sounds/drug effects , Female , Male , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Ascorbic Acid/administration & dosage , Lactoferrin/administration & dosage , Glycyrrhizic Acid/administration & dosage , Treatment Outcome , beta-Glucans/administration & dosage , Cholecalciferol/administration & dosage , Infant
Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) ; 52(3): 42-52, 2024.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38721954

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Food allergy has several negative nutritional consequences and may persist beyond the first year of lives. This study aimed to assess the role of a complete oral amino acid-based supplement in the diet of children on cow's milk protein elimination diet because of food allergy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study included two groups of children aged 1-5 years paired by age and socioeconomic status: (1) study group, on cow's milk protein elimination diet plus an oral amino acid-based supplement, and (2) control group, on cow's milk protein elimination diet. Sociodemographic, clinical, anthropometric, and dietary data were obtained through online interviews. Two 24-h dietary recalls were collected on nonconsecutive days. Both groups comprised mostly boys. RESULTS: The study group presented lower values of body mass index. The frequency of feeding difficulties was similar between groups. The study group had a higher intake of energy, protein, carbohydrates, calcium, iron, zinc, phosphorus, magnesium, copper, selenium, vitamins D, E, B1, B2, B6, and B12, niacin, and folic acid compared to the control group. A higher proportion of children in the study group had adequate intake according to the recommendations made for energy, carbohydrates, iron, phosphorus, selenium, vitamins A, D, E, B1, B2, and B6, and folic acid. CONCLUSIONS: The use of a complete oral amino acid-based supplement has a positive effect on the diet quality of preschoolers on cow's milk elimination diet because of food allergy, promoting higher intake of energy, calcium, vitamin D, and other essential nutrients.

Amino Acids , Dietary Supplements , Milk Hypersensitivity , Humans , Child, Preschool , Male , Female , Animals , Cross-Sectional Studies , Infant , Amino Acids/administration & dosage , Milk/immunology , Cattle , Milk Proteins/administration & dosage , Milk Proteins/immunology , Diet , Elimination Diets
Allergol Immunopathol (Madr) ; 52(3): 8-16, 2024.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38721950

BACKGROUND: Anaphylaxis proportions of incidence are increasing globally. However, limited data are available regarding anaphylaxis in the pediatric population of Greece. PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to evaluate management of anaphylaxis in Greek pediatric departments. METHODS: We performed a questionnaire-based study of children aged less than 16 years presenting with anaphylaxis in 10 national pediatric hospitals over a period of 2 years. Management of anaphylaxis was assessed prior to and after an informative intervention. RESULTS: In all, 127 cases of anaphylaxis were identified. Epinephrine was administered in almost half of all cases (51.2%), predominantly through intramuscular route (88.5%), while the majority of anaphylaxis patients were treated with antihistamines (92.9%) and corticosteroids (70.1%). Epinephrine was more likely administered by physicians if the elicitor was a drug (P < 0.003). Regarding long-term management, an epinephrine auto-injector was prescribed in 66.9% of patients. Follow-up information was available for most of the patients (92.9%), the majority of whom (76.3%) were referred to an allergist. More than half of these patients (63.6%) had a documented allergy follow-up, which identified a causative allergen in 53.3% of cases. No statistically significant differences were recorded prior to and after the intervention regarding management of anaphylaxis. CONCLUSIONS: This nationwide study highlighted the necessity of further improvement in terms of anaphylaxis treatment and secondary prevention measures. This presupposes appropriate education and training of healthcare professionals, thus contributing to proper and comprehensive care of the pediatric population.

Anaphylaxis , Epinephrine , Humans , Anaphylaxis/epidemiology , Anaphylaxis/drug therapy , Anaphylaxis/therapy , Anaphylaxis/diagnosis , Greece/epidemiology , Child , Male , Female , Epinephrine/administration & dosage , Epinephrine/therapeutic use , Child, Preschool , Adolescent , Infant , Surveys and Questionnaires , Histamine Antagonists/therapeutic use , Histamine Antagonists/administration & dosage , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Injections, Intramuscular