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1.
An. psicol ; 40(1): 12-19, Ene-Abri, 2024. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-229022

RESUMEN

La pandemia del COVID-19 ha llevado a los países a adoptar severas y prolongadas medidas que —junto con el alto número de contagios y muertes y la continua información negativa— ha afectado la salud mental de las personas. Este estudio analiza el impacto de la crisis sanitaria del COVID-19 en España explorando el rol moderador de la eficacia percibida de las medidas de contención en la relación que establece la percepción del riesgo del COVID-19 con el estrés y la depresión. Un total de 478 adultos residentes en España (un 66.9% mujeres; Medad = 36.30, DT = 15.32) completaron un cuestionario con escalas concebidas para medir el riesgo percibido del COVID-19, la eficacia percibida de las medidas de protección, el estrés y la depresión entre el 16 de mayo y el 6 de junio de 2021. Los resultados confirmaron el rol moderador de la eficacia percibida, la cual actuó como un factor protector del estrés y la depresión al disminuir el impacto negativo que la percepción de riesgo del COVID-19 tiene en ambas variables relacionadas con el distrés mental. La percepción que tienen los individuos sobre la efectividad de las medidas de protección parece ser un factor protector relevante en relación con la salud mental durante una pandemia. Se subraya la relevancia de intervenciones psicológicas y de políticas gubernamentales que mejoren la comunicación positiva del riesgo y la información adecuada sobre la eficacia de las medidas de protección.(AU)


The pandemic situation caused by COVID-19 led countries to adopt harsh and prolonged (over time) measures that—along with the high number of infections and deaths and continuous negative information—have affected the mental health of individuals. In this study, the impact on mental health of the COVID-19 health crisis in Spain was explored through the perceived efficacy of pandemic containment measures as a moderator of the relationship that COVID-19 perceived risk establishes with stress and depression. A questionnaire composed of scales conceived to measure COVID-19 perceived risk, perceived efficacy of COVID-19 prevention measures, stress, and depression was completed by 478 adults living in Spain (66.9% females, Mage= 36.30, SD= 15.32) between May 16, 2021, and June 6, 2021. The results confirmed the moderating role of per-ceived efficacy. Perceived efficacy acted as a protective factor for stress and depression by decreasing the negative impact that perceived risk had on both variables related to mentaldistress. Also, the perception that par-ticipants had about the effectiveness of prevention measures appeared to be a relevant protective factor regarding mental health during the pandem-ic. This study highlights the relevance of psychological interventions and government policies that improve positive risk communication and pro-vide adequate information regarding the effectiveness of health-prevention measures.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , /prevención & control , Salud Mental , Estrés Psicológico , Depresión , Medidas de Seguridad , /psicología , España , Psicología , Psicología Social , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
2.
An. psicol ; 40(1): 20-30, Ene-Abri, 2024. ilus, tab
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-229023

RESUMEN

Antecedentes y objetivos: Aunque se consideraba que los jóvenes estaban menos expuestos a contraer una forma severa de la infección, los efectos que ellos más resintieron fueron los psicosociales. El presente artículo se propone comprobar el papel mediador de los afectos negativos y de las estrategias evasivas, primero en la relación entre el impacto de la pandemia COVID-19 y el estrés percibido, y luego entre la amenaza percibida y el estrés. Diseño: Se utilizó un diseño transversal. Métodos: Se empleó una muestra de 669 estudiantes de grado (18 - 28 años) durante la cuarta oleada de coronavirus, cuando la variante delta era la dominante. Resultados: Se observaron asociaciones positivas entre el impacto de la pandemia COVID-19 y el estrés percibido (r = .485; p<.001), por un lado, y entre la amenaza percibida y el estrés (r = .283; p< .001), por otro lado. Los datos estadísticos demuestran que los afectos negativos y las estrategias evasivas actúan como mediadores seriales (efecto indirecto = .3349, 95% CI, [.2858; .3852] / (efecto indirecto = .2072, 95% CI, [.1515; .2624]). Consecuentemente, el impacto de la pandemia COVID-19 (β = .137; 95% CI [.0019; .0045]) y la amenaza percibida (β = .069; 95% CI [.0007; .0046]) aumentan el estrés no sólo de manera directa, sino también indirecta, intensificando los afectos negativos. Esto genera una propensión hacia el uso específico de estrategias evasivas de afrontamiento. Conclusiones: El estudio subraya algunos mecanismos explicativos en cuanto a las relaciones entre variables que afectan la salud mental durante la pandemia COVID-19.(AU)


Background and objectives:Although young adults were considered to face a lower risk of severe coronavirus infection, they were at higher risk for adverse psychosocial effects. The aim of this study was to test the me-diating roles of negative affect and avoidant coping, firstly in the relation-ship between COVID-19 impact and perceived stress, and then in the rela-tionship between perceived coronavirus threat and perceived stress. Design:Cross-sectional design. Methods: We conducted the study on a sample of 669 university students (aged between 18-28), during the critical fourth wave, when the delta variant was the dominant strain. Results: The results indicate significant positive associations between the impact of COVID-19 and perceived stress (r = .485; p<.001), and between perceived corona-virus threat and perceived stress (r= .283; p<.001). Our findings demon-strate that negative affect and avoidant coping serially mediate these rela-tionships (total indirect effect = .3349, 95% CI, [.2858; .3852] / (total indi-rect effect = .2072, 95% CI, [.1515; .2624]). Thus, the impact of COVID-19 (β= .137; 95% CI [.0019; .0045]) and perceived coronavirus threat (β= .069; 95% CI [.0007; .0046]) induce an increase in stress not only directly, but also indirectly, through amplified negative affect, which in turn in-creases the specific-oriented use of avoidant coping strategies. Conclusions:Our results highlighted some new explanatory relationships between varia-bles that affect mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Estrés Psicológico , /psicología , Impacto Psicosocial , Salud Mental , Salud del Estudiante , Rumanía , Psicología , Psicología Social , /epidemiología , Estudios Transversales
3.
An. psicol ; 40(1): 69-75, Ene-Abri, 2024. tab, ilus
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-229028

RESUMEN

Para frenar la propagación del COVID-19, el gobierno español aplicó medidas restrictivas, como el cierre escolar. Aunque los efectos de la pandemia en el bienestar emocional de los niños han sido estudiados, faltan estudios que examinen la adaptación escolar tras la pandemia y el papel que la infección ha tenido en el proceso de adaptación. El objetivo es analizar la relación entre los eventos estresantes relacionados con la escuela y la adaptación escolar después del confinamiento, incluyendo la ansiedad como mediadora. Los participantes fueron 219 padres de niños y adolescentes españoles de entre 3 y 18 años que completaron encuestas sobre la ansiedad de sus hijos (Spanish Brief Child Version of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale), los eventos estresantes vividos relacionados con la escuela (Stressful Eventos relacionados con el Inventario de Pandemia), y la adaptación escolar (Escala de Ajuste de los Niños después del Cierre Escolar de la Pandemia). Los resultados mostraron mayor prevalencia en el evento estresante distancia social (87%). Tener COVID-19 y sufrir acoso escolar se relacionó directamente con una mayor ansiedad. Los niños que disminuyeron el contacto social y sufrieron acoso escolar mostraron peor adaptación escolar, siendo la ansiedad un mediador indirecto. Los hallazgos destacan la importancia de supervisar la adaptación escolar y promover estrategias para prevenir problemas emocionales en jóvenes expuestos a situaciones estresantes.(AU)


Aiming to mitigate the COVID-19 spread, the government of Spain applied restrictive measures, like schools’ closure. Although the ef-fects of the pandemic on children's emotional well-being have been stud-ied, there is a lack of studies examining school adjustment following the pandemic and the role that the infection has played in the adjustment pro-cess. The objective is to analyze the relationship between stressful events related to school experienced by children and their adjustment to school after the home confinement, including anxiety as a mediator variable. Par-ticipants were the parentsof 219 Spanish children and adolescents aged 3 and 18 years who completed a survey about their children’s anxiety (Span-ish Brief Child Version of the Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale), the stress-ful events experienced related to school (Stressful Events related to Pan-demic Inventory), and the adjustment to school (Adjustment of Children after Pandemic School Closure Scale). Results showed that social distance was the most reported stressful event (87%). Having COVID-19 and expe-riencing bullying were directly related to a high level of anxiety. Children ́s who decreased social contact and experienced bullying showed a worse ad-justment to school. Anxiety was an indirect mediator of this relationship. Findings highlight the importance of supervising school adaptation and promoting strategies to prevent emotional problems when the youths are exposed to stressful situations.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , Adolescente , /psicología , Adaptación Psicológica , Salud del Estudiante , Estrés Psicológico , Instituciones Académicas , Ansiedad , /epidemiología , Psicología , Salud Mental , Psicología Social , Ajuste Social , Psicología Educacional
4.
An. psicol ; 40(1): 95-102, Ene-Abri, 2024. tab, ilus
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-229031

RESUMEN

Encouraging and continuing inclusive learning environments is important to allow all students to be able to fully participate, engage, and learn. The online learning environment obliges educators to think creative-ly about how to achieve this goal. The aim was to investigate using virtual classroom for teaching special needs students in inclusive classrooms dur-ing and beyond Covid-19 from the perspectives of their teachers. Teachers of special education from integration schools in the middle stage in Mak-kah were targeted. A 15-item survey instrument was developed particular-ly for this research study . Quantitative research is carried out with the aim to investigate using virtual classroom(VC) for teaching special needs stu-dents in inclusive classrooms during and beyond Covid-19 from the per-spectives of their teachers. A survey method was used. Data were collected through a structured self-administered questionnaire, which was based on the technology acceptance model(TAM). Pearson correlation(R) and mul-tiple regression (MRA) were used to analyze data . Results indicated that the BI is positively affected by PU, PEOU. PU, PEOU yielded a coeffi-cient of multiple regression (R) and a multiple correlation square. This shows that a total variance in BI is accounted for by PU, PEOU. In con-clusion, the findings in this study contribute to the literature on TAM and its use in special education in particular.(AU)


Fomentar y continuar con los entornos de aprendizaje inclusivos es importante para permitir que todos los estudiantes puedan participar, comprometerse y aprender plenamente. El entorno de aprendizaje online obliga a los educadores a pensar de forma creativa sobre cómo lograr este objetivo. El objetivo era investigar el uso del aula virtual para enseñar a estudiantes con necesidades especiales en aulas inclusivas durante y después de la COVID-19 desde la perspectiva de sus docentes. La investigación cuantitativa se lleva a cabo con el objetivo de investigar el uso del aula virtual (VC) para enseñar a estudiantes con necesidades especiales en aulas inclusivas durante y después de Covid-19 desde las perspectivas de sus maestros. Se utilizó un método de encuesta. Las variables independientes son la utilidad percibida (PU), la facilidad de uso percibida (PEOU), mientras que la variable dependiente es la intención de comportamiento del estudiante (BI). Los datos fueron recolectados a través de un cuestionario estructurado autoadministrado, que se basó en el modelo de aceptación de tecnología (TAM). Se utilizaron la correlación de Pearson (r) y la regresión múltiple (MRA) para analizar los datos. Los resultados indicaron que el BI se ve afectado positivamente por PU, PEOU. PU, PEOU arrojaron un coeficiente de regresión múltiple (R) y un cuadrado de correlación múltiple. Esto muestra que PU, PEOU explican una variación total en BI.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Educación a Distancia , Estudiantes/psicología , Educación Especial/métodos , /epidemiología , Psicología Educacional , Psicología
5.
J. optom. (Internet) ; 17(1)Jan.-March. 2024. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-229118

RESUMEN

Purpose Myopia is a growing pandemic, especially in children, who risk low vision later in life. Home confinement during the COVID-19 pandemic may have increased myopia progression through increased screentime, decreased time outdoors and increased near work activities. The aim of this study is to compare progression of myopia in children during home confinement period in the COVID-19 pandemic with pre-COVID-19 progression. Methods On January 2023 PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane were searched for relevant studies. Studies meeting the following criteria were eligible for inclusion: children (under 18 years), home confinement due to COVID-19, spherical equivalent refractive (SER) and axial length (AL) measurements and a follow-up period to measure progression. Quality appraisal was performed by two reviewers independently using the Joanna Briggs Institute tool for cohort studies. Outcomes for myopia were assessed through meta-analysis, analyzing SER (random effects) and AL (fixed effects). Results Hundred and two articles were identified in the search, of which five studies were included in the analysis. Risk of bias is moderate with a few critical flaws in the studies. Myopia progressed more rapidly during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to the pre-COVID-19 period, both in terms of SER (-0.83D [95 %CI, −1.22, −0.43] and AL (0.36 mm [95 %CI, 0.13, 0.39]). Conclusion Progression of myopia during the COVID-19 pandemic accelerated more rapidly compared to the pre-COVID-19 period. Impact of home confinement on myopia may be considered when future lockdown measures are being contemplated. (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Niño , Miopía/diagnóstico , Miopía/prevención & control , Longitud Axial del Ojo/crecimiento & desarrollo , Longitud Axial del Ojo/patología , Pandemias , Cuarentena
6.
J. optom. (Internet) ; 17(1)Jan.-March. 2024. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-229119

RESUMEN

Purpose This review aimed to estimate the prevalence of computer vision syndrome (CVS) in the general population and subgroups. Methods A search was conducted in the following the databases: PubMed, SCOPUS, EMBASE, and Web of Science until February 13, 2023. We included studies that assessed the prevalence of CVS in any population. The Joanna Briggs Institute's critical appraisal tool was used to evaluate the methodological quality. A meta-analysis of the prevalence of CVS was done using a random-effects model, assessing the sources of heterogeneity using subgroup and meta-regression analyses. Results A total of 103 cross-sectional studies with 66 577 participants were included. The prevalence of CVS was 69.0% (95% CI: 62.3 to 75.3; I2: 99.7%), ranging from 12.1 to 97.3% across studies. Point prevalence was higher in women than in men (71.4 vs. 61.8%), university students (76.1%), Africa (71.2%), Asia (69.9%), contact lens wearers (73.1% vs. 63.8%) in studies conducted before the COVID-19 pandemic (72.8%), and in those that did not use the CVS-Q questionnaire (75.4%). In meta-regression, using the CVS-Q scale was associated with a lower prevalence of CVS. Conclusion Seven out of ten people suffer from CVS. Preventive strategies and interventions are needed to decrease the prevalence of this condition which can affect productivity and quality of life. Future studies should standardize a definition of CVS. (AU)


Asunto(s)
Prevalencia , Trastornos de la Visión , Salud Laboral , Equipos y Suministros Eléctricos
7.
Eur. j. psychiatry ; 38(1): [100227], Jan.-Mar. 2024. graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-229233

RESUMEN

Background and objectives Suicide is a major public health concern, media can influence its awareness, contagion, and prevention. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between the COVID-19 pandemic and suicide in media coverage through Natural Language Processing analysis (NPL). Methods To study how suicide is depicted in news media, Artificial Intelligence and Big Data techniques were used to analyze news and tweets, to extract or classify the topic to which they belonged. Results A granger causality analysis showed with significant p-value that an increase in covid news at the beginning of the pandemic explains a later rise in suicide-related news. An analysis based on correlation and structural causal models show a strong relationship between the appearance of subjects “health” and “covid”, and also between “covid” and “suicide”. Conclusions Our analysis also uncovers that the inclusion of suicide-related news in the category health has grown since the outbreak of the pandemic. The COVID-19 pandemic has posed an inflection point in the way suicide-related news are reported. Our study found that the increased media attention on suicide during the COVID-19 pandemic may indicate rising social awareness of suicide and mental health, which could lead to the development of new prevention tools. (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Salud Pública , Suicidio , Macrodatos , Inteligencia Artificial , Aprendizaje Automático , Medios de Comunicación , Red Social , Procesamiento Automatizado de Datos
8.
Rehabilitación (Madr., Ed. impr.) ; 58(1): [100821], Ene-Mar, 2024. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-229684

RESUMEN

Introducción: El estudio tuvo como objetivo explorar la calidad de vida de las personas con enfermedad de Parkinson durante el confinamiento por la pandemia de coronavirus de 2019 (covid-19). Material y métodos: El estudio fue de carácter cuantitativo, descriptivo y correlacional. La muestra fue de 51 personas con enfermedad de Parkinson de la región de Magallanes y Antártica Chilena, y cuya información fue recogida desde la base de datos de la Corporación de Rehabilitación Club de Leones Cruz del Sur, a la cual pertenecen. Resultados: Los principales resultados muestran que el 51,6% de las personas manifiestan una calidad de vida «buena y muy buena» y que los principales dominios del Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39) afectados son: malestar corporal, movilidad y bienestar emocional. Según el análisis de los rangos cualitativos del PDQ-39, las dimensiones que se mostraron más comprometidas durante el confinamiento por la pandemia por covid-19 fueron: comunicación, estigma y bienestar emocional. Además, las mujeres presentaron peor calidad de vida que los hombres. Por último, se demostró que la progresión de síntomas afecta la calidad de vida de las personas con enfermedad de Parkinson. Conclusiones: Durante el confinamiento por la pandemia por covid-19 las personas con enfermedad de Parkinson aumentaron los síntomas y presentaron una menor calidad de vida, sobre todo las de sexo femenino.(AU)


Introduction: The study was aimed to explore the quality of life of people with Parkinson's disease during confinement due to the coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (covid-19) pandemic. Material and methods: The study was quantitative, descriptive and correlational. The sample was 51 people with Parkinson's disease, from the region of Magallanes and Chilean Antarctica, and whose information was collected from the database of the Rehabilitation Corporation Club de Leones Cruz del Sur, to which they belong. Results: The main results show that 51.6% of people with Parkinson's disease report a «good and very good» quality of life and that the main domains of the Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39) affected are: body discomfort, mobility and emotional well-being. According to the analysis of the qualitative ranges of the PDQ-39, the dimensions that were most compromised during the confinement by the covid-19 pandemic were: communication, stigma and emotional well-being. In addition, women had a poorer quality of life than men. Finally, it was shown that the progression of symptoms affects the quality of life of people with Parkinson's disease. Conclusions: In conclusion, during the confinement due to the covid-19 pandemic people with Parkinson's disease increased symptoms and presented a lower quality of life, especially women.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Enfermedad de Parkinson/rehabilitación , Calidad de Vida , /complicaciones , Cuarentena , Actividades Cotidianas , Investigación Cualitativa , Epidemiología Descriptiva , Correlación de Datos , Chile/epidemiología , /epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Estudios Transversales
9.
Rev. esp. patol ; 57(1): 42-47, ene.-mar. 2024. ilus, tab
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-229921

RESUMEN

Subsequent to mass vaccination programs against COVID-19, diverse side effects have been described, both at the injection site, such as pain, redness and swelling, and systemic effects such as fatigue, headache, muscle or joint pain. On rare occasions, a lymphadenopathic syndrome may develop, raising the clinical suspicion of a lymphoproliferative disorder. We present the case of a 30-year-old woman who developed self-limiting left axillary lymphadenopathy following COVID-19 vaccination. To date, only seven similar cases with a complete clinicopathological description have been published, and fourteen cases have been notified to the European adverse events databases (Eudravigilance) in relationship with vaccination against COVID-19. It is important to be aware of this potential complication when a lymphadenopathic syndrome develops following vaccination, to avoid unnecessary treatment. (AU)


Tras la vacunación masiva frente a la COVID-19 se han comenzado a describir diversos efectos adversos incluyendo efectos locales en el lugar de la inyección, como dolor, enrojecimiento, hinchazón, etc., y efectos sistémicos como fatiga, dolor de cabeza, dolor muscular o articular. Más infrecuentemente se pueden desarrollar cuadros linfadenopáticos sospechosos clínicamente de proceso linfoproliferativo. Presentamos el caso de una mujer de 30 años que desarrolló linfadenopatía axilar izquierda tras la vacunación contra la COVID-19 con hallazgos histopatológicos de linfadenopatía necrotizante de tipo Kikuchi y resolución espontánea. Hasta el momento se han publicado 7 casos con descripción clinicopatológica completa en la literatura y notificado 14 casos en la Red Europea de Farmacovigilancia en relación con la vacunación. Es importante tener en cuenta esta entidad en linfadenopatías sospechosas de procesos linfoproliferativos en este contexto, para evitar un tratamiento innecesario. (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Adulto , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Vacunación Masiva/efectos adversos , Linfadenitis Necrotizante Histiocítica
10.
Enferm. intensiva (Ed. impr.) ; 35(1): 35-44, ene.-mar. 2024. mapas, tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-229932

RESUMEN

Introducción La pandemia derivada de la infección por SARS-CoV-2 propició cambios en los cuidados tanto a familiares como a pacientes de cuidados intensivos durante las diferentes olas de incidencia del virus. La línea de humanización seguida por la mayoría de los hospitales se vio gravemente afectada por las restricciones aplicadas. Como objetivo, planteamos conocer las modificaciones experimentadas durante las diferentes olas de la pandemia por SARS-CoV-2 en España respecto a la política de visitas a los pacientes en UCI, el acompañamiento al final de la vida, y el uso de las nuevas tecnologías de la comunicación entre familiares, pacientes y profesionales. Métodos Estudio descriptivo transversal multicéntrico mediante encuesta a las UCI españolas desde febrero a abril de 2022. Se realizaron métodos de análisis estadísticos a los resultados según lo apropiado. El estudio fue avalado por la Sociedad Española de Enfermería Intensiva y Unidades Coronarias. Resultados Respondieron un 29% de las unidades contactadas. Los minutos de visita diarios de los familiares se redujeron drásticamente de 135 (87,5-255) a 45 (25-60) en el 21,2% de las unidades que permitían su acceso, mejorando levemente con el paso de las olas. En el caso de duelo, la permisividad fue mayor, aumentando el uso de las nuevas tecnologías para la comunicación paciente-familia en el caso del 96,5% de las unidades. Conclusiones Las familias de los pacientes ingresados en UCI durante las diferentes olas de la pandemia por COVID-19 han experimentado restricciones en las visitas y cambio de la presencialidad por técnicas virtuales de comunicación. Los tiempos de acceso se redujeron a niveles mínimos durante la primera ola, recuperándose con el avance de la pandemia pero sin llegar nunca a los niveles iniciales... (AU)


Introduction The pandemic derived from the SARS-CoV-2 infection led to changes in care for both relatives and intensive care patients during the different waves of incidence of the virus. The line of humanization followed by the majority of the hospitals was seriously affected by the restrictions applied. As an objective, we propose to know the modifications suffered during the different waves of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in Spain regarding the policy of visits to patients in the ICU, monitoring at the end of life, and the use of new technologies of communication between family members, patients and professionals. Methods Multicenter cross-sectional descriptive study through a survey of Spanish ICUs from February to April 2022. Statistical analysis methods were performed on the results as appropriate. The study was endorsed by the Spanish Society of Intensive Nursing and Coronary Units. Results Twenty-nine percent of the units contacted responded. The daily visiting minutes of relatives dropped drastically from 135 (87.5-255) to 45 (25-60) in the 21.2% of units that allowed their access, improving slightly with the passing of the waves. In the case of bereavement, the permissiveness was greater, increasing the use of new technologies for patient-family communication in the case of 96.5% of the units. Conclusions The family of patients admitted to the ICU during the different waves of the COVID-19 pandemic have suffered restrictions on visits and a change from face-to-face to virtual communication techniques. Access times were reduced to minimum levels during the first wave, recovering with the advance of the pandemic but never reaching initial levels. Despite the implemented solutions and virtual communication, efforts should be directed towards improving the protocols for the humanization of healthcare that allow caring for families and patients whatever the healthcare context. (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Pandemias/estadística & datos numéricos , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos/ética , Humanización de la Atención , Cuidados Críticos/ética , Cuidados Críticos/estadística & datos numéricos , Aislamiento de Pacientes/ética , Comunicación en Salud/ética , Epidemiología Descriptiva , Estudios Transversales , Estudios Multicéntricos como Asunto , España
11.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 24(1): [100429], Ene-Mar, 2024. ilus
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-230369

RESUMEN

Individuals recovering from COVID-19 often present with persistent symptoms, particularly exercise intolerance and low cardiorespiratory fitness. Put simply, the Wasserman gear system describes the interdependence of heart, lungs, and musculature as determinants of cardiorespiratory fitness. Based on this system, recent findings indicate a contribution of peripheral, cardiovascular, and lung diffusion limitations to persistent symptoms of exercise intolerance and low cardiorespiratory fitness. The autonomic nervous system as an organ system involved in the pathophysiology of exercise intolerance and low cardiorespiratory fitness, has received only little attention as of yet. Hence, our article discusses contribution of the autonomic nervous system through four potential pathways, namely alterations in (1) cerebral hemodynamics, (2) afferent and efferent signaling, (3) central hypersensitivity, and (4) appraisal and engagement in physical activity. These pathways are summarized in a psycho-pathophysiological model. Consequently, this article encourages a shift in perspective by examining the state of the pulmonary and cardiovascular system, the periphery, and auxiliary, the autonomic nervous system as potential underlying mechanisms for exercise intolerance and low cardiorespiratory fitness in patients with post-COVID-19.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Sistema Nervioso Central , Ejercicio Físico , Síndromes Paraneoplásicos del Sistema Nervioso , /complicaciones , Enfermedad Cardiopulmonar , Prueba de Esfuerzo , Neurología , Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso , Salud Mental , /epidemiología
12.
Rev. bioét. derecho ; (60): 90-112, Mar. 2024.
Artículo en Portugués | IBECS | ID: ibc-230474

RESUMEN

Ci si è chiesti se la pandemia abbia modificato il modo in cui la morte e il morire vengano pensati. L’incontrollata diffusione del contagio e la mancanza di un’adeguata risposta organizzativa in termini di sanità pubblica ha determinato ben presto nelle TI una sproporzione tra domanda di assistenza (insufficienza respiratoria acuta) e risorse disponibili (personale formato, posti-letto, ventilatori meccanici). I clinici si sono così trovati nella condizione di dover decidere quali pazienti ammettere in TI e quali escludere. Sia in Italia che in Spagna si è fatto ricorso al triage: sono state elaborate alcune raccomandazioni che hanno destato perplessità e critiche nell’ambito medico ed etico-giuridico.(AU)


En aquest article es reflexiona sobre la forma en què la pandèmia derivada de la COVID-19 ha alterat determinats processos assistencials davant de la mort. La ràpida propagació incontrolada de la malaltia i la manca de resposta organitzativa en termes de salut pública aviat van conduir a una desproporció entre la demanda assistencial en cures intensives i els recursos humans imaterials per satisfer-la. En ocasions, els metges s'han vist en el dilema de decidir quins pacients tractar i quins excloure a les unitats de cures intensives. Tant a Espanya com a Itàlia s'ha fet servir el triatge i s'han publicat algunes recomanacions que han suscitat algunes crítiques en l'àmbit mèdic, ètic i legal. Es planteja el dubte de si aquestes mesures excepcionals es poden aplicar quan es recupera la normalitat sociosanitària.(AU)


En este artículo se reflexiona sobre la forma en que la pandemia derivada del COVID-19 ha alterado determinados procesos asistenciales frente a la muerte. La rápida propagación incontrolada de la enfermedad y la faltade respuesta organizativa en términos de salud pública pronto condujeron a una desproporción entre la demanda asistencial en cuidados intensivos y los recursos humanos y materiales para satisfacerla. En ocasiones, los médicos se han visto en el dilema de decidir qué pacientes tratar y cuales excluir en las unidades de cuidados intensivos. Tanto en España como en Italia se ha usado el triaje y se han publicado algunas recomendaciones que han suscitado ciertas críticas en el ámbito médico, ético y legal. Se plantea el interrogante de que estas medidas excepcionales se puedan aplicar cuando se recupera la normalidad socio sanitaria.(AU)


This paper reflects on the way in which the pandemic derived from COVID-19 has altered certain care processes in the face of death. The rapid uncontrolled spread of the disease, and the lack of organizational response in terms of public health soon led to a disproportion between the demand for intensive care and the human and material resources to meet it. At times, doctors have been faced with the dilemma of deciding which patients to treat and which to exclude in intensive care units. Both in Spain and Italy triage has been used and some recommendations have been published that have provoked some criticism in the medical, ethical and legal field. The question arises whether these exceptional measures can be applied when socio-sanitary normality is restored.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Pesar , /epidemiología , /mortalidad , Triaje , Cuidados Críticos
13.
Rev. esp. patol ; 57(1): 42-47, ene.-mar. 2024. ilus, tab
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-EMG-539

RESUMEN

Subsequent to mass vaccination programs against COVID-19, diverse side effects have been described, both at the injection site, such as pain, redness and swelling, and systemic effects such as fatigue, headache, muscle or joint pain. On rare occasions, a lymphadenopathic syndrome may develop, raising the clinical suspicion of a lymphoproliferative disorder. We present the case of a 30-year-old woman who developed self-limiting left axillary lymphadenopathy following COVID-19 vaccination. To date, only seven similar cases with a complete clinicopathological description have been published, and fourteen cases have been notified to the European adverse events databases (Eudravigilance) in relationship with vaccination against COVID-19. It is important to be aware of this potential complication when a lymphadenopathic syndrome develops following vaccination, to avoid unnecessary treatment. (AU)


Tras la vacunación masiva frente a la COVID-19 se han comenzado a describir diversos efectos adversos incluyendo efectos locales en el lugar de la inyección, como dolor, enrojecimiento, hinchazón, etc., y efectos sistémicos como fatiga, dolor de cabeza, dolor muscular o articular. Más infrecuentemente se pueden desarrollar cuadros linfadenopáticos sospechosos clínicamente de proceso linfoproliferativo. Presentamos el caso de una mujer de 30 años que desarrolló linfadenopatía axilar izquierda tras la vacunación contra la COVID-19 con hallazgos histopatológicos de linfadenopatía necrotizante de tipo Kikuchi y resolución espontánea. Hasta el momento se han publicado 7 casos con descripción clinicopatológica completa en la literatura y notificado 14 casos en la Red Europea de Farmacovigilancia en relación con la vacunación. Es importante tener en cuenta esta entidad en linfadenopatías sospechosas de procesos linfoproliferativos en este contexto, para evitar un tratamiento innecesario. (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Adulto , Infecciones por Coronavirus/epidemiología , Vacunación Masiva/efectos adversos , Linfadenitis Necrotizante Histiocítica
14.
Enferm. intensiva (Ed. impr.) ; 35(1): 35-44, ene.-mar. 2024. mapas, tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-EMG-552

RESUMEN

Introducción La pandemia derivada de la infección por SARS-CoV-2 propició cambios en los cuidados tanto a familiares como a pacientes de cuidados intensivos durante las diferentes olas de incidencia del virus. La línea de humanización seguida por la mayoría de los hospitales se vio gravemente afectada por las restricciones aplicadas. Como objetivo, planteamos conocer las modificaciones experimentadas durante las diferentes olas de la pandemia por SARS-CoV-2 en España respecto a la política de visitas a los pacientes en UCI, el acompañamiento al final de la vida, y el uso de las nuevas tecnologías de la comunicación entre familiares, pacientes y profesionales. Métodos Estudio descriptivo transversal multicéntrico mediante encuesta a las UCI españolas desde febrero a abril de 2022. Se realizaron métodos de análisis estadísticos a los resultados según lo apropiado. El estudio fue avalado por la Sociedad Española de Enfermería Intensiva y Unidades Coronarias. Resultados Respondieron un 29% de las unidades contactadas. Los minutos de visita diarios de los familiares se redujeron drásticamente de 135 (87,5-255) a 45 (25-60) en el 21,2% de las unidades que permitían su acceso, mejorando levemente con el paso de las olas. En el caso de duelo, la permisividad fue mayor, aumentando el uso de las nuevas tecnologías para la comunicación paciente-familia en el caso del 96,5% de las unidades. Conclusiones Las familias de los pacientes ingresados en UCI durante las diferentes olas de la pandemia por COVID-19 han experimentado restricciones en las visitas y cambio de la presencialidad por técnicas virtuales de comunicación. Los tiempos de acceso se redujeron a niveles mínimos durante la primera ola, recuperándose con el avance de la pandemia pero sin llegar nunca a los niveles iniciales... (AU)


Introduction The pandemic derived from the SARS-CoV-2 infection led to changes in care for both relatives and intensive care patients during the different waves of incidence of the virus. The line of humanization followed by the majority of the hospitals was seriously affected by the restrictions applied. As an objective, we propose to know the modifications suffered during the different waves of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in Spain regarding the policy of visits to patients in the ICU, monitoring at the end of life, and the use of new technologies of communication between family members, patients and professionals. Methods Multicenter cross-sectional descriptive study through a survey of Spanish ICUs from February to April 2022. Statistical analysis methods were performed on the results as appropriate. The study was endorsed by the Spanish Society of Intensive Nursing and Coronary Units. Results Twenty-nine percent of the units contacted responded. The daily visiting minutes of relatives dropped drastically from 135 (87.5-255) to 45 (25-60) in the 21.2% of units that allowed their access, improving slightly with the passing of the waves. In the case of bereavement, the permissiveness was greater, increasing the use of new technologies for patient-family communication in the case of 96.5% of the units. Conclusions The family of patients admitted to the ICU during the different waves of the COVID-19 pandemic have suffered restrictions on visits and a change from face-to-face to virtual communication techniques. Access times were reduced to minimum levels during the first wave, recovering with the advance of the pandemic but never reaching initial levels. Despite the implemented solutions and virtual communication, efforts should be directed towards improving the protocols for the humanization of healthcare that allow caring for families and patients whatever the healthcare context. (AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Pandemias/estadística & datos numéricos , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos/ética , Humanización de la Atención , Cuidados Críticos/ética , Cuidados Críticos/estadística & datos numéricos , Aislamiento de Pacientes/ética , Comunicación en Salud/ética , Epidemiología Descriptiva , Estudios Transversales , Estudios Multicéntricos como Asunto , España
15.
Lancet Respir. Med ; 12(2): 153-166, fev.2024.
Artículo en Inglés | CONASS, Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IDPCPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1527259

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction, sleep-disordered breathing, comprising obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) and central sleep apnoea (CSA), is associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and sleep disruption. We hypothesised that treating sleep-disordered breathing with a peak-flow triggered adaptive servo-ventilation (ASV) device would improve cardiovascular outcomes in patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction. METHODS: We conducted a multicentre, multinational, parallel-group, open-label, phase 3 randomised controlled trial of peak-flow triggered ASV in patients aged 18 years or older with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction (left ventricular ejection fraction ≤45%) who were stabilised on optimal medical therapy with co-existing sleep-disordered breathing (apnoea-hypopnoea index [AHI] ≥15 events/h of sleep), with concealed allocation and blinded outcome assessments. The trial was carried out at 49 hospitals in nine countries. Sleep-disordered breathing was stratified into predominantly OSA with an Epworth Sleepiness Scale score of 10 or lower or predominantly CSA. Participants were randomly assigned to standard optimal treatment alone or standard optimal treatment with the addition of ASV (1:1), stratified by study site and sleep apnoea type (ie, CSA or OSA), with permuted blocks of sizes 4 and 6 in random order. Clinical evaluations were performed and Minnesota Living with Heart Failure Questionnaire, Epworth Sleepiness Scale, and New York Heart Association class were assessed at months 1, 3, and 6 following randomisation and every 6 months thereafter to a maximum of 5 years. The primary endpoint was the cumulative incidence of the composite of all-cause mortality, first admission to hospital for a cardiovascular reason, new onset atrial fibrillation or flutter, and delivery of an appropriate cardioverter-defibrillator shock. All-cause mortality was a secondary endpoint. Analysis for the primary outcome was done in the intention-to-treat population. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01128816) and the International Standard Randomised Controlled Trial Number Register (ISRCTN67500535), and the trial is complete. FINDINGS: The first and last enrolments were Sept 22, 2010, and March 20, 2021. Enrolments terminated prematurely due to COVID-19-related restrictions. 1127 patients were screened, of whom 731 (65%) patients were randomly assigned to receive standard care (n=375; mean AHI 42·8 events per h of sleep [SD 20·9]) or standard care plus ASV (n=356; 43·3 events per h of sleep [20·5]). Follow-up of all patients ended at the latest on June 15, 2021, when the trial was terminated prematurely due to a recall of the ASV device due to potential disintegration of the motor sound-abatement material. Over the course of the trial, 41 (6%) of participants withdrew consent and 34 (5%) were lost to follow-up. In the ASV group, the mean AHI decreased to 2·8-3·7 events per h over the course of the trial, with associated improvements in sleep quality assessed 1 month following randomisation. Over a mean follow-up period of 3·6 years (SD 1·6), ASV had no effect on the primary composite outcome (180 events in the control group vs 166 in the ASV group; hazard ratio [HR] 0·95, 95% CI 0·77-1·18; p=0·67) or the secondary endpoint of all-cause mortality (88 deaths in the control group vs. 76 in the ASV group; 0·89, 0·66-1·21; p=0·47). For patients with OSA, the HR for all-cause mortality was 1·00 (0·68-1·46; p=0·98) and for CSA was 0·74 (0·44-1·23; p=0·25). No safety issue related to ASV use was identified. INTERPRETATION: In patients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction and sleep-disordered breathing, ASV had no effect on the primary composite outcome or mortality but eliminated sleep-disordered breathing safely.


Asunto(s)
Síndromes de la Apnea del Sueño/complicaciones , Función Ventricular Izquierda , Volumen Sistólico , Insuficiencia Cardíaca/complicaciones
16.
Headache ; 64(2): 211-225, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38299747

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to summarize the evidence regarding screen use as a contributing factor in pediatric headache and migraine. BACKGROUND: Screen exposure is often reported as a headache trigger, though there is no current consensus in terms of how screen type, duration, or frequency influences pediatric headache and the associated burden of disease. METHODS: A systematic search in PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, ProQuest Health and Medical Database, and Google Scholar was performed through November 2022 in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) statement. All English-language articles of pediatric patients aged ≤18 years evaluating screen use in relation to headache were included. RESULTS: A total of 48 studies were included. Nearly all studies were cross-sectional and represented international samples. The strongest association between screen use and headache found was for duration of use, and computer use emerged as the most common device type related to headache. While there were mixed findings related to screen use and specific headache diagnosis, migraine appeared to confer a higher risk. Across studies, there were insufficient data to assess the impact of screen use on headache frequency or headache-related disability. Several studies demonstrated changes in screen use and headache patterns related to the COVID-19 pandemic and computer vision syndrome was commonly reported. CONCLUSIONS: While there is preliminary evidence supporting possible associations between screen use and pediatric headache, there are several limitations in the present review including a lack of prospective and randomized controlled trials to better demonstrate causal relationships as well as methodological limitations with significant variability in how both headache and screen use are defined and measured. Future studies including real-time screen use and device monitoring are needed to better understand the influence of screen use behaviors on pediatric headache and to help further define best-use guidelines around these technologies.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Trastornos Migrañosos , Humanos , Niño , Pandemias , Tiempo de Pantalla , Cefalea/diagnóstico , Cefalea/epidemiología , Trastornos Migrañosos/diagnóstico , Trastornos Migrañosos/epidemiología , COVID-19/complicaciones , COVID-19/epidemiología
17.
Ann Ig ; 36(2): 215-226, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38299733

RESUMEN

Background: Subjects with selected underlying medical conditions are at higher risk of infection and severe outcomes from vaccines preventable diseases. While most countries adopt life-course approaches to vaccination, high-risk group immunization programmes could maximize individual protection, while contributing to population health. The COVID-19 pandemic stimulated the planning and implementation of successful hospital-based high-risk groups' immunization models. However, in Italy, high-risk subjects' vaccine coverage is not actively monitored at the national or regional level, nor shared guidelines exist yet on hospital-based immunization programmes. Study Design: The study reports findings from a region-wide assessment of the availability, characteristics, and setting-specific features of hospital-based immunization programmes for high-risk subjects in the Lombardy region. Methods: Fondazione The Bridge a not-for-profit organization based in Milan, in collaboration with the Prevention Unit of the Lombardy Region Directorate for Welfare, and the University of Pavia coordinated a project aimed at bringing together regional health institutions, key stakeholders, academic experts, scientific societies and patients' associations to assess high-risk subjects' barriers to vaccine uptake and inform preventive programmes and policies. In this context, we designed and implemented a survey to systematically map the existence and characteristics of hospital-based immunization programmes targeting high-risk subjects. The survey was proposed to all 115 hospital medical directions of the Lombardy region. Results: We collected data from 97 hospital medical directions, with a response rate of 85%. Among respondents, 24% were publi-cly managed hospitals, 17% were Scientific Institute for Research, Hospitalization and Healthcare (IRCCS) and 59% accredited private hospitals. Overall, 51.5% facilities in the Lombardy Region reported to actively administer vaccines to high-risk subjects in hospital settings, the prevalence being 89.6% in public hospitals. Among hospitals where vaccines are actively administered, 46% reported to have centralized vaccines ambulatory clinics, while 54% reported to administer vaccines in the context of inpa-tient care, within clinical wards. In 14% of hospitals vaccination counselling is carried out at the hospital level, while patients are referred to community services for the vaccine administration, 58% have established clinical pathways and formalized internal procedures to integrate vaccine prevention within the clinical care. Conclusions: Half of hospital facilities in the Lombardy Region administer vaccines to high-risk patients. Hospital-based im-munization models vary widely by vaccines programmes, organizational aspects, vaccines procurement and workforce involved. Identifying best practices and effective models can help tackle current challenges and improve immunization coverage for at-risk groups.


Asunto(s)
Pandemias , Vacunas , Humanos , Pandemias/prevención & control , Programas de Inmunización , Vacunación , Italia/epidemiología , Hospitales
18.
Psychiatry Res ; 333: 115744, 2024 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38301287

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Depression and loneliness co-occur frequently. This study examined interactive changes between depression and loneliness among older adults prior to and during the COVID-19 pandemic from a longitudinal network perspective. METHODS: This network study was based on data from three waves (2016-2017, 2018-2019, and 2020) of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA). Depression and loneliness were measured with the eight-item version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD-8) and three item version of the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) Loneliness Scale, respectively. A network model was constructed using an Ising Model while network differences were assessed using a Network Comparison Test. Central symptoms were identified via Expected Influence (EI). RESULTS: A total of 4,293 older adults were included in this study. The prevalence and network of depression and loneliness did not change significantly between the baseline and pre-pandemic assessments but increased significantly from the pre-pandemic assessment to during COVID-19 assessment. The central symptom with the strongest increase from pre-pandemic to pandemic assessments was "Inability to get going" (CESD8) and the edge with the highest increase across depression-loneliness symptom communities was "Lack companionship" (UCLA1) - "Inability to get going" (CESD8). Finally, "Feeling depressed" (CESD1) and "Everything was an effort" (CESD2) were the most central symptoms over the three assessment periods. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic was associated with significant changes in the depression-loneliness network model. The most changed symptoms and edges could be treatment targets for reducing the risk of depression and loneliness in older adults.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Soledad , Humanos , Anciano , COVID-19/epidemiología , Pandemias , Depresión/epidemiología , Estudios Longitudinales
19.
Eur J Oncol Nurs ; 68: 102506, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38301385

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Life review interventions aim to support individuals facing an incurable disease accompanied by existential concerns and health-related challenges. Based on encouraging feasibility results, this study assessed the effects of Revie ⊕ life review intervention on the self-esteem of patients with advanced cancer, and the effects on well-being, post-traumatic growth, life satisfaction, symptom burden and interaction with nurses. METHOD: The study consisted of a two-arm parallel-group, waitlist-controlled trial (WCT) in the oncology division of a Swiss-French University Hospital. Revie ⊕ was composed of nurse-led meeting with the patient to address and document significant life events using a strengths-focused approach and targeting the life project. RESULTS: Due to Covid-19 pandemic, adjustments were made regarding study duration and participant's allocation: Fifty-eight patients received Revie ⊕, 39 completed all the measurements. Self-esteem was high at baseline and maintained stability over time. The social well-being decreased in the intervention group before-after Revie ⊕ (-1.7 (3.9), p = 0.044) while emotional and functional well-being showed stability. The intensity of symptoms decreased in the intervention group before-after Revie ⊕: 4.9 (9.4), p = 0.020. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that patients living with an advanced cancer and who received Revie ⊕ intervention may have maintained their self-esteem high over time. Observed results are promising, particularly considering the influence of the pandemic. Nevertheless, these findings do not allow us to draw definitive conclusions regarding the efficacy of the intervention on self-esteem. WCT seems not to be the appropriate design to highlight the added value of Revie ⊕ for this particularly vulnerable population. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04254926.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Neoplasias , Humanos , Pandemias , Neoplasias/psicología
20.
Environ Pollut ; 346: 123464, 2024 Jan 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38301822

RESUMEN

The worst forest fires in Korean history broke out on March 4, 2022 and lasted for ten days. In order to monitor the catastrophic forest fires, Geostationary Korea Multi-Purpose Satellite (GK)-2 A Advanced Meteorological Imager (AMI) and GK-2B Geostationary Environment Monitoring Spectrometer (GEMS) data were used in this study. Aerosol optical depth (AOD) irretrievable for the biomass-burning aerosols produced with water vapor classified as could-contaminated, was reconstructed by ultraviolet aerosol index (UVAI). Afterward, aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) at TOA was finally estimated by the correlation of AOD and surface albedo with ARF. Most of the aerosols drifted toward the East Sea by the prevailing westerly winds, and caused a cooling effect on the atmosphere with a maximum daily average radiative forcing of -69.28 Wm-2. Furthermore, the fire-prone conditions for the unprecedented forest fires were discussed in detail as following aspects; 1) the most severe drought caused by a "triple-dip" La Niña; 2) pressure patterns and topographical features that generate strong winds; 3) coniferous forests prone to fires; and 4) increased human activity following the nationwide COVID-19 vaccination. This study demonstrated that the rapid and effective ARF estimation based on the satellite remote sensing can contribute to a better understanding of ARF in the Earth's radiation budget for the global forest fires that will be more frequent, intense, and longer-lasting due to the human-caused climate and environment changes.

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