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1.
Comput Biol Med ; 146: 105549, 2022 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35751193

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Based on bioinformatics and network pharmacology, the treatment of Saussurea involucrata (SAIN) on novel coronavirus (COVID-19) was evaluated by the GEO clinical sample gene difference analysis, compound-target molecular docking, and molecular dynamics simulation. role in the discovery of new targets for the prevention or treatment of COVID-19, to better serve the discovery and clinical application of new drugs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Taking the Traditional Chinese Medicine System Pharmacology Database (TCMSP) as the starting point for the preliminary selection of compounds and targets, we used tools such as Cytoscape 3.8.0, TBtools 1.098, AutoDock vina, R 4.0.2, PyMol, and GROMACS to analyze the compounds of SAIN and targets were initially screened. To further screen the active ingredients and targets, we carried out genetic difference analysis (n = 72) through clinical samples of COVID-19 derived from GEO and carried out biological process (BP) analysis on these screened targets (P ≤ 0.05)., gene = 9), KEGG pathway analysis (FDR≤0.05, gene = 9), protein interaction network (PPI) analysis (gene = 9), and compounds-target-pathway network analysis (gene = 9), to obtain the target Point-regulated biological processes, disease pathways, and compounds-target-pathway relationships. Through the precise molecular docking between the compounds and the targets, we further screened SAIN's active ingredients (Affinity ≤ -7.2 kcal/mol) targets and visualized the data. After that, we performed molecular dynamics simulations and consulted a large number of related Validation of the results in the literature. RESULTS: Through the screening, analysis, and verification of the data, it was finally confirmed that there are five main active ingredients in SAIN, which are Quercitrin, Rutin, Caffeic acid, Jaceosidin, and Beta-sitosterol, and mainly act on five targets. These targets mainly regulate Tuberculosis, TNF signaling pathway, Alzheimer's disease, Pertussis, Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, Influenza A, Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), Neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction, Complement and coagulation cascades, Fructose and mannose metabolism, and Metabolic pathways, play a role in preventing or treating COVID-19. Molecular dynamics simulation results show that the four active ingredients of SAIN, Quercitrin, Rutin, Caffeic acid, and Jaceosidin, act on the four target proteins of COVID-19, AKR1B1, C5AR1, GSK3B, and IL1B to form complexes that can be very stable in the human environment. Tertiary structure exists. CONCLUSION: Our study successfully explained the effective mechanism of SAIN in improving COVID-19, and at the same time predicted the potential targets of SAIN in the treatment of COVID-19, AKR1B1, IL1B, and GSK3B. It provides a new basis and provides great support for subsequent research on COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos , Saussurea , Aldehído Reductasa , COVID-19/tratamiento farmacológico , Biología Computacional , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/farmacología , Medicamentos Herbarios Chinos/uso terapéutico , Humanos , Medicina China Tradicional , Simulación del Acoplamiento Molecular , Terapia Molecular Dirigida , Rutina
2.
Respiration ; : 1-17, 2022 Jun 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35760050

RESUMEN

New tuberculosis (TB) diagnostics are at a crossroads: their development, evaluation, and implementation is severely damaged by resource diversion due to COVID-19. Yet several technologies, especially those with potential for non-invasive non-sputum-based testing, hold promise for efficiently triaging and rapidly confirming TB near point-of-care. Such tests are, however, progressing through the pipeline slowly and will take years to reach patients and health workers. Compellingly, such tests will create new opportunities for difficult-to-diagnose populations, including primary care attendees (all-comers in high burden settings irrespective of reason for presentation) and community members (with early stage disease or risk factors like HIV), many of whom cannot easily produce sputum. Critically, all upcoming technologies have limitations that implementers and health workers need to be cognizant of to ensure optimal deployment without undermining confidence in a technology that still offers improvements over the status quo. In this state-of-the-art review, we critically appraise such technologies for active pulmonary TB diagnosis. We highlight strengths, limitations, outstanding research questions, and how current and future tests could be used in the presence of these limitations and uncertainties. Among triage tests, CRP (for which commercial near point-of-care devices exist) and computer-aided detection software with digital chest X-ray hold promise, together with late-stage blood-based assays that detect host and/or microbial biomarkers; however, aside from a handful of prototypes, the latter category has a shortage of promising late-stage alternatives. Furthermore, positive results from new triage tests may have utility in people without TB; however, their utility for informing diagnostic pathways for other diseases is under-researched (most sick people tested for TB do not have TB). For confirmatory tests, few true point-of-care options will be available soon; however, combining novel approaches like tongue swabs with established tests like Ultra have short-term promise but first require optimizations to specimen collection and processing procedures. Concerningly, no technologies yet have compelling evidence of meeting the World Health Organization optimal target product profile performance criteria, especially for important operational criteria crucial for field deployment. This is alarming as the target product profile criteria are themselves almost a decade old and require urgent revision, especially to cater for technologies made prominent by the COVID-19 diagnostic response (e.g., at-home testing and connectivity solutions). Throughout the review, we underscore the importance of how target populations and settings affect test performance and how the criteria by which these tests should be judged vary by use case, including in active case finding. Lastly, we advocate for health workers and researchers to themselves be vocal proponents of the uptake of both new tests and those - already available tests that remain suboptimally utilized.

