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Braz Oral Res ; 38: e036, 2024.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38747823

This study aimed to evaluate in vitro the effect protocols and anticaries agents containing casein amorphous calcium fluoride phosphopeptide-phosphate (CPP-ACPF, MI Paste Plus), sodium trimetaphosphate (TMP) and fluoride (F), in remineralization of caries lesions. Bovine enamel blocks with initial caries lesions were divided into groups (n = 12): 1) Toothpaste without F-TMP-MI Plus (Placebo); 2) Toothpaste 1100 ppm F (1100F), 3) 1100F + MI Paste Plus (1100F-MI Paste Plus), 4) Toothpaste with 1100F + Neutral gel with 4,500 ppm F + 5%TMP (1100F + Gel TMP) and 5) Toothpaste with 1100F + Neutral gel with 9,000 ppm F (1100F + Gel F). For the 4 and 5 groups the gel was applied only once for 1 minute, initially to the study. For the 3 group, after treatment with 1100F, MI Paste Plus was applied 2x/day for 3 minute. After pH cycling, the percentage of surface hardness recovery (%SHR); integrated loss of subsurface hardness (ΔKHN); profile and depth of the subsuperficial lesion (PLM); concentrations of F, calcium (Ca) and phosphorus (P) in enamel was determined. The data were analyzed by ANOVA (1-criterion) and Student-Newman-Keuls test (p < 0.001). Treatment with 1100F alone led to ~ 28% higher remineralization when compared to treatment with 1100F associated with MI Paste Plus (p < 0.001). The 1100F and 1100F + Gel F groups showed similar values for %SHR (p = 0.150). 1100F + Gel TMP treatment also remineralized the enamel surface by ~ 30% and 20% when compared to the 1100F + Gel F and 1100F groups (p < 0.001). The lower lesion depth (ΔKHN) was observed for the 1100F + Gel TMP group (p < 0.001), where it was 54% and 44% lower in comparison to the 1100F and 1100F + Gel F groups (p < 0.001). Polarized light microscopy photomicrographs showed subsurface lesions in all groups, but these lesions were present to a lower extent in the 1100F + Gel TMP group (p < 0.001). Treatment with 1100F + Gel TMP promoted an increase in the concentration of Ca in the enamel by ~ 57% and ~ 26% when compared to the 1100F and 1100F + MI Paste Plus groups (p < 0.001), respectively. There were no significant differences between the 1100F, 1100F + MI Paste Plus and 1100F + Gel F groups (p > 0.001). Similar values of P in the enamel were observed in the 1100F, 1100F + MI Paste Plus and 1100F + Gel F groups (p > 0.001), except for the 1100F + Gel TMP group, which presented a high concentration (p < 0.001). We conclude that the 1100F+TMP gel treatment/protocol led to a significant increased remineralization when compared to the other treatments/protocols and may be a promising strategy for patients with early caries lesions.

Cariostatic Agents , Caseins , Dental Enamel , Fluorides , Tooth Remineralization , Caseins/pharmacology , Caseins/therapeutic use , Tooth Remineralization/methods , Cattle , Animals , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Cariostatic Agents/pharmacology , Fluorides/pharmacology , Time Factors , Toothpastes/chemistry , Dental Caries/drug therapy , Analysis of Variance , Reproducibility of Results , Polyphosphates/pharmacology , Polyphosphates/chemistry , Polyphosphates/therapeutic use , Hardness Tests , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Surface Properties/drug effects , Materials Testing , Treatment Outcome , Reference Values , Hardness/drug effects , Phosphates
BMC Oral Health ; 24(1): 534, 2024 May 09.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38724990

OBJECTIVES: The objectives of this study were to evaluate the cost-effectiveness and cost-benefit of fluoride varnish (FV) interventions for preventing caries in the first permanent molars (FPMs) among children in rural areas in Guangxi, China. METHODS: This study constituted a secondary analysis of data from a randomised controlled trial, analysed from a social perspective. A total of 1,335 children aged 6-8 years in remote rural areas of Guangxi were enrolled in this three-year follow-up controlled study. Children in the experimental group (EG) and the control group (CG) received oral health education and were provided with a toothbrush and toothpaste once every six months. Additionally, FV was applied in the EG. A decision tree model was developed, and single-factor and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were conducted. RESULTS: After three years of intervention, the prevalence of caries in the EG was 50.85%, with an average decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT) index score of 1.12, and that in the CG was 59.04%, with a DMFT index score of 1.36. The total cost of caries intervention and postcaries treatment was 42,719.55 USD for the EG and 46,622.13 USD for the CG. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of the EG was 25.36 USD per caries prevented, and the cost-benefit ratio (CBR) was 1.74 USD benefits per 1 USD cost. The results of the sensitivity analyses showed that the increase in the average DMFT index score was the largest variable affecting the ICER and CBR. CONCLUSIONS: Compared to oral health education alone, a comprehensive intervention combining FV application with oral health education is more cost-effective and beneficial for preventing caries in the FPMs of children living in economically disadvantaged rural areas. These findings could provide a basis for policy-making and clinical choices to improve children's oral health.

Cariostatic Agents , Cost-Benefit Analysis , DMF Index , Dental Caries , Fluorides, Topical , Humans , Dental Caries/prevention & control , Dental Caries/economics , China , Fluorides, Topical/therapeutic use , Fluorides, Topical/economics , Child , Cariostatic Agents/therapeutic use , Cariostatic Agents/economics , Male , Female , Health Education, Dental/economics , Toothbrushing/economics , Toothpastes/therapeutic use , Toothpastes/economics , Follow-Up Studies , Molar , Decision Trees
Compend Contin Educ Dent ; 45(Suppl 1): 10-13, 2024 Mar.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38781411

The study objective was to evaluate the effect of two different interdental oral cleaning modalities on gingivitis and plaque following a 4-week period of home use. This was a randomized, parallel, single-blinded study. Subjects were routine manual toothbrush (MTB) users with moderate to severe gingivitis, aged 18 to 65 years. Subjects were required at baseline to have a gingival bleeding score of ≥1 on at least 50 gingival sites per the Gingival Bleeding Index (GBI) and to have an overall plaque score of ≥0.6 per the Rustogi Modified Navy Plaque Index (RMNPI) following a 3- to 6-hour plaque accumulation period. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of three groups based on the oral care cleaning modalities: (1) NON group: MTB alone, (2) IDB group: MTB plus an interdental brush, or (3) MPF group: MTB plus a Philips® Sonicare® Power Flosser with the Quad Stream nozzle. All subjects used the MTB with fluoride toothpaste. Efficacy measures (Modified Gingival Index [MGI], GBI, and RMNPI) and safety were assessed at baseline, 2 weeks, and 4 weeks. The primary efficacy endpoint was the reduction in gingival inflammation from baseline to week 4 as measured by the MGI. A total of 189 subjects were randomized and 186 completed the study. The adjusted mean percent reduction in gingival inflammation from baseline to week 4 was 2.80% for the NON group, 11.32% for the IDB group, and 20.87% for the MPF group. The differences between the MPF group and the NON and IDB groups were statistically significant (.0001). In conclusion, use of the MTB with the Philips Sonicare Power Flosser showed statistically significant benefits compared to an MTB alone and an MTB used with an interdental brush in reducing gingival inflammation following 4 weeks of home use.

Dental Devices, Home Care , Dental Plaque , Gingivitis , Periodontal Index , Toothbrushing , Humans , Gingivitis/prevention & control , Middle Aged , Adult , Dental Plaque/prevention & control , Single-Blind Method , Toothbrushing/instrumentation , Female , Male , Aged , Adolescent , Dental Plaque Index , Young Adult , Oral Hygiene/instrumentation , Oral Hygiene/methods , Toothpastes/therapeutic use
Am J Dent ; 37(2): 78-84, 2024 Apr.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38704850

PURPOSE: To evaluate how fluoride- or chitosan-based toothpaste used during at-home bleaching affects enamel roughness, tooth color, and staining susceptibility. METHODS: Bovine enamel blocks were submitted to a 14-day cycling regime considering a factorial design (bleaching agent x toothpaste, 2 x 3), with n=10: (1) bleaching with 16% carbamide peroxide (CP) or 6% hydrogen peroxide (HP), and (2) daily exposure of a fluoride (1,450 ppm F-NaF) toothpaste (FT), chitosan-based toothpaste (CBT), or distilled water (control). Then, 24 hours after the last day of bleaching procedure the samples were exposed to a coffee solution. Color (ΔEab, ΔE00, L*, a*, b*) and roughness (Ra, µm) analyses were performed to compare the samples initially (baseline), after bleaching, and after coffee staining. The results were evaluated by linear models for repeated measures (L*, a*, b*, and Ra), 2-way ANOVA (ΔEab, ΔE00) and Tukey's test (α= 0.05). RESULTS: After the at-home bleaching procedure (toothpaste vs. time, P< 0.0001), the toothpaste groups presented a statistically lower Ra than the control (CBT 0.05). After coffee exposure, CBT presented lower ΔEab and ΔE00 values in the HP groups (toothpaste, P< 0.0001), and lower b* and a* values in the CP groups (toothpaste vs. time, P= 0.004). CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Fluoride or chitosan delivered by toothpaste can reduce surface alterations of the enamel during at-home bleaching, without affecting bleaching efficacy.

Carbamide Peroxide , Chitosan , Dental Enamel , Hydrogen Peroxide , Tooth Bleaching Agents , Tooth Bleaching , Tooth Discoloration , Toothpastes , Chitosan/pharmacology , Toothpastes/pharmacology , Animals , Cattle , Tooth Bleaching/methods , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Tooth Bleaching Agents/pharmacology , Hydrogen Peroxide/pharmacology , Carbamide Peroxide/pharmacology , Surface Properties , Fluorides/pharmacology , Color , Urea/analogs & derivatives , Urea/pharmacology , Coffee , Peroxides/pharmacology
BMC Oral Health ; 24(1): 507, 2024 Apr 29.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38685035

BACKGROUND: Dentin hypersensitivity, often occurring after dental treatments or from erosive lesions, is a prevalent patient complaint. This study introduces a paste combining 8% L-arginine, calcium carbonate, and potassium nitrate to evaluate its impact on dentinal tubules occlusion, dentin permeability, and tooth sensitivity. METHODS: Dentin surfaces from 24 third molars (thickness: 2 mm) were divided into two groups of 12. One received the experimental paste, while the other received a placebo without desensitizer. Permeability and sealing ability were assessed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and dentin permeability measurement. The pastes' effects on hypersensitivity were then examined in a triple-blind, randomized parallel-armed clinical trial with 16 eligible patients. Sensitivity to cold, touch, and spontaneous stimuli was recorded using the VAS scale at various intervals post-treatment. Statistical analysis was conducted using Shapiro-Wilk, Mann-Whitney U, Friedman, and Wilcoxon tests (α = 0.05). RESULTS: The permeability test demonstrated a significant reduction in dentin permeability in the experimental group (P = 0.002) compared to the control (P = 0.178). SEM images revealed most dentinal tubules in the intervention samples to be occluded. Clinically, both groups showed a significant decrease in the three types of evaluated sensitivity throughout the study. However, no significant difference in sensitivities between the two groups was observed, with the exception of cold sensitivity at three months post-treatment (P = 0.054). CONCLUSION: The innovative desensitizing paste featuring 8% L-arginine, calcium carbonate, and potassium nitrate effectively occluded dentinal tubules and reduced dentin permeability. It mitigated immediate and prolonged dentin hypersensitivity to various stimuli, supporting its potential role in managing dentin hypersensitivity. TRIAL REGISTRATION: : IRCT20220829055822N1, September 9th, 2022.

Arginine , Calcium Carbonate , Dentin Desensitizing Agents , Dentin Sensitivity , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Nitrates , Potassium Compounds , Humans , Dentin Sensitivity/drug therapy , Arginine/therapeutic use , Calcium Carbonate/therapeutic use , Nitrates/therapeutic use , Male , Female , Potassium Compounds/therapeutic use , Dentin Desensitizing Agents/therapeutic use , Adult , Dentin Permeability/drug effects , Dentin/drug effects , Toothpastes/therapeutic use , Young Adult , Middle Aged
J Dent ; 145: 104977, 2024 Jun.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582434

OBJECTIVE: This study compared the protective effect of an experimental TiF4/Chitosan toothpaste with a commercial toothpaste on the prevention of erosive tooth wear (ETW) in situ. METHODS: Fifteen subjects took part in this crossover and double-blind study, in which they wore a palatal appliance containing 4 bovine enamel and 4 dentin in 3 phases (5 days each). Half of the samples were subjected to erosive challenges (90 s in 0.1 % citric acid, pH 2.5, 4 times/day), and the other half to erosive plus abrasive challenges (15 s plus 45 s of contact, 2 times/day). The phases corresponded to the application of the different toothpastes: 1) TiF4 (1400 ppm F-) plus Chitosan, 2) Elmex®, Erosion Protection (1400 ppm F-, Chitosan), and 3) Placebo (negative control). Tooth wear was measured using contact profilometry (µm) and submitted to two-way RM ANOVA/Tukey test (p < 0.05). RESULTS: No significant differences were detected between the experimental and commercial toothpastes, regardless of the challenge on both tissues. Both significantly reduce ETW compared to negative control (p < 0.0006). Tooth wear was increased by brushing only on eroded enamel (p < 0.01), but not on dentin (p = 0.6085). TiF4/Chitosan [erosion 2.98 ± 1.12 µm vs. erosion and abrasion 3.12 ± 1.33 µm] and Elmex® toothpastes [erosion 2.35 ± 0.93 µm vs. erosion and abrasion 2.98 ± 1.0 µm] minimized the impact of brushing compared to placebo on enamel [erosion 4.62 ± 1.48 µm vs. erosion and abrasion 5.15 ± 1.50 µm]. CONCLUSIONS: TiF4 plus chitosan toothpastes showed to be effective in minimizing the ETW as the commercial toothpaste is in situ. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: The experimental toothpaste has similar effect against ETW compared to the commercial toothpaste. Considering the increased ETW prevalence worldwide, this result supports clinical trials and a possible application of this experimental anti-erosive toothpaste in the future.

Chitosan , Cross-Over Studies , Dental Enamel , Dentin , Fluorides , Titanium , Tooth Abrasion , Tooth Erosion , Toothpastes , Chitosan/therapeutic use , Tooth Erosion/prevention & control , Toothpastes/therapeutic use , Animals , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Cattle , Dentin/drug effects , Dentin/pathology , Adult , Fluorides/therapeutic use , Tooth Abrasion/prevention & control , Young Adult , Female , Male , Citric Acid/adverse effects , Toothbrushing , Diamines
J Dent ; 145: 104989, 2024 Jun.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38582435

OBJECTIVE: To map and summarize the current scientific evidence concerning the active ingredients, effectiveness, and adverse effects of over-the-counter (OTC) bleaching products. DATA AND SOURCE: This study was conducted according to the PRISMA-ScR guidelines for scoping reviews and registered on the Open Science Framework platform. STUDY SELECTION: Database searches were conducted in PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, and Scopus up to January 2024. All in vitro, in situ, and clinical studies evaluating the effectiveness and adverse effects of OTC bleaching products were included. A descriptive analysis of the included studies was performed. RESULTS: A total of 88 studies were included. Most of them were in vitro studies (n = 49), followed by randomized clinical trials (n = 28). The main OTC bleaching products identified were whitening or stain-removing toothpastes (n = 42), followed by whitening strips (n = 39). Most clinical studies indicate that whitening strips are effective in improving tooth color and providing whitening benefits. In contrast, the bleaching effectiveness of toothpastes, mouth rinses and whitening trays was mainly supported by in vitro studies. The main adverse effects associated with OTC bleaching agents were tooth sensitivity and gingival irritation. CONCLUSION: A wide variety of OTC bleaching products is available for consumer self-administered use. Clinical studies have mainly confirmed the bleaching effectiveness of whitening strips, while the validation for toothpastes, mouth rinses and whitening trays has mainly relied on in vitro studies. Nevertheless, the use of OTC bleaching products may result in adverse effects, including tooth sensitivity, gingival irritation, and enamel surface changes. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Some over-the-counter bleaching products may have whitening properties supported by clinical studies, particularly those containing hydrogen or carbamide peroxide. Nonetheless, clinicians must be aware of the potential risks associated with excessive self-administration of these products, which may result in adverse effects.

Nonprescription Drugs , Tooth Bleaching Agents , Tooth Bleaching , Toothpastes , Tooth Bleaching/adverse effects , Tooth Bleaching/methods , Humans , Tooth Bleaching Agents/therapeutic use , Tooth Bleaching Agents/adverse effects , Nonprescription Drugs/therapeutic use , Nonprescription Drugs/adverse effects , Toothpastes/therapeutic use , Toothpastes/adverse effects , Mouthwashes/therapeutic use , Mouthwashes/adverse effects , Dentin Sensitivity/chemically induced , Tooth Discoloration/chemically induced , Tooth Discoloration/drug therapy , Hydrogen Peroxide/therapeutic use , Hydrogen Peroxide/adverse effects , Carbamide Peroxide/therapeutic use
BMC Oral Health ; 24(1): 484, 2024 Apr 22.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38649931

BACKGROUND: Root caries is preventable and can be arrested at any stage of disease development. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential mineral exchange and fluorapatite formation within artificial root carious lesions (ARCLs) using different toothpastes containing 5,000 ppm F, 1,450 ppm F or bioactive glass (BG) with 540 ppm F. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The crowns of each extracted sound tooth were removed. The remaining roots were divided into four parts (n = 12). Each sample was randomly allocated into one of four groups: Group 1 (Deionised water); Group 2 (BG with 540 ppm F); Group 3 (1,450 ppm F) and Group 4 (5,000 ppm F). ARCLs were developed using demineralisation solution (pH 4.8). The samples were then pH-cycled in 13 days using demineralisation solution (6 h) and remineralisation solution (pH 7) (16 h). Standard tooth brushing was carried out twice a day with the assigned toothpaste. X-ray Microtomography (XMT) was performed for each sample at baseline, following ARCL formation and after 13-day pH-cycling. Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and 19F Magic angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance (19F-MAS-NMR) were also performed. RESULTS: XMT results showed that the highest mineral content increase (mean ± SD) was Group 4 (0.09 ± 0.05), whilst the mineral content decreased in Group 1 (-0.08 ± 0.06) after 13-day pH-cycling, however there was evidence of mineral loss within the subsurface for Groups 1, 3 and 4 (p < 0.05). SEM scans showed that mineral contents within the surface of dentine tubules were high in comparison to the subsurface in all toothpaste groups. There was evidence of dentine tubules being either partially or completely occluded in toothpaste groups. 19F-MAS-NMR showed peaks between - 103 and - 104ppm corresponding to fluorapatite formation in Groups 3 and 4. CONCLUSION: Within the limitation of this laboratory-based study, all toothpastes were potentially effective to increase the mineral density of artificial root caries on the surface, however there was evidence of mineral loss within the subsurface for Groups 1, 3 and 4.

Root Caries , Toothpastes , X-Ray Microtomography , Pilot Projects , Toothpastes/therapeutic use , Humans , Apatites/therapeutic use , Apatites/analysis , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Fluorides/therapeutic use , Tooth Remineralization/methods , Cariostatic Agents/therapeutic use , In Vitro Techniques , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 9387, 2024 04 24.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38653765

The study aimed to compare various toothpastes and mouthwashes on permanent tooth dentin after erosive and abrasive challenges. 130 sound premolars dentin were randomly submitted to an initial erosive challenge and a cycle of erosive and abrasive challenges for five days. The five experimental groups (n = 26) were: (1) Control group (artificial saliva), (2) Elmex erosion protection toothpaste and mouthwash, (3) Vitis anticaries biorepair toothpaste and mouthwash, (4) Oral B Pro-expert toothpaste and Oral B Fluorinse mouthwash, and (5) MI Paste ONE toothpaste and Caphosol mouthwash. Microhardness, surface roughness values, and the topographical characteristics of the dentin surface were assessed. The highest percentage of recovered dentin microhardness (%RDMH) value was observed in groups 2 and 4, followed by groups 5 and 3, respectively. The %RDMH values in groups 2 and 4 did not demonstrate a significant difference (p = 0.855). The highest percentage of improvement in surface roughness was recorded in groups 2 and 4, with no significant differences (p = 0.989). The atomic force microscopy (AFM) findings were consistent with the surface roughness data. The best recovery of dentin microhardness and roughness were measured with the Elmex and Oral B toothpaste and mouthwash, followed by MI Paste ONE toothpaste and Caphosol mouthwash and Vitis anticaries biorepair toothpaste and mouthwash.

Dentin , Mouthwashes , Tooth Erosion , Toothpastes , Toothpastes/pharmacology , Mouthwashes/pharmacology , Humans , Dentin/drug effects , Tooth Erosion/prevention & control , Surface Properties , Hardness , In Vitro Techniques
PLoS One ; 19(4): e0302261, 2024.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38626124

This in-vitro study aimed to analyse the effect of brushing and different brushing parameters (kind of toothpaste, kind of toothbrush, brushing force) on erosive tooth wear of primary bovine enamel and dentin. Specimens were prepared from primary bovine enamel or dentin (each group n = 12) and cyclically eroded (6 × 60 s/d, citric acid, pH 2.4) and brushed with children's toothbrushes (2 × 15 s/d) over 5 days. The brushing parameters under investigation were: toothpaste (fluoridated, fluoride-free), toothbrush (manual; rotating-oscillating and sonic, each at two different activation modes) and brushing force (1 N, 2 N). Specimens that were only eroded and not brushed served as controls. Enamel and dentin wear was quantified using widefield confocal microscopy. Statistical analysis was performed using three- and one-way ANOVAs followed by Scheffe's (enamel) or Tamhane's (dentin) post-hoc tests (p < 0.05). Brushing with the fluoridated toothpaste was able to significantly reduce erosive wear in enamel (by 15 to 37%, 6 of 10 groups) and in dentin (by 58 to 72%, all groups), while brushing with the fluoride-free toothpaste was not different from the controls. Considering the kind of toothpaste and brushing force, slight differences between the toothbrushes were observed in enamel, but not in dentin. Within the same toothbrush and activation mode, almost no differences between 1 and 2 N brushing force were detected. In conclusion, erosive tooth wear on primary bovine dental hard tissue mainly depends on the kind of toothpaste, rather than on the kind of toothbrush and the brushing force.

Tooth Abrasion , Tooth Erosion , Tooth Wear , Child , Cattle , Animals , Humans , Tooth Abrasion/etiology , Toothpastes/pharmacology , Toothbrushing , Dentin , Dental Enamel
Br Dent J ; 236(7): 552-555, 2024 Apr.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38609623

Royal patronage is not something new. Engraved images of British royalty were used by early toothpaste manufacturers, dentists and perfumiers to convey royal endorsement to boost their product sales in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Packaged in high-quality ceramic pots, these toothpastes and powders promoted cleaning, beautifying and preserving the teeth and gums. These fascinating containers, sealed with a transfer-printed lid, feature inventive designs and typefaces and highlight sophisticated manufacturing and marketing skills to entice consumers. Many have been re-discovered from the excavation of former rubbish tips and are often the only tangible evidence of long defunct businesses that elected to use this latest form of packaging.

Advertising , Toothpastes , Humans , Ceramics , Commerce , White People
BMC Oral Health ; 24(1): 443, 2024 Apr 11.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38605356

BACKGROUND: Peri-implant disease and health are associated with microbial dental plaque. Therefore, oral hygiene plays a role in preventing and treating these diseases. This study aimed to determine the relationships among knowledge of peri-implant status, oral hygiene habits, and peri-implant disease and health. METHODS: A total of 144 implants in nonsmokers with controlled systemic disease were included in the study. Peri-implant disease and the conditions of the implants were determined with periodontal indices and radiographs based on the 2017 World Workshop on the Classification of Periodontal and Peri-implant Diseases and Conditions and The EFP S3 level clinical practice guideline. Individuals were asked 66 questions regarding demographic information, oral hygiene habits and history, and knowledge of peri-implant diseases. One-way ANOVA was used to compare the three peri-implant disease and condition categories. RESULTS: There was a significant difference between groups regarding toothpaste type (p < 0.05). Gum protection toothpaste was greater in the peri-implant health group. Patients' use of interdental products was very low; often, no products were used for implant prosthesis. There was no significant difference among the groups regarding oral hygiene product use or oral hygiene habits (p > 0.05). There was a significant difference between groups regarding frequency of visit (p < 0.05). The frequency of visits to the dentist for pain was greater for individuals with peri-implantitis. There is a significant difference between the groups' answers for the causative and initiating factors of peri-implant disease (p < 0.05). The peri-implant health group answered that microbial dental plaque is the most crucial initiating factor of peri-implant diseases, and bleeding on probing is the most critical determinant of peri-implant diseases at a higher rate than the other groups. CONCLUSIONS: Patients' oral hygiene habits and knowledge levels are almost similar according to peri-implant status. Knowledge does not reflect a patient's oral hygiene behavior. Clinicians should ensure that individuals' oral hygiene practices align with their increased awareness regarding peri-implant illnesses.

Dental Implants , Dental Plaque , Peri-Implantitis , Humans , Peri-Implantitis/complications , Oral Hygiene , Dental Plaque/prevention & control , Toothpastes , Habits
BMC Oral Health ; 24(1): 477, 2024 Apr 20.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38643116

BACKGROUND: This study examines the oral health benefits of heat-killed Lacticaseibacillus paracasei GMNL-143, particularly its potential in oral microbiota alterations and gingivitis improvement. METHODS: We assessed GMNL-143's in vitro interactions with oral pathogens and its ability to prevent pathogen adherence to gingival cells. A randomized, double-blind, crossover clinical trial was performed on gingivitis patients using GMNL-143 toothpaste or placebo for four weeks, followed by a crossover after a washout. RESULTS: GMNL-143 showed coaggregation with oral pathogens in vitro, linked to its surface layer protein. In patients, GMNL-143 toothpaste lowered the gingival index and reduced Streptococcus mutans in crevicular fluid. A positive relationship was found between Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and gingival index changes, and a negative one between Campylobacter and gingival index changes in plaque. CONCLUSION: GMNL-143 toothpaste may shift oral bacterial composition towards a healthier state, suggesting its potential in managing mild to moderate gingivitis. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ID NCT04190485 ( ); 09/12/2019, retrospective registration.

Gingivitis , Lacticaseibacillus paracasei , Microbiota , Adult , Humans , Dental Plaque Index , Double-Blind Method , Gingivitis/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Toothpastes/therapeutic use , Cross-Over Studies
J Dent ; 145: 104966, 2024 Jun.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38554802

INTRODUCTION: The decline in dental caries has been attributed to the widespread use of fluoride (F). Two forms of presentation are fluoridated toothpaste (FT) and mouthwash (MW), widely used by the population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study aimed to evaluate in vitro the effects of combining FT and MW, whether supplemented with sodium trimetaphosphate (TMP) or not, on dental enamel demineralization. Bovine enamel blocks (n = 60) were selected based on initial surface hardness (SHi) and divided into 5 experimental groups (n = 12 each): I) Placebo Toothpaste (without F/TMP); II) 1100 ppm F Toothpaste (FT); III) 1100F associated with a MW at 100 ppm F (FT + MW 100F); IV) 1100F associated with a MW at 225 ppm F (FT + MW 250F); and V) 1100F associated with a MW at 100 ppm F supplemented with 0.4 % TMP (FT + MW 100F-TMP). The blocks were treated twice a day, undergoing 5 pH cycles over 7 days. Thus, the percentage change in surface hardness (%SH), integrated subsurface hardness loss (ΔKHN), and the concentration of F, phosphorus (P), and calcium (Ca) in the enamel were determined. The data were submitted to ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls test (p < 0.001). RESULTS: The 1100F group was statistically inferior to the groups associated with MW for %SH, ΔKHN, and the concentration of P and Ca in the enamel (p < 0.001). Blocks treated with FT + MW 225F and FT + MW 100F-TMP showed significantly lower %SH compared to the other groups (p < 0.001). The FT + MW 100F - TMP group exhibited the lowest depth mineral loss (ΔKHN), and higher concentration de P in enamel (p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: The adjunct use of MW with FT produces a greater protective effect in inhibiting enamel demineralization, and the supplementation of TMP to the MW with 100F provides a superior effect compared to MW with 225F. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: This combination of treatments could be regarded as one of several alternative fluoride supplements for subjects at elevated risk of caries.

Cariostatic Agents , Dental Enamel , Fluorides , Hardness , Mouthwashes , Polyphosphates , Tooth Demineralization , Toothpastes , Animals , Cattle , Polyphosphates/therapeutic use , Polyphosphates/pharmacology , Tooth Demineralization/prevention & control , Dental Enamel/drug effects , Cariostatic Agents/therapeutic use , Toothpastes/therapeutic use , Toothpastes/chemistry , Mouthwashes/therapeutic use , Fluorides/therapeutic use , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Calcium/therapeutic use , Calcium/analysis , Materials Testing
J Clin Pediatr Dent ; 48(2): 72-81, 2024 Mar.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38548635

Fluoridated dentifrices have antibacterial effects on children's teeth. On the other hand, the side effects encountered with the use of them have led researchers to look for safe alternatives. This study aimed to determine the antibacterial effect of different commercially available fluoride-free dentifrices on Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) in comparison with different concentrations of fluoridated dentifrices. Study groups comprised of fluoride-free dentifrices, which contain Probiotic (Activated Charcoal Probiotic Dentifrice-Group P), Aloe Vera-Group AV and Salivary Proteins-Group SP. Fluoridated dentifrices containing 1450 ppm fluoride-Control Group 1 and 500 ppm fluoride-Control Group 2 served as control groups. Antibacterial activity was assessed by Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations and agar well diffusion assays on S. mutans. Biofilm inhibition assay was performed with dentifrices, which had antibacterial activities, and a negative control phosphate-buffered saline (Group PBS) on sterile hydroxyapatite discs against S. mutans. Statistical evaluation was performed. Only group AV showed an antibacterial effect on S. mutans, while control groups showed a similar antibacterial effect. The mean number of viable bacteria present in S. mutans biofilm in Control Group 1 and 2 and Group AV were statistically significantly lower than that in Group PBS, but there were no statistically significant differences between Control Groups and Group AV. Antibacterial activity of commercial dentifrices against S. mutans may be exerted by antibacterial components other than fluoride. Aloe vera-containing toothpaste showed an antibacterial effect on S. mutans, although not as much as the fluoride-containing toothpastes in the control groups. However, further in vivo and long-term studies are required.

Dentifrices , Child , Humans , Dentifrices/pharmacology , Fluorides , Streptococcus mutans , Toothpastes/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
J Dent ; 144: 104951, 2024 May.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38508441

OBJECTIVES: This study evaluated the efficacy of simulated brushing with toothpastes containing different concentrations of hydrogen peroxide (HP) in pulp chamber penetration and color change. Also, physical-chemical properties (concentration, pH and viscosity) were evaluated. METHODS: Forty-nine premolars were divided into seven groups (n = 7): untreated (control); whitening gel (White Class 6 %, 6 %BG) with one 90  min application (6 %BG 90  min) and 14 applications of 90  min (6 %BG 14×90 min); toothpastes (Colgate Luminous White Glow 3 %, 3 %TP; Crest 3D White Brilliance 4 %, 4 %TP; Colgate Optic White Pro-Series 5 %, 5 %TP) and 6 %BG toothbrushing for 14 applications of 90 s. HP penetration into the pulp chamber was measured through UV-Vis spectrophotometry and color change with a spectrophotometer (ΔEab, ΔE00, and ΔWID). Initial concentration, pH, and viscosity were measured through Titration, Digital pH-meter, and Rheometer, respectively. Statistical analysis used one-way ANOVA and Tukey's test (α = 0.05). RESULTS: 6 %BG (14×90 min) and 4 %TP groups showed acidic pH and higher concentrations of HP in the pulp chamber compared to the other groups (p < 0.05). On the other side, 3 %TP and 5 %TP groups showed alkaline pH, higher viscosity between the toothpastes and lower HP penetration (p < 0.05). The 6 %BG AH (14×90 min) group exhibited the most significant color change (ΔEab, ΔE00, and ΔWID) (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Brushing with whitening toothpaste with an acidic pH leads to greater HP penetration into pulp chamber; but, even when a high concentrated HP whitening toothpaste was used, a lower whitening effect was observed when compared to a two-week at-home bleaching. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Whitening toothpastes containing up to 5 % HP produced lower whitening effect than two-week at-home bleaching. Additionally, HP was detected within the pulp chamber which can potentially impact in tooth sensitivity.

Color , Dental Pulp Cavity , Hydrogen Peroxide , Tooth Bleaching Agents , Tooth Bleaching , Toothbrushing , Toothpastes , Hydrogen Peroxide/chemistry , Humans , Tooth Bleaching Agents/pharmacokinetics , Tooth Bleaching Agents/chemistry , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Toothpastes/chemistry , Tooth Bleaching/methods , Dental Pulp Cavity/metabolism , Viscosity , Materials Testing , Time Factors , Spectrophotometry , Bicuspid , Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet
BMC Oral Health ; 24(1): 315, 2024 Mar 09.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38461252

BACKGROUND: Poor oral hygiene affects the overall health and quality of life. However, the oral hygiene practice in rural communities and contributing factors are not well documented. Accordingly, this study was conducted to assess oral hygiene practices and associated factors among rural communities in northwest Ethiopia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1190 households. Data were collected using a structured and pretested questionnaire, prepared based on a review of relevant literature. The questionnaire comprises socio-demographic information, access to health and hygiene messages, oral hygiene practices, and water quality. We assessed oral hygiene practices with these criteria: mouth wash with clean water in every morning, mouth wash with clean water after eating, brushing teeth regularly, and avoiding gum pricking. Gum pricking in this study is defined as sticking needles or wires into gums to make the gums black for beauty. Multivariable logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with oral hygiene practices. Significant associations were declared on the basis of adjusted odds ratio with 95% confidence interval and p-values < 0.05. RESULTS: Results showed that all the family members usually washed their mouth with clean water in everyday morning and after eating in 65.2% and 49.6% of the households, respectively. Furthermore, 29.9% of the households reported that all the family members regularly brushed their teeth using toothbrush sticks and one or more of the family members in 14.5% of the households had gum pricking. Overall, 42.9% (95% CI: 39.9, 45.6%) of the households had good oral hygiene practices. Health and/or hygiene education was associated with good oral hygiene practices in the area (AOR: 1.66, 95% CI: 1.26, 2.21). CONCLUSION: More than half of the households had poor oral hygiene practices in the area and cleaning of teeth with toothpastes is not practiced in the area, where as gum pricking is practiced in more than one-tenth of the households. The local health department needs provide community-level oral health education/interventions, such as washing mouth with clean water at least twice a day, teeth brushing using indigenous methods such as toothbrush sticks or modern methods such as toothpastes, and avoiding gum pricking to promote oral health.

Oral Hygiene , Rural Population , Humans , Ethiopia , Cross-Sectional Studies , Mouthwashes , Quality of Life , Toothpastes , Sanitation
Am J Dent ; 37(1): 3-8, 2024 Feb.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38458975

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effectiveness of whitening toothpaste in restoring tooth color after coffee staining and its potential impact on enamel surfaces compared with regular toothpaste. METHODS: Bovine tooth enamel specimens were prepared and stained with coffee solutions before undergoing brushing simulation with different toothpaste slurries (whitening, regular, reference). For precise evaluation, spectrophotometric measurements were taken at intervals to assess color changes using the CIELAB (Commission Internationale de l'Éclairage Lab*) color space. Additionally, profilometric measurements were taken to determine the impact of toothpaste type on the roughness and abraded depth of the enamel surface. To understand the effects of toothpaste and brushing on color change, surface roughness, and abraded depth, while also considering correlations between these factors, the findings were analyzed using mixed-effects models. RESULTS: The whitening toothpaste group demonstrated the highest recovery rate (71%) after 10,000 brushstrokes, followed by the regular toothpaste group (48%) and the reference slurry group (43%). The mixed-effects model analysis revealed that the reference group had a smaller change in lightness (ΔL) than those in the regular toothpaste group. The whitening toothpaste group showed a greater change in lightness on average than those in the regular toothpaste group, with an increase in lightness as the number of brushstrokes increased. According to the roughness and abraded depth data, the whitening toothpaste group was least affected by brushing, while the reference and regular toothpaste groups showed higher levels of roughness and abraded depth at all intervals. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Gaining a thorough understanding of the effectiveness of whitening toothpaste and its impact on the enamel surface plays a crucial role in refining toothpaste formulations and advancing tooth whitening techniques in dental care.

Tooth Bleaching , Tooth Discoloration , Animals , Cattle , Humans , Toothpastes/therapeutic use , Toothpastes/pharmacology , Coffee , Dental Enamel , Tooth Discoloration/drug therapy , Tooth Discoloration/prevention & control , Tooth Bleaching/methods , Toothbrushing , Dental Care , Color
J Esthet Restor Dent ; 36(6): 901-910, 2024 Jun.
Article En | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38348937

To assess the physical properties and topographical aspect of dental enamel's surface microhardness (KHN), surface roughness (Ra), and color parameters CIELAB (∆Eab*), CIEDE 2000 (∆E00), and whiteness index for dentistry (∆WID) after toothbrushing with experimental toothpaste formulations with the following mineral clay types: kaolin, Sparclay SGY, and Tersil CGY used as abrasive component. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed for topographical analyses purposes. A total of 96 bovine incisors were used in the experiment. They were divided into eight experimental groups (n = 12), namely: NC-negative control (no treatment), CT12-Colgate Total 12®, CMP-Colgate® Máxima Proteção Anticáries, K-kaolin experimental toothpaste, SGY-Sparclay SGY experimental toothpaste; CGY-Tersil CGY experimental toothpaste, SD-SiO2 experimental toothpaste, and CC-CaCO3 experimental toothpaste. All samples were subjected to mechanical brushing protocol with 5000 cycles and kept in artificial saliva with daily exchanges. KHN was analyzed through the mixed linear model for repeated measures over time. Ra was analyzed through nonparametric Kruskal Wallis and Dunn tests to compare the groups. Paired Wilcoxon test was run to compare experimental times. ∆WID, ∆Eab*, and ∆E00 were analyzed through Kruskal Wallis and Dunn tests. All analyses were performed in R* software, at 5% significance level. EXP_SGY recorded higher KHN than EXP_SiO2 and EXP_CaCO3, whereas EXP_K showed increased Ra in comparison to CMP (p = 0.0229). ∆Eab and ∆E00 were significantly higher in the CT12, EXP_SiO2, and EXP_CaCO3 groups than in the NC and EXP_K (p < 0.0001). There were no significant changes in ∆WID (p = 0.0852). According to SEM results, toothbrushing with experimental toothpastes added with mineral clay types did not have significant impact on enamel's polishing and smoothness. CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Mineral clays have a broad application in the cosmetic industry, and recently, they have been used in the formulation of vegan toothpaste.

Aluminum Silicates , Clay , Dental Enamel , Hardness , Toothbrushing , Toothpastes , Toothpastes/chemistry , Animals , Cattle , Clay/chemistry , Aluminum Silicates/chemistry , Surface Properties , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning