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1.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: 49596, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1094830

RESUMEN

Objetivo: descrever as principais recomendações sobre ações de prevenção de contágio relacionadas à exposição ocupacional dos profissionais de saúde atuantes frente à COVID-19, disponíveis até março de 2020. Conteúdo: A atual pandemia da doença causada pelo novo coronavírus SARS-CoV-2 tem transmissão favorecida pelo contato próximo e desprotegido com secreções ou excreções de pacientes infectados, principalmente por meio de gotículas salivares. Práticas organizacionais de prevenção devem ser previstas antes da chegada do paciente ao serviço de saúde, reduzindo o fluxo de atendimento, no primeiro atendimento e durante as ações assistenciais, para minimizar a exposição ocupacional ao agente biológico. Profissionais de saúde classificados como grupo de risco devem ser afastados de atividades de risco de contaminação. Aqueles contaminados ou adoecidos devem permanecer em quarentena para minimizar a propagação da COVID-19. Considerações finais: os cuidados para prevenção de contaminação de trabalhadores nesta pandemia pelo novo coronavírus devem ser priorizados, evitando impactos negativos na assistência à população que busca atendimento nos serviços de saúde.


Objective: to describe the main recommended actions on prevention actions related to occupational exposure of health professionals working at COVID-19, available until March 2020. Content: The current pandemic disease caused by the new SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus has its transmission favored by close and unprotected contact with secretions or excretions from infected patients, mainly through salivary droplets. Organizational prevention practices should be prioritized, since patient's arrival at the health service, optimizing the flow of care, the first care and during health care actions, to minimize occupational exposure to the biological agent. Health professionals classified as a risk group should be removed from activities at risk of contamination. Those contaminated or adulterated must remain in quarantine to minimize the spread of COVID-19. Final considerations: care to avoid contamination of workers in this pandemic by the new coronavirus must be prioritized, prevented from affecting the assistance to the population that seeks assistance in health services.


Objetivo: describir las principales acciones recomendadas sobre acciones de prevención relacionadas con la exposición ocupacional de los profesionales de la salud que trabajan en COVID-19, disponible hasta marzo de 2020. Contenido: La enfermedad pandémica actual causada por el nuevo coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 tiene su transmisión favorecida por contacto cercano y sin protección con secreciones o excreciones de pacientes infectados, principalmente a través de gotas salivales. Se deben priorizar las prácticas de prevención organizacional, desde la llegada del paciente al servicio de salud, optimizando el flujo de atención, la primera atención y durante las acciones de atención de salud, para minimizar la exposición ocupacional al agente biológico. Los profesionales de la salud clasificados como grupo de riesgo deben ser retirados de las actividades en riesgo de contaminación. Las personas contaminadas o adulteradas deben permanecer en cuarentena para minimizar la propagación de COVID-19. Consideraciones finales: se debe priorizar la atención para evitar la contaminación de los trabajadores en esta pandemia por el nuevo coronavirus, evitando que afecte la asistencia a la población que busca asistencia en los servicios de salud.

2.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 28: 49570, jan.-dez. 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1094832

RESUMEN

Objetivo: discutir as experiências e contradições no controle da pandemia de Covid-19 sob a perspectiva da epidemiologia e das políticas públicas brasileiras. Conteúdo: o debate apresentado divide-se em duas seções: a primeira traça a reflexão dos parâmetros epidemiológicos sobre a curva epidêmica do SARS-CoV-2, bem como as experiências internacionais para o controle deste fenômeno. A segunda, ancorada nas políticas públicas brasileiras, apresenta uma análise comparada das experiências nacionais e internacionais, discutindo os potenciais reflexos sobre a pandemia, considerando algumas especificidades sociais. Conclusão: frente à impossibilidade de redução de pessoas susceptíveis por meio de estratégias vacinais, a redução da velocidade da curva epidêmica precisa ocorrer por meio de ações de isolamento físico social. Ademais, a construção de políticas públicas que visem a proteção ao trabalhador e a ampliação do investimento no setor saúde são medidas urgentes.


Objective: to discuss experiences and contradictions in the control of the Covid-19 pandemic from the perspective of epidemiology and Brazilian public policies. Content: the discussion presented is divided into two sections: the first one present epidemiological parameters on the epidemic curve of SARS-CoV-2, as well as the international experiences for the control of this phenomenon. The second, anchored in the Brazilian public policies, presents a comparative analysis of national and international experiences, discussing the potential impacts on the pandemic, considering some specific social issues. Conclusion: in the face of impossibility of reducing susceptible people through vaccination strategies, the reduction of the speed of the epidemic curve needs to occur through actions of social distance. In addition, the construction of public policies aimed at protecting workers and expanding investment in the health sector are urgent measures.


Objetivo: discutir las experiencias y contradicciones en el control de la pandemia Covid-19 desde la perspectiva de la epidemiología brasileña y las políticas públicas. Contenido: el debate presentado se divide en dos secciones. El primero traza la reflexión de los parámetros epidemiológicos en la curva epidémica del SARS-CoV-2, así como las experiencias internacionales para el control de este fenómeno. El segunda seccione, anclada en las políticas públicas brasileñas, presenta un análisis comparativo de las experiencias nacionales e internacionales, discutiendo los posibles impactos en la pandemia, considerando algunas especificidades sociales brasileñas. Conclusión: dada la imposibilidad de reducir a las personas susceptibles a través de estrategias de vacunación, la reducción de la velocidad de la curva epidémica debe ocurrir a través de acciones de aislamiento social y físico. Además, la construcción de políticas públicas destinadas a proteger a los trabajadores y ampliar la inversión en el sector de la salud son medidas urgentes.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Neumonía Viral , Infecciones por Coronavirus/economía , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Políticas Públicas de Salud , Pandemias , Política Pública , Betacoronavirus
6.
Recurso de Internet en Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-47487

RESUMEN

Materiais informativos sobre a COVID-19, elaborados pela Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde – OPAS. Informações baseadas em evidências com a finalidade de combater boatos e a desinformação, sobre temas como: gravidez e amamentação; saúde mental; tabagismo entre outros.


Asunto(s)
Lactancia Materna , Tabaquismo , Actividad Motora , Salud Mental , Embarazo , Betacoronavirus , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control
7.
Recurso de Internet en Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-47415

RESUMEN

Por isso, optamos por fazer uma edição especial, focada principalmente no Covid-19 e nas doenças crônicas não transmissíveis e seus fatores de risco, nossa pauta de trabalho. Conversamos com especialistas para entender por que pessoas que fumam são mais suscetíveis a complicações, quais cuidados devem ser tomados com relação à alimentação e como evitar o sedentarismo em tempos de isolamento social. Também analisamos questões como o congelamento de gastos com a saúde e como isso pode interferir no combate ao coronavírus. Em época em que as fake news se multiplicam, também achamos essencial desmistificar algumas "teorias", como a de que alguns "super alimentos" poderiam ajudar a prevenir a doença (nossos parceiros do Joio e o Trigo já publicaram um ótimo texto sobre isso - e, spoiler, apenas uma alimentação adequada constante pode, de fato, ajudar no funcionamento do sistema imunológico). Mais ao final do boletim, temos também algumas atualizações sobre tópicos não relacionados com o Covid-19.


Asunto(s)
Coronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus
8.
Recurso de Internet en Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-47374

RESUMEN

Este mapa apresenta uma visão geral da evidência sobre a aplicação das MTCI com base na caracterização de 125 estudos de revisão e estudos clínicos controlados, distribuídos em uma matriz com 57 intervenções sobre uma série de desfechos clínicos agrupados em 3 categorias: Melhora da imunidade/efeito antiviral para vírus respiratórios; Manejo complementar dos sintomas de infecções respiratórias; e Contribuições à Saúde Mental/Emocional em situações de trauma. As intervenções representam especialmente medicamentos fitoterápicos, medicina e terapias tradicionais chinesas, terapias mente-corpo como meditação e yoga, probióticos e outros suplementos nutricionais além de formulações dinamizadas da homeopatia.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/terapia , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Resultado del Tratamiento , Medicina Basada en la Evidencia/métodos , Medicina China Tradicional/métodos
9.
Recurso de Internet en Español | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-47375

RESUMEN

Este mapa presenta una visión general sobre posibles contribuciones de las MTCI a varias dimensiones de la pandemia por COVID-19. Dichas contribuciones se organizaron en tres categorías: Mejora de la inmunidad y efecto antiviral ante diferentes virus respiratorios; tratamiento complementario de los síntomas de las infecciones respiratorias; y salud mental en situaciones de crisis. Para el mapa se caracterizaron 125 estudios de revisión y estudios clínicos controlados, distribuidos en una matriz con 57 intervenciones para las tres categorías mencionadas. Las intervenciones representan especialmente medicinas herbales/ fitoterapia, medicina tradicional china, terapias de cuerpo-mente como la meditación y el yoga, probióticos y otros suplementos nutricionales además de formulaciones de homeopatía.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/terapia , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Resultado del Tratamiento , Medicina Basada en la Evidencia/métodos , Medicina China Tradicional/métodos
10.
Recurso de Internet en Inglés | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-47376

RESUMEN

This map presents an overview of the evidence on the application of TCIM based on the characterization of 125 review studies and controlled clinical studies distributed in a matrix with 57 interventions on a series of clinical outcomes grouped into 3 major categories: Improved immunity/antiviral effect for respiratory viruses; Complementary management of symptoms of respiratory infections; and Mental health. The interventions represent especially herbal medicines, traditional Chinese medicine and therapies, mind-body therapies like meditation and yoga, probiotics and other nutritional supplements besides homeopathy formulations.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/terapia , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Resultado del Tratamiento , Medicina Basada en la Evidencia/métodos , Medicina China Tradicional/métodos
13.
Ir J Psychol Med ; : 1-8, 2020 May 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32406348

RESUMEN

Meditation and mindfulness are practices that can support healthcare professionals, patients, carers and the general public during times of crisis such as the current global pandemic caused by Covid-19. While there are many forms of meditation and mindfulness, of particular interest to healthcare professionals are those with an evidence base such as Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR). Systematic reviews of such practices have shown improvements in measures of anxiety, depression and pain scores. Structural and functional brain changes have been demonstrated in the brains of people with a long term traditional meditation practice, and in people who have completed a MBSR programme. Mindfulness and meditation practices translate well to different populations across the life span and range of ability. Introducing a mindfulness and meditation practice during this pandemic has the potential to complement treatment and is a low cost beneficial method of providing support with anxiety for all.

15.
Transpl Infect Dis ; : e13327, 2020 May 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32407003

RESUMEN

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic poses an increasing challenge for transplant community. Aggressive management measures are conductive to improve compliance and to lower the risk of intra-hospital infection. In this Personal Viewpoint essay, we shared experiences about management strategies of transplant patients outside hospital amid the epidemic. With the aid of Cloud Clinic service and telemedicine care, transplant patients could be regularly followed up and get medical consultation online. Furthermore, personal health education and mental health assistance are enrolled in our practice.

16.
Euro Surveill ; 25(17)2020 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32372755

RESUMEN

BackgroundEstimating key infectious disease parameters from the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) outbreak is essential for modelling studies and guiding intervention strategies.AimWe estimate the generation interval, serial interval, proportion of pre-symptomatic transmission and effective reproduction number of COVID-19. We illustrate that reproduction numbers calculated based on serial interval estimates can be biased.MethodsWe used outbreak data from clusters in Singapore and Tianjin, China to estimate the generation interval from symptom onset data while acknowledging uncertainty about the incubation period distribution and the underlying transmission network. From those estimates, we obtained the serial interval, proportions of pre-symptomatic transmission and reproduction numbers.ResultsThe mean generation interval was 5.20 days (95% credible interval (CrI): 3.78-6.78) for Singapore and 3.95 days (95% CrI: 3.01-4.91) for Tianjin. The proportion of pre-symptomatic transmission was 48% (95% CrI: 32-67) for Singapore and 62% (95% CrI: 50-76) for Tianjin. Reproduction number estimates based on the generation interval distribution were slightly higher than those based on the serial interval distribution. Sensitivity analyses showed that estimating these quantities from outbreak data requires detailed contact tracing information.ConclusionHigh estimates of the proportion of pre-symptomatic transmission imply that case finding and contact tracing need to be supplemented by physical distancing measures in order to control the COVID-19 outbreak. Notably, quarantine and other containment measures were already in place at the time of data collection, which may inflate the proportion of infections from pre-symptomatic individuals.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones Asintomáticas/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/prevención & control , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Pandemias/prevención & control , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/prevención & control , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiología , Coronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/transmisión , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/transmisión , Cuarentena , Singapur/epidemiología , Factores de Tiempo
18.
Yonsei Med J ; 61(5): 438-440, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32390368

RESUMEN

COVID-19 not only affects the physical health of Chinese people, but also their psychological health. This article mainly summarized the causes, clinical manifestations and preventive measures of COVID-19 impact on psychology of Chinese people, and presented two representative cases at the same time.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus/psicología , Trastornos Mentales/virología , Neumonía Viral/psicología , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Asiática , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , China/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Humanos , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Trastornos Mentales/prevención & control , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Medio Social
19.
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 49(2): 147-157, 2020 May 25.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32391658

RESUMEN

The current epidemic situation of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) still remained severe. As the National Clinical Research Center for Infectious Diseases, the First Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University School of Medicine is the primary medical care center for COVID-19 in Zhejiang province. Based on the present expert consensus carried out by National Health Commission and National Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine, our team summarized and established an effective treatment strategy centered on "Four-Anti and Two-Balance" for clinical practice. The "Four-Anti and Two-Balance" strategy included antivirus, anti-shock, anti-hyoxemia, anti-secondary infection, and maintaining of water, electrolyte and acid base balance and microecological balance. Meanwhile, integrated multidisciplinary personalized treatment was recommended to improve therapeutic effect. The importance of early viralogical detection, dynamic monitoring of inflammatory indexes and chest radiograph was emphasized in clinical decision-making. Sputum was observed with the highest positive rate of RT-PCR results. Viral nucleic acids could be detected in 10%patients' blood samples at acute period and 50%of patients had positive RT-PCR results in their feces. We also isolated alive viral strains from feces, indicating potential infectiousness of feces.Dynamic cytokine detection was necessary to timely identifying cytokine storms and application of artificial liver blood purification system. The "Four-Anti and Two-Balance" strategy effectively increased cure rate and reduced mortality. Early antiviral treatment could alleviate disease severity and prevent illness progression, and we found lopinavir/ritonavir combined with abidol showed antiviral effects in COVID-19. Shock and hypoxemia were usually caused by cytokine storms. The artificial liver blood purification system could rapidly remove inflammatory mediators and block cytokine storm.Moreover, it also favored the balance of fluid, electrolyte and acid-base and thus improved treatment efficacy in critical illness. For cases of severe illness, early and also short period of moderate glucocorticoid was supported. Patients with oxygenation index below 200 mmHg should be transferred to intensive medical center. Conservative oxygen therapy was preferred and noninvasive ventilation was not recommended. Patients with mechanical ventilation should be strictly supervised with cluster ventilator-associated pneumonia prevention strategies. Antimicrobial prophylaxis was not recommended except for patients with long course of disease, repeated fever and elevated procalcitonin (PCT), meanwhile secondary fungal infection should be concerned.Some patients with COVID-19 showed intestinal microbial dysbiosis with decreased probiotics such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium, so nutritional and gastrointestinal function should be assessed for all patients.Nutritional support and application of prebiotics or probiotics were suggested to regulate the balance of intestinal microbiota and reduce the risk of secondary infection due to bacterial translocation. Anxiety and fear were common in patients with COVID-19. Therefore,we established dynamic assessment and warning for psychological crisis. We also integrated Chinese medicine in treatment to promote disease rehabilitation through classification methods of traditional Chinese medicine. We optimized nursing process for severe patients to promote their rehabilitation. It remained unclear about viral clearance pattern after the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Therefore, two weeks' quarantine for discharged patients was required and a regular following up was also needed.The Zhejiang experience and suggestions have been implemented in our center and achieved good results. However, since COVID-19 was a newly emerging disease, more work was warranted to improve strategies of prevention, diagnosis and treatment for COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Manejo de la Enfermedad , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , China/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecciones por Coronavirus/virología , Diagnóstico Precoz , Heces/virología , Humanos , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Neumonía Viral/epidemiología , Neumonía Viral/terapia , Neumonía Viral/virología , Esputo/virología
20.
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 49(2): 270-274, 2020 May 25.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32391676

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical outcome of patients with moderate type of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) after discharge by retesting viral nucleic acid. METHODS: Seven patients with moderate COVID-19 met the discharge criteria enacted by National Health Commission were quarantined in hospital for 7 days, then continuously quarantined at home for 4 weeks after discharged. During the quarantined period, the symptoms and signs were documented, and sputum or nasal swab and feces samples were collected to test SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid by RT-PCR method. RESULTS: There was no symptoms and signs during the quarantine period in all 7 patients. However, respiratory swabs from 3 patients were confirmed positive of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid at 5 to 7 days after they met the discharge criteria. CONCLUSIONS: There is a relatively high incidence of positive viral nucleic acid in patients met the discharge criteria, and it is suggested that patients met the current discharge criteria should be quarantined in hospital for another 7 days and the follow-up viral testing is necessary.


Asunto(s)
Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Neumonía Viral , ARN Viral , Betacoronavirus/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Heces/química , Heces/virología , Estudios de Seguimiento , Humanos , Alta del Paciente/estadística & datos numéricos , Neumonía Viral/diagnóstico , Cuarentena/estadística & datos numéricos , ARN Viral/análisis , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa de Transcriptasa Inversa , Factores de Tiempo
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