3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35682493

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Desert dust outbreaks and dust storms are the major source of particulate matter globally and pose a major threat to human health. We investigated the microorganisms transported with desert dust particles and evaluated their potential impact on human health. METHODS: A systematic review of all reports on the association between non-anthropogenic desert dust pollution, dust microorganisms and human health is conducted. RESULTS: In total, 51 articles were included in this review. The affected regions studied were Asia (32/51, 62.7%) followed by Europe (9/51, 17.6%), America (6/51, 11.8%), Africa (4/51, 7.8%) and Australia (1/51, 2.0%). The Sahara Desert was the most frequent source of dust, followed by Asian and American deserts. In 39/51 studies the dust-related microbiome was analyzed, while, in 12/51 reports, the association of desert dust with infectious disease outbreaks was examined. Pathogenic and opportunistic agents were isolated from dust in 24/39 (61.5%) and 29/39 (74.4%) of the studies, respectively. A significant association of dust events with infectious disease outbreaks was found in 10/12 (83.3%) reports. The infectious diseases that were mostly investigated with dust outbreaks were pneumonia, respiratory tract infections, COVID-19, pulmonary tuberculosis and coccidioidomycosis. CONCLUSIONS: Desert dust outbreaks are vehicles of a significant number of pathogenic or opportunistic microorganisms and limited data indicate an association between dust events and infectious disease outbreaks. Further research is required to strengthen the correlation between dust events and infectious diseases and subsequently guide preventive public health measures.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , COVID-19 , Enfermedades Transmisibles , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Enfermedades Transmisibles/epidemiología , Clima Desértico , Brotes de Enfermedades , Polvo/análisis , Humanos , Material Particulado
4.
BMC Womens Health ; 22(1): 221, 2022 06 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35690751

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Postpartum depression (PPD) is the most prevalent mental health disorder after childbirth, notably during the COVID-19 pandemic. In addition, PPD is known to have a long-term influence on the mother and the newborn, and the role of social support network is crucial in early illness recognition. This study aims to evaluate the social support networks' level of knowledge, attitudes and beliefs regarding PPD and examine their sociodemographic variables and exposure to the public information relating to PPD during the COVID-19 pandemic in Malaysia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted via an online Google Form disseminated to people in Klang Valley through WhatsApp, Email, Facebook, Instagram and other available social media among postpartum women's social support networks aged 18 years and living in the Klang Valley area (N = 394). Data were collected from 1 March to 5 July 2021 and analysed using the Mann-Whitney U-test and generalised linear mixed models. RESULTS: During the COVID-19 epidemic in Klang Valley, most participants had good knowledge, negative attitudes and awareness of PPD. Marital status, gender and parity all had significant correlations with the amount of awareness regarding PPD. Ethnicity, gender, parity and educational level showed significant association with attitude towards PPD. No significant relationship was noted between sociodemographic variables and PPD beliefs. Public awareness of PPD was also associated with knowledge and attitude towards it. CONCLUSIONS: A significant positive knowledge, negative attitude and negative awareness level of PPD exist among social support networks for postnatal women. However, no significant effect of belief on PPD awareness level was noted. IMPLICATIONS: Insight campaigns and public education about PPD should be conducted to enhance postnatal mothers' awareness and knowledge. Postnatal care, mental check-ups and counselling sessions for the new mothers are recommended. In future studies, a closer assessment of postpartum social support, variances and similarities across women from diverse racial/ethnic origins is critical. STRENGTHS AND LIMITATIONS: This cross-sectional study is one of the early studies on the area of PPD in the Malaysian region during COVID-19. Numerous data have been collected using low-cost approaches using self-administered surveys through Google Forms in this research.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Depresión Posparto , Estudios Transversales , Depresión Posparto/epidemiología , Femenino , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Malasia , Pandemias , Periodo Posparto , Embarazo , Apoyo Social , Tuberculina
5.
Indian J Tuberc ; 69(3): 259-261, 2022 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35760473

RESUMEN

The Honourable Prime Minister of India set a target of year 2025 for elimination of TB from the country, 5 years ahead of the Sustainable Development Goal of 2030. Last few years, India has made significant improvements, towards elimination of tuberculosis from the country in the form of bold policies and unprecedented political commitment. While COVID-19 has resulted in setbacks for TB elimination efforts, it has also offered an opportunity to revisit and structurally redesign the public health infrastructure/system in our country. The dream of TB elimination is possible with active participation of all stakeholders and community at large coupled with accelerated development of new diagnostics, drugs, and development of a new TB vaccine. COVID-19 pandemic has shown that vaccines can be developed in a year, contrarily, the lack of a TB vaccine is deterrent in the efforts towards a TB free world. A progress towards TB elimination would require potential contribution of novel TB vaccine. Now, is the time for mobilization towards a TB vaccine to make an impact towards our end TB goal.

6.
Indian J Tuberc ; 69(3): 264-267, 2022 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35760475

RESUMEN

The recent guidelines on the Programmatic Management of Drug-Resistant Tuberculosis (DR-TB) in India (PMDT) have been released in March 2021 on World TB Day. The new guidelines have considered emerging diagnostic trends including TrueNat, Xpert Mtb/XDR, Next generation sequencing and evaluation for resistance to newer drugs including Bedaquiline (Bdq) and Delamanid. The emerging therapeutic trends include focus on oral shorter Bdq based regimen with phasing out injectables use. The replacement sequence of drugs for DR-TB have also been updated. Updated definitions for pre-XDR, XDR, culture conversion and default have also been added. These guidelines are a paradigm shift which will make treating DR-TB easier and more efficient especially during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic crisis.

8.
Indian J Tuberc ; 69(3): 369-370, 2022 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35760490

RESUMEN

We report an interesting case of an indeterminate MTB QuantiFERON for a 26-year-old healthy soldier planned for a routine field exercise to Brunei. Further medical history revealed that the patient had a Moderna mRNA Covid-19 vaccine the day before his MTB QuantiFERON test. The patient was subsequently asked to repeat a T-spot test which was non-reactive, there were no longer any issues with the positive control for the T-spot test. Current Covid-19 research suggests that infection causes a dysregulation of the immune system, perhaps this might also be extrapolated where a Covid-19 vaccine might provoke an immune response which might interfere with some immunological assays. In summary there should be more research invested into the immunological interactions that the newly developed Covid-19 vaccinations have with our existing immunological tests such as QuantiFERON tests which forms a key cornerstone in our fight against tuberculosis.

9.
Klin Onkol ; 35(3): 215-221, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35760574

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The pandemic of COVID-19 has significantly influenced the dia-gnostics and treatment of patients with lung and pleural malignancies. This group of patients is the riskiest, compared to patients with other cancers, both in morbidity and mortality. STUDY POPULATION AND METHODS: The data of patients with lung/pleural malignancies and proved COVID-19 positivity were analyzed at the Department of Respiratory Diseases and Tuberculosis, University Hospital Brno, during the period from October 2020 to May 2021. Demographic data, information about the course of SARS-CoV-2 infection and oncological disease as well as mortality were monitored. Together with the data from the study population, three case reports are also presented. RESULTS: Fifty-three patients were found (79% males), mean age 69.4 years, mainly with adenocarcinoma histology. A total of 47.1% patients experienced mild course of SARS-CoV-2 infection, 56.6% needed hospitalization, 24.5% died. Active anticancer treatment was delayed in 62.4% cases due to SARS-CoV-2 infection; the mean time of the delay reached 14.5 days. CONCLUSION: Patients with lung and pleural malignancies have a high risk of severe course of SARS-CoV-2 infection and mortality. Moreover, the ongoing SARS-CoV-2 infection as well as postcovid changes can complicate the anticancer treatment itself.

10.
Respirology ; 2022 Jun 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35670259

RESUMEN

Bats are likely the primary source of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Minks are highly susceptible to infection by SARS-CoV-2. Transmission from asymptomatic individuals was estimated to account for over 50% of all transmissions of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases. SARS-CoV-2 is evolving towards more efficient aerosol transmission. Remdesivir, baricitinib, tocilizumab and dexamethasone are frequently used for the treatment of patients with respiratory failure due to COVID-19. There is a rising incidence of non-tuberculous Mycobacterium pulmonary disease globally, with a higher prevalence in Asian countries than in the Western world. Protracted bacterial bronchitis is a common cause of chronic productive cough in childhood. Re-emergence of respiratory syncytial virus may occur after the relaxation of infection control measures and the reopening of borders during COVID-19 pandemic.

11.
Am J Public Health ; 112(7): 1025-1033, 2022 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35653650

RESUMEN

Contact tracing-the process of identifying, isolating, and managing infected persons and their contacts-is a recognized public health measure for controlling the transmission of infectious diseases. In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, contact tracing has received intense attention. We provide a brief overview of the history of contact tracing during several major disease outbreaks in the past century: syphilis and other sexually transmitted infections, HIV infection, tuberculosis, Ebola virus disease, and COVID-19. Our discussion on the barriers to and facilitators of contact tracing offers a perspective on societal and institutional roles and dynamics, stigma as a major barrier to effective tracing efforts, and how the nature and epidemiology of the infection itself can affect its success. We explore the evolution and adaptation of contact tracing and provide insights for future programming and research. (Am J Public Health. 2022;112(7):1025-1033. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2022.306842).


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Infecciones por VIH , Fiebre Hemorrágica Ebola , COVID-19/epidemiología , Trazado de Contacto , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Fiebre Hemorrágica Ebola/epidemiología , Humanos , Pandemias/prevención & control
12.
Electrophoresis ; 2022 Jun 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35689426

RESUMEN

Life-threatening diseases, such as hepatitis B, pneumonia, tuberculosis, and COVID-19, are widespread due to pathogenic bacteria and viruses. Therefore, the development of highly sensitive, rapid, portable, cost-effective, and selective methods for the analysis of such microorganisms is a great challenge. Microchip electrophoresis (ME) has been widely used in recent years for the analysis of bacterial and viral pathogens in biological and environmental samples owing to its portability, simplicity, cost-effectiveness, and rapid analysis. However, microbial enrichment and purification are critical steps for accurate and sensitive analysis of pathogenic bacteria and viruses in complex matrices. Therefore, we first discussed the advances in the sample preparation technologies associated with the accurate analysis of such microorganisms, especially the on-chip microfluidic-based sample preparations such as dielectrophoresis and microfluidic membrane filtration. Thereafter, we focused on the recent advances in the lab-on-a-chip electrophoretic analysis of pathogenic bacteria and viruses in different complex matrices. As the microbial analysis is mainly based on the analysis of nucleic acid of the microorganism, the integration of nucleic acid-based amplification techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR), quantitative PCR, and multiplex PCR with ME will result in an accurate and sensitive analysis of microbial pathogens. Such analyses are very important for the point-of-care diagnosis of various infectious diseases.

13.
BMJ Open ; 12(6): e059254, 2022 Jun 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35728897

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Previous studies indicate people with diabetes mellitus (DM) may have varying treatment outcomes when receiving treatment for tuberculosis (TB) and that TB infection or its treatment may predispose them to develop an abnormal blood glucose or type 2 DM. This has implications for Eswatini which is a high TB burden country and with increasing cases of non-communicable diseases including DM. This study will describe the epidemiology of DM-TB comorbidity in a prospective cohort of patients receiving TB treatment and identify best practices for integration of care for non-communicable diseases into TB services in Eswatini. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This study will employ a mixed-methods approach. Data from a prospective cohort of newly enrolled patients with TB at 12 health facilities from 1 June 2022 to 30 September 2022, and followed up to 30 April 2023, will be used. For the qualitative, key informants who provide TB services at the health facilities will be interviewed. Quantitative data from patients will be analysed descriptively and by tests of association and multivariate modelling. Key informant interviews from healthcare workers will be analysed using content analysis. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This research has been approved by the Eswatini Health and Human Research Review Board and participant confidentiality will be maintained. COVID-19 safety measures to reduce the risk of infection or transmission by researchers and participants have been instituted. Key programmatic findings and how they can impact healthcare delivery and access will be presented to the specific programme in the Eswatini Ministry of Health and other relevant stakeholders.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Enfermedades no Transmisibles , Tuberculosis , Comorbilidad , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiología , Diabetes Mellitus/terapia , Esuatini/epidemiología , Humanos , Enfermedades no Transmisibles/epidemiología , Estudios Prospectivos , