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JAMA Neurol ; 80(9): 891-902, 2023 Sep 01.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37399040

Importance: It remains unclear why lesions in some locations cause epilepsy while others do not. Identifying the brain regions or networks associated with epilepsy by mapping these lesions could inform prognosis and guide interventions. Objective: To assess whether lesion locations associated with epilepsy map to specific brain regions and networks. Design, Setting, and Participants: This case-control study used lesion location and lesion network mapping to identify the brain regions and networks associated with epilepsy in a discovery data set of patients with poststroke epilepsy and control patients with stroke. Patients with stroke lesions and epilepsy (n = 76) or no epilepsy (n = 625) were included. Generalizability to other lesion types was assessed using 4 independent cohorts as validation data sets. The total numbers of patients across all datasets (both discovery and validation datasets) were 347 with epilepsy and 1126 without. Therapeutic relevance was assessed using deep brain stimulation sites that improve seizure control. Data were analyzed from September 2018 through December 2022. All shared patient data were analyzed and included; no patients were excluded. Main Outcomes and Measures: Epilepsy or no epilepsy. Results: Lesion locations from 76 patients with poststroke epilepsy (39 [51%] male; mean [SD] age, 61.0 [14.6] years; mean [SD] follow-up, 6.7 [2.0] years) and 625 control patients with stroke (366 [59%] male; mean [SD] age, 62.0 [14.1] years; follow-up range, 3-12 months) were included in the discovery data set. Lesions associated with epilepsy occurred in multiple heterogenous locations spanning different lobes and vascular territories. However, these same lesion locations were part of a specific brain network defined by functional connectivity to the basal ganglia and cerebellum. Findings were validated in 4 independent cohorts including 772 patients with brain lesions (271 [35%] with epilepsy; 515 [67%] male; median [IQR] age, 60 [50-70] years; follow-up range, 3-35 years). Lesion connectivity to this brain network was associated with increased risk of epilepsy after stroke (odds ratio [OR], 2.82; 95% CI, 2.02-4.10; P < .001) and across different lesion types (OR, 2.85; 95% CI, 2.23-3.69; P < .001). Deep brain stimulation site connectivity to this same network was associated with improved seizure control (r, 0.63; P < .001) in 30 patients with drug-resistant epilepsy (21 [70%] male; median [IQR] age, 39 [32-46] years; median [IQR] follow-up, 24 [16-30] months). Conclusions and Relevance: The findings in this study indicate that lesion-related epilepsy mapped to a human brain network, which could help identify patients at risk of epilepsy after a brain lesion and guide brain stimulation therapies.

Epilepsy , Stroke , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Adult , Female , Case-Control Studies , Brain/pathology , Epilepsy/etiology , Epilepsy/pathology , Seizures/physiopathology , Stroke/physiopathology
An. pediatr. (2003. Ed. impr.) ; 99(1): 44-53, jul. 2023. tab, ilus
Article Es | IBECS | ID: ibc-223110

El ictus arterial isquémico infantil es una patología mucho menos conocida que en adultos debido a su menor frecuencia y a su diferente etiología. Sin embargo, es también una patología grave con una alta incidencia de secuelas severas y perennes, que sobrepasan el 50% de los casos. El manejo agudo del ictus arterial isquémico pediátrico posnatal (IAIPP) ha cambiado drásticamente en los últimos años, fundamentalmente en lo referente a los tratamientos de recanalización (trombólisis y terapias endovasculares). Estos tratamientos, que antes no se recomendaban en la edad infantil, se están afianzando cada vez más en la práctica diaria. Aunque los estudios realizados en niños no tienen un grado de evidencia alto por ser retrospectivos y porque el número de casos es bajo, soportan la idea de que dichos tratamientos son igual de seguros y eficaces que en los adultos siempre que se realicen con unos criterios de inclusión y exclusión determinados y dentro de un tiempo determinado desde el inicio de los síntomas (ventana terapéutica). En este artículo se revisa, a la luz de los conocimientos actuales, el manejo agudo del IAIPP. Debido a que la eficacia de estos tratamientos está íntimamente ligada al inicio precoz de los mismos, es necesaria la existencia de un código ictus infantil como ampliación del código ictus que se aplica a los adultos. Ha empezado a implantarse en España desde el año 2019 aunque todavía hay importantes zonas del país donde aún no se aplica. (AU)

In children, arterial ischemic stroke is a much less understood disease compared to in adults due to its lower frequency and different aetiology. However, it is also a serious disease, with a high incidence of severe and permanent sequelae that exceeds 50% of total cases. The acute management of postnatal arterial ischaemic stroke (MNAIS) has changed drastically in recent years, chiefly on account of recanalization treatments (thrombolysis and endovascular therapies). These treatments, which used to not be recommended in childhood, are increasingly implemented in everyday clinical practice. Although the evidence from studies carried out in children is not of high quality due to their retrospective design and the small number of reported cases, they support the hypothesis that these treatments are as safe and effective as they are in adults as long as appropriate eligibility criteria are applied and they are used within a certain time from the onset of symptoms (therapeutic window). This article reviews the MNAIS based on the current scientific evidence. Since the efficacy of these treatments is highly dependent on their early initiation, a paediatric stroke code needs to be in place as an extension of the stroke code applied to adults. It has started to be introduced in Spain since 2019, although there are still large areas of the country where it has yet to be applied. (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Stroke/diagnostic imaging , Stroke/drug therapy , Stroke/physiopathology , Stroke/therapy , Pediatrics , Thrombectomy , Neuroprotection , Brain Ischemia , Thrombolytic Therapy
JAMA Neurol ; 80(4): 342-351, 2023 04 01.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36822187

Importance: For walking rehabilitation after stroke, training intensity and duration are critical dosing parameters that lack optimization. Objective: To assess the optimal training intensity (vigorous vs moderate) and minimum training duration (4, 8, or 12 weeks) needed to maximize immediate improvement in walking capacity in patients with chronic stroke. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multicenter randomized clinical trial using an intent-to-treat analysis was conducted from January 2019 to April 2022 at rehabilitation and exercise research laboratories. Survivors of a single stroke who were aged 40 to 80 years and had persistent walking limitations 6 months or more after the stroke were enrolled. Interventions: Participants were randomized 1:1 to high-intensity interval training (HIIT) or moderate-intensity aerobic training (MAT), each involving 45 minutes of walking practice 3 times per week for 12 weeks. The HIIT protocol used repeated 30-second bursts of walking at maximum safe speed, alternated with 30- to 60-second rest periods, targeting a mean aerobic intensity above 60% of the heart rate reserve (HRR). The MAT protocol used continuous walking with speed adjusted to maintain an initial target of 40% of the HRR, progressing up to 60% of the HRR as tolerated. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome was 6-minute walk test distance. Outcomes were assessed by blinded raters after 4, 8, and 12 weeks of training. Results: Of 55 participants (mean [SD] age, 63 [10] years; 36 male [65.5%]), 27 were randomized to HIIT and 28 to MAT. The mean (SD) time since stroke was 2.5 (1.3) years, and mean (SD) 6-minute walk test distance at baseline was 239 (132) m. Participants attended 1675 of 1980 planned treatment visits (84.6%) and 197 of 220 planned testing visits (89.5%). No serious adverse events related to study procedures occurred. Groups had similar 6-minute walk test distance changes after 4 weeks (HIIT, 27 m [95% CI, 6-48 m]; MAT, 12 m [95% CI, -9 to 33 m]; mean difference, 15 m [95% CI, -13 to 42 m]; P = .28), but HIIT elicited greater gains after 8 weeks (58 m [95% CI, 39-76 m] vs 29 m [95% CI, 9-48 m]; mean difference, 29 m [95% CI, 5-54 m]; P = .02) and 12 weeks (71 m [95% CI, 49-94 m] vs 27 m [95% CI, 3-50 m]; mean difference, 44 m [95% CI, 14-74 m]; P = .005) of training; HIIT also showed greater improvements than MAT on some secondary measures of gait speed and fatigue. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings show proof of concept that vigorous training intensity is a critical dosing parameter for walking rehabilitation. In patients with chronic stroke, vigorous walking exercise produced significant and meaningful gains in walking capacity with only 4 weeks of training, but at least 12 weeks were needed to maximize immediate gains. Trial Registration: Identifier: NCT03760016.

Stroke Rehabilitation , Stroke , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Stroke Rehabilitation/methods , Exercise Therapy/methods , Stroke/complications , Stroke/physiopathology , Walking/physiology , Exercise
Clin Neurophysiol ; 148: 97-108, 2023 04.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36526534

OBJECTIVE: Post-stroke delirium (PSD) is a frequent and with regard to outcome unfavorable complication in acute stroke. The neurobiological mechanisms predisposing to PSD remain poorly understood, and biomarkers predicting its risk have not been established. We tested the hypothesis that hypoexcitable or disconnected brain networks predispose to PSD by measuring brain reactivity to transcranial magnetic stimulation with electroencephalography (TMS-EEG). METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study in 33 acute stroke patients within 48 hours of stroke onset. Brain reactivity to single-pulse TMS of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, primary motor cortex and superior parietal lobule of the right hemisphere was quantified by response intensity, effective connectivity, perturbational complexity index (PCIST), and natural frequency of the TMS-EEG response. PSD development was clinically tracked every 8 hours before and for 7 days following TMS-EEG. RESULTS: Fourteen patients developed PSD while 19 patients did not. The PSD group showed lower excitability, effective connectivity, PCIST and natural frequency compared to the non-PSD group. The maximum PCIST over all three TMS sites demonstrated largest classification accuracy with a ROC-AUC of 0.943. This effect was independent of lesion size, affected hemisphere and stroke severity. Maximum PCIST and maximum natural frequency correlated inversely with delirium duration. CONCLUSIONS: Brain reactivity to TMS-EEG can unravel brain network states of reduced excitability, effective connectivity, perturbational complexity and natural frequency that identify acute stroke patients at high risk for development of delirium. SIGNIFICANCE: Findings provide novel insight into the pathophysiology of pre-delirium brain states and may promote effective delirium prevention strategies in those patients at high risk.

Cerebral Cortex , Delirium , Electroencephalography , Stroke , Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Delirium/etiology , Stroke/complications , Stroke/physiopathology , Cerebral Cortex/physiopathology , Risk
Rev. neurol. (Ed. impr.) ; 75(9): 283-293, Nov 1, 2022. ilus, tab
Article Es | IBECS | ID: ibc-211699

Introducción: La enfermedad cerebrovascular es una de las principales causas de muerte, discapacidad y demencia en el mundo. La forma más frecuente de la enfermedad, el ictus isquémico, sólo tiene un fármaco disponible, el activador tisular del plasminógeno, y pocos pacientes pueden beneficiarse de esta terapia por los estrictos criterios de inclusión establecidos para su uso. Esta circunstancia hace crucial la búsqueda de nuevas formas de tratamiento para combatir las secuelas de la enfermedad, y para ello es necesario el desarrollo de nuevos modelos biomiméticos que permitan conocer mejor su evolución. Desarrollo: En esta revisión, actualizamos las plataformas y modelos más utilizados en los últimos años para estudiar la fisiopatología del ictus isquémico. Por un lado, repasamos las plataformas bi- y tridimensionales sobre las que se llevan a cabo los ensayos in vitro y, por otro lado, describimos los modelos experimentales in vivo más utilizados en la actualidad, así como las técnicas para evaluar el daño isquémico. Conclusiones: El desarrollo de buenos modelos experimentales tiene como fin último encontrar nuevas formas de tratamiento y, de esta manera, mejorar el pronóstico y la calidad de vida de los pacientes; por ello, es importante generar nuevos dispositivos in vitro y refinar más aún los modelos in vivo para hacer posible una buena traslación a la clínica.(AU)

Introduction: Cerebrovascular disease is one of the leading causes of death, disability and dementia around the world. For the most common form of the disease, ischaemic stroke, there is only one drug available, tissue plasminogen activator, and few patients can benefit from this therapy because of the strict inclusion criteria established for its use. This circumstance makes it crucial to search for new forms of treatment to combat the sequelae of the disease, and this requires the development of new biomimetic models that allow for a better understanding of its evolution. Development: In this review, we update the platforms and models most widely used in recent years to study the pathophysiology of ischaemic stroke. On the one hand, we review the two- and three-dimensional platforms on which in vitro assays are carried out and, on the other, we describe the most commonly used in vivo experimental models and techniques for assessing ischaemic damage. Conclusions: The ultimate aim of developing good experimental models is to find new forms of treatment and thus improve patients’ prognosis and quality of life. It is therefore important to generate new in vitro devices and to further refine in vivo models to enable a good clinical translation.(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Stroke , In Vitro Techniques , Tissue Plasminogen Activator , Stroke/physiopathology , Cell- and Tissue-Based Therapy , Neurology , Nervous System Diseases
Int J Neural Syst ; 32(9): 2250039, 2022 Sep.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35881016

The motor imagery brain-computer interface (MI-BCI) system is currently one of the most advanced rehabilitation technologies, and it can be used to restore the motor function of stroke patients. The deep learning algorithms in the MI-BCI system require lots of training samples, but the electroencephalogram (EEG) data of stroke patients is quite scarce. Therefore, the expansion of EEG data has become an important part of stroke clinical rehabilitation research. In this paper, a deep convolution generative adversarial network (DCGAN) model is proposed to generate artificial EEG data and further expand the scale of the stroke dataset. First, multichannel one-dimensional EEG data is converted into a two-dimensional EEG spectrogram using EEG2Image based on the modified S-transform. Then, DCGAN is used to artificially generate EEG data based on MI. Finally, the validity of the generated artificial EEG data is proved. This paper preliminarily indicates that generating artificial stroke data is a promising strategy, which contributes to the further development of stroke clinical rehabilitation.

Brain-Computer Interfaces , Stroke Rehabilitation , Stroke/physiopathology , Algorithms , Deep Learning , Electroencephalography/methods , Humans , Imagination , Stroke/complications , Stroke Rehabilitation/instrumentation , Stroke Rehabilitation/methods
Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue Za Zhi ; 39(3): 498-506, 2022 Jun 25.
Article Zh | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35788519

Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) has become a new method of post-stroke rehabilitation treatment and is gradually accepted by people. However, the neurophysiological mechanism of tDCS in the treatment of stroke still needs further study. In this study, we recruited 30 stroke patients with damage to the left side of the brain and randomly divided them into a real tDCS group (15 cases) and a sham tDCS group (15 cases). The resting EEG signals of the two groups of subjects before and after stimulation were collected, then the difference of power spectral density was analyzed and compared in the band of delta, theta, alpha and beta, and the delta/alpha power ratio (DAR) was calculated. The results showed that after real tDCS, delta band energy decreased significantly in the left temporal lobes, and the difference was statistically significant ( P < 0.05); alpha band energy enhanced significantly in the occipital lobes, and the difference was statistically significant ( P < 0.05); the difference of theta and beta band energy was not statistically significant in the whole brain region ( P > 0.05). Furthermore, the difference of delta, theta, alpha and beta band energy was not statistically significant after sham tDCS ( P > 0.05). On the other hand, the DAR value of stroke patients decreased significantly after real tDCS, and the difference was statistically significant ( P < 0.05), and there was no significant difference in sham tDCS ( P > 0.05). This study reveals to a certain extent the neurophysiological mechanism of tDCS in the treatment of stroke.

Brain Waves , Brain , Electroencephalography , Stroke Rehabilitation , Stroke , Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation , Brain/physiology , Brain/physiopathology , Brain Waves/physiology , Electroencephalography/methods , Humans , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/physiopathology , Stroke/therapy , Stroke Rehabilitation/methods , Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation/methods
JAMA ; 327(19): 1899-1909, 2022 05 17.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35506515

Importance: Many patients with severe stroke have impaired airway protective reflexes, resulting in prolonged invasive mechanical ventilation. Objective: To test whether early vs standard tracheostomy improved functional outcome among patients with stroke receiving mechanical ventilation. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this randomized clinical trial, 382 patients with severe acute ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke receiving invasive ventilation were randomly assigned (1:1) to early tracheostomy (≤5 days of intubation) or ongoing ventilator weaning with standard tracheostomy if needed from day 10. Patients were randomized between July 28, 2015, and January 24, 2020, at 26 US and German neurocritical care centers. The final date of follow-up was August 9, 2020. Interventions: Patients were assigned to an early tracheostomy strategy (n = 188) or to a standard tracheostomy (control group) strategy (n = 194). Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was functional outcome at 6 months, based on the modified Rankin Scale score (range, 0 [best] to 6 [worst]) dichotomized to a score of 0 (no disability) to 4 (moderately severe disability) vs 5 (severe disability) or 6 (death). Results: Among 382 patients randomized (median age, 59 years; 49.8% women), 366 (95.8%) completed the trial with available follow-up data on the primary outcome (177 patients [94.1%] in the early group; 189 patients [97.4%] in the standard group). A tracheostomy (predominantly percutaneously) was performed in 95.2% of the early tracheostomy group in a median of 4 days after intubation (IQR, 3-4 days) and in 67% of the control group in a median of 11 days after intubation (IQR, 10-12 days). The proportion without severe disability (modified Rankin Scale score, 0-4) at 6 months was not significantly different in the early tracheostomy vs the control group (43.5% vs 47.1%; difference, -3.6% [95% CI, -14.3% to 7.2%]; adjusted odds ratio, 0.93 [95% CI, 0.60-1.42]; P = .73). Of the serious adverse events, 5.0% (6 of 121 reported events) in the early tracheostomy group vs 3.4% (4 of 118 reported events) were related to tracheostomy. Conclusions and Relevance: Among patients with severe stroke receiving mechanical ventilation, a strategy of early tracheostomy, compared with a standard approach to tracheostomy, did not significantly improve the rate of survival without severe disability at 6 months. However, the wide confidence intervals around the effect estimate may include a clinically important difference, so a clinically relevant benefit or harm from a strategy of early tracheostomy cannot be excluded. Trial Registration: Identifier: NCT02377167.

Reflex, Abnormal , Respiration, Artificial , Respiratory Tract Diseases , Stroke , Tracheostomy , Airway Management , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Recovery of Function , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Tract Diseases/etiology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/physiopathology , Respiratory Tract Diseases/therapy , Stroke/complications , Stroke/physiopathology , Stroke/therapy , Time Factors , Tracheostomy/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome , Ventilator Weaning/methods
Physiotherapy ; 116: 1-8, 2022 09.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35462214

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of local vibration applied to the plantar region of the foot on static and dynamic balance in stroke patients. DESIGN: Randomised, controlled trial. SETTING: Inpatient. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty patients with stroke were randomised equally to the vibration and control groups. INTERVENTION: The control group underwent conventional physical therapy (CPT) for 4 weeks. The vibration group underwent local vibration therapy at a frequency of 80Hz and CPT for 4 weeks. OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome measure was the Overall Stability Index (OSI). The secondary outcome measures were: the Anteroposterior Stability Index, Mediolateral Stability Index, fall risk, Berg Balance Scale, Functional Reach Test (FRT), and Timed Up and Go Test (TUG) to assess balance; the Trunk Impairment Scale to measure trunk function; and the 10-m Walk Test (10MWT) to measure walking speed. RESULTS: Participants receiving plantar vibration experienced greater improvements in static and dynamic balance assessments compared with participants in the control group. The mean change in OSI score between baseline and 4 weeks was 0.8 [standard deviation (SD) 0.8] for the vibration group and 0.02 (SD 0.6) for the control group [mean difference 0.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.1 to 0.7]. The median change in fall risk score was 0.7 [interquartile range (IQR) 0.4 to 1.4] for the vibration group and 0.1 (IQR -0.1 to 0.6) for the control group (median difference 0.5, 95% CI 0.2 to 0.7). The median change in TUG time was 4 (IQR 1 to 7) seconds for the vibration group and 4 (IQR 0 to 2) seconds for the control group (median difference 2.5, 95% CI 1.5 to 3.5). CONCLUSION: These findings suggest that plantar vibration is useful in stroke patients. Plantar vibration can be applied to support CPT. GOV REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03784768.

Foot/physiology , Postural Balance , Stroke Rehabilitation/methods , Stroke/physiopathology , Exercise Therapy , Humans , Physical Therapy Modalities , Vibration/therapeutic use
Comput Math Methods Med ; 2022: 4581248, 2022.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35242206

BACKGROUND: Stroke is a common cerebrovascular disease among the middle-aged and elderly, which can lead to a series of neurological disorders. Acupuncture is an important part of traditional Chinese medicine, with great value in improving the neurological deficits of stroke patients. In addition, rehabilitation therapy is also of great significance for alleviating the neurological deficits of patients and improving their activities of daily living. OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of acupuncture and moxibustion combined with rehabilitation therapy on the recovery of neurological function and prognosis of stroke patients. METHODS: The case data of 100 stroke patients treated in the Wuhan Hospital of Traditional Chinese Medicine from January 2019 to July 2021 were analyzed retrospectively. According to the treatment plan patients received, they were divided into the following two groups: an observation group (n = 52) treated with acupuncture combined with rehabilitation therapy and a control group (n = 48) treated with rehabilitation therapy alone. The two groups were compared in terms of the following items: therapeutic efficacy, plasma levels of cortisol (Cor) and neuropeptide Y (NPY), nerve function, motor function, balance ability, self-care ability, swallowing function, negative emotions, and quality of life. RESULTS: The therapeutic effect of the observation group was significantly higher than that of the control group (P < 0.05). The levels of Cor and NPY, as well as the neurological function, motor function, balance ability, self-care ability, swallowing function, and negative emotions, were not significantly different between the two groups before treatment (P > 0.05). While after intervention, all the above indexes improved in both groups, with better improvements in the observation group compared with the control group (P < 0.05). And the various dimensions concerning the quality of life of patients were also significantly better in the observation group when compared with the control group. CONCLUSION: Acupuncture of traditional Chinese medicine combined with rehabilitation therapy has outstanding effects in stroke treatment and can effectively improve the neurological function, prognosis, and quality of life of patients, which is worthy of clinical promotion.

Acupuncture Therapy , Stroke Rehabilitation/methods , Stroke/surgery , Activities of Daily Living , Acupuncture Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Aged , Combined Modality Therapy , Computational Biology , Female , Humans , Male , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Quality of Life , Recovery of Function , Retrospective Studies , Stroke/physiopathology , Stroke Rehabilitation/statistics & numerical data , Treatment Outcome
J Cardiovasc Pharmacol Ther ; 27: 10742484221078973, 2022.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35200057

BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common arrhythmia to appear in clinical practice. People with AF have 5 times the risk of stroke compared to the general population. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of AF in people over the age of 50 without known AF, who presented to a community pharmacy to check their cardiovascular risk factors, to identify risk factors associated with AF, and to assess the risk of stroke in people who screened positive for AF. METHODS: A multicenter observational descriptive study of a screening program took place from May to December 2016. A blood pressure monitor (Microlife Watch BP Home) was used to screen for AF, and the CHA2DS2-VASc questionnaire was used to assess stroke risk. RESULTS: The study included 452 adults over the age of 50. The CRIFAFARMA study detected a prevalence of AF of 9.1%. Risk factors for AF were: age of 75 years or older (P = .024), lack of physical activity (P = .043), diabetes (P < .001), dyslipidemia (P = .003), and history of cardiovascular disease (P = .003). Diabetes (OR 2.79, P = .005) and dyslipidemia (OR 2.16, P = .031) had a combined explanatory capacity in the multivariable logistic regression model adjusted for age. 85% were at high risk of stroke according to the CHA2DS2-VASc scale. CONCLUSIONS: AF was detected in more than 9% of the included population. Factors associated with AF were advanced age, lack of physical activity, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and history of cardiovascular disease, with diabetes and dyslipidemia standing out as the factors with independent explanatory capacity.

Atrial Fibrillation/diagnosis , Atrial Fibrillation/epidemiology , Blood Pressure Determination , Blood Pressure , Community Pharmacy Services , Pharmacies , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Atrial Fibrillation/physiopathology , Comorbidity , Early Diagnosis , Female , Heart Disease Risk Factors , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Prevalence , Risk Assessment , Sedentary Behavior , Spain/epidemiology , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/epidemiology , Stroke/physiopathology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Time Factors
Stroke ; 53(3): 719-727, 2022 03.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35109685

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To assess the association between systolic blood pressure change (ΔSBP) at different time intervals after successful reperfusion with radiographic and clinical outcomes. METHODS: This is a post hoc analysis of the BP-TARGET multicenter trial (Blood Pressure Target in Acute Stroke to Reduce Hemorrhage After Endovascular Therapy). ΔSBP was defined as end of procedure SBP minus mean SBP at different time intervals (15-60 minutes, 1-6 hours, and 6-24 hours postprocedure). The primary outcome was the poor functional outcome (90-day modified Rankin Scale score 3-6). RESULTS: We included a total of 267 patients (130 in the intensive treatment group). Compared with patients with favorable outcome, patients with poor outcome had lower ΔSBP (less SBP reduction) at all times intervals. After adjusting for potential confounders including baseline SBP, both ΔSBP15-60M and ΔSBP6-24H were associated with lower odds of poor outcome (adjusted odds ratio per 5 mm Hg SBP reduction, 0.89 [95% CI, 0.81-0.99], and adjusted odds ratio 0.82 [95% CI, 0.73-0.92], respectively). Concerning safety outcomes, patients with intraparenchymal hemorrhage had lower ΔSBP at all time intervals. ΔSBP15-60M was associated with lower odds of any intraparenchymal hemorrhage (adjusted odds ratio per 5 mm Hg SBP reduction 0.91 [95% CI, 0.83-0.99]). Conversely, ΔSBP was not associated with mortality or neurological deterioration at any time interval. CONCLUSIONS: After successful reperfusion, ΔSBP had a linear relationship with poor outcome and the risk of poor outcome was higher with less reduction from the baseline SBP. Registration: URL:; Unique identifier: NCT03160677.

Blood Pressure , Cerebral Hemorrhage , Endovascular Procedures , Stroke , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cerebral Hemorrhage/genetics , Cerebral Hemorrhage/physiopathology , Cerebral Hemorrhage/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Male , Reperfusion , Risk Factors , Stroke/complications , Stroke/physiopathology , Stroke/therapy
Neural Plast ; 2022: 7399995, 2022.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35111219

Background: Impaired cognitive ability to anticipate the required control for an upcoming task in patients with stroke may affect rehabilitation outcome. The cortical excitability of task-related motor anticipation for upper limb movement induced by virtual reality (VR) training remains unclear. Aims: To investigate the effect of VR training on the cortical excitability of motor anticipation when executing upper limb movement in patients with subacute stroke. Methods: A total of thirty-six stroke survivors with upper limb hemiparesis resulting from the first occurrence of stroke within 1 to 3 months were recruited. Participants were randomly allocated to the VR intervention group or conventional therapy group. Event-related potentials (ERPs) and electromyography (EMG) were used to simultaneously record the cortical excitability and muscle activities during palmar grasp motion. Outcome measures of the contingent negative variation (CNV) latency and amplitude, EMG reaction time, Upper Limb Fugl-Meyer Assessment (UL-FMA), Action Research Arm Test (ARAT), and National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) were recorded pre- and postintervention. The between-group difference was analysed by mixed model ANOVA. Results: The EMG onset time of the paretic hand in the VR group was earlier than that observed in the control group (t = 2.174, p = 0.039) postintervention. CNV latency reduction postintervention was larger in the VR group than in the control group (t = 2.411, p = 0.021) during paretic hand movement. The reduction in CNV amplitude in the VR group was larger in the VR group than in the control group (p < 0.001 for all electrodes except for C3) when executing paretic hand movement. ARAT and UL-FMA scores were significantly higher in the VR group than in the control group (p = 0.019 and p = 0.037, respectively) postintervention. No significant difference in the reduction in NIHSS was found between the VR and control groups (p = 0.072). Conclusions: VR intervention is superior to conventional therapy to improve the cognitive neural process of motor anticipation and reduce the excessive compensatory activation of the contralesional hemisphere. The improvements observed in the cognitive neural process corroborated with the improvements in hand function.

Evoked Potentials/physiology , Hand/physiopathology , Recovery of Function/physiology , Stroke/physiopathology , Virtual Reality , Aged , Electromyography , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Single-Blind Method , Stroke Rehabilitation/methods , Treatment Outcome , Upper Extremity/physiopathology
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263662, 2022.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35139128

It is known that resistance exercise using one limb can affect motor function of both the exercised limb and the unexercised contralateral limb, a phenomenon termed cross-education. It has been suggested that cross-education has clinical implications, e.g. in rehabilitation for orthopaedic conditions or post-stroke paresis. Much of the research on the contralateral effect of unilateral intervention on motor output is based on voluntary exercise. This scoping review aimed to map the characteristics of current literature on the cross-education caused by three most frequently utilised peripheral neuromuscular stimulation modalities in this context: electrical stimulation, mechanical vibration and percutaneous needling, that may direct future research and translate to clinical practice. A systematic search of relevant databases (Ebsco, ProQuest, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science) through to the end of 2020 was conducted following the PRISMA Extension for Scoping Review. Empirical studies on human participants that applied a unilateral peripheral neuromuscular stimulation and assessed neuromuscular function of the stimulated and/or the unstimulated side were selected. By reading the full text, the demographic characteristics, context, design, methods and major findings of the studies were synthesised. The results found that 83 studies were eligible for the review, with the majority (53) utilised electrical stimulation whilst those applied vibration (18) or needling (12) were emerging. Although the contralateral effects appeared to be robust, only 31 studies claimed to be in the context of cross-education, and 25 investigated on clinical patients. The underlying mechanism for the contralateral effects induced by unilateral peripheral stimulation remains unclear. The findings suggest a need to enhance the awareness of cross-education caused by peripheral stimulation, to help improve the translation of theoretical concepts to clinical practice, and aid in developing well-designed clinical trials to determine the efficacy of cross-education therapies.

Electric Stimulation Therapy , Musculoskeletal Physiological Phenomena , Stroke Rehabilitation/methods , Electric Stimulation Therapy/methods , Humans , Neuromuscular Diseases/etiology , Neuromuscular Diseases/physiopathology , Neuromuscular Diseases/therapy , Paresis/etiology , Paresis/physiopathology , Paresis/therapy , Peripheral Nerves/physiopathology , Physical Therapy Modalities , Stroke/complications , Stroke/physiopathology , Stroke/therapy
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 1868, 2022 02 03.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35115543

Many individuals with stroke experience upper-limb motor deficits, and a recent trend is to develop novel devices for enhancing their motor function. This study aimed to develop a new upper-limb rehabilitation system with the integration of two rehabilitation therapies into one system, digital mirror therapy (MT) and action observation therapy (AOT), and to test the usability of this system. In the part I study, the new system was designed to operate in multiple training modes of digital MT (i.e., unilateral and bilateral modes) and AOT (i.e., pre-recorded and self-recorded videos) with self-developed software. In the part II study, 4 certified occupational therapists and 10 stroke patients were recruited for evaluating usability. The System Usability Scale (SUS) (maximum score = 100) and a self-designed questionnaire (maximum score = 50) were used. The mean scores of the SUS were 79.38 and 80.00, and those of the self-designed questionnaire were 41.00 and 42.80, respectively, for the therapists and patients after using this system, which indicated good usability and user experiences. This novel upper-limb rehabilitation system with good usability might be further used to increase the delivery of two emerging rehabilitation therapies, digital AOT and MT, to individuals with stroke.

Arm/innervation , Hand/innervation , Mirror Movement Therapy/instrumentation , Motor Activity , Stroke Rehabilitation/instrumentation , Stroke/therapy , Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disability Evaluation , Female , Humans , Imitative Behavior , Male , Middle Aged , Mirror Neurons , Patient Satisfaction , Recovery of Function , Software , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/physiopathology , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , User-Computer Interface , Video Recording
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263613, 2022.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35120178

In post-stroke patients, muscle synergy (the coordination of motor modules during walking) is impaired. In some patients, the muscle synergy termed module 1 (hip/knee extensors) is merged with module 2 (ankle plantar flexors), and in other cases, module 1 is merged with module 4 (knee flexors). However, post-stroke individuals with a merging pattern of module 3 (hip flexor and ankle dorsiflexor) and module 4, which is the swing-muscle synergy, have not been reported. This study aimed to determine the muscle-synergy merging subtypes of post-stroke during comfortable walking speed (cws). We also examined the effect of experimental lower-limb angle modulation on the muscle synergy patterns of walking in each subtype. Forty-one participants were assessed under three conditions: cws, long stepping on the paretic side (p-long), and long stepping on the non-paretic side (np-long). Lower-limb flexion and extension angles and the electromyogram were measured during walking. Subtype classification was based on the merging pattern of the muscle synergies, and we examined the effect of different lower-limb angles on the muscle synergies. We identified three merging subtypes: module 1 with module 2 (subtype 1), module 1 with module 4 (subtype 2), and module 3 with module 4 (subtype 3). In the cws condition, the lower-limb flexion angle was reduced in subtype 3, and the lower-limb extension angle was decreased in subtype 1. A more complex muscle synergy was observed only in subtype 3 in the p-long condition versus cws (p = 0.036). This subtype classification of walking impairments based on the merging pattern of the muscle synergies could be useful for the selection of a rehabilitation strategy according to the individual's particular neurological condition. Rehabilitation with increased lower-limb flexion may be effective for the training of patients with merging of modules 3 and 4 in comfortable walking.

Gait/physiology , Muscle, Skeletal/physiology , Stroke Rehabilitation/methods , Stroke/physiopathology , Walking , Aged , Electromyography , Female , Gait Disorders, Neurologic , Humans , Leg , Lower Extremity , Male , Middle Aged , Movement
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 3163, 2022 02 24.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35210531

Anterior circulation stroke (ACS) differs from posterior circulation stroke (PCS) in many ways, but it remains unclear whether there is any difference in early neurological deterioration (END) in two stroke territories. We compared post-thrombolytic END between ACS and PCS based on the data from INTRECIS. We screened patients receiving intravenous 0.9 mg/kg alteplase within 4.5 h in the INTRECIS cohort. According to stroke territory, patients were divided into ACS and PCS groups. The primary outcome was incidence of END, which was defined as an increase in NIHSS score ≥ 4 or death within 24 h from baseline. The secondary outcomes were associated factors of END and 90-day modified Rankin Scale (mRS) distribution. Overall, 1194 patients were enrolled in this study: 942 in ACS group and 252 in PCS group. There was no significant difference in the incidence of END between two groups (3.8% vs 5.2%, adjusted p = 0.406). Atrial fibrillation (adjusted p = 0.012) and TOAST classification (adjusted p = 0.009) were associated with END in ACS, while hypertension history (adjusted p = 0.046) and baseline NIHSS score (adjusted p = 0.011) with END in PCS. END was associated with worse outcome on 90-day mRS in ACS and PCS (adjusted p < 0.001). Based on a prospective nationwide cohort, we provided first report for similar incidence, but different risk factors of post-thrombolytic END in ACS vs PCS patients.Trial Registration-URL: ; Unique identifier: NCT02854592.

Brain Ischemia/physiopathology , Fibrinolysis , Stroke/physiopathology , Tissue Plasminogen Activator/therapeutic use , Aged , Brain Ischemia/drug therapy , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Female , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Stroke/drug therapy , Thrombolytic Therapy/methods , Treatment Outcome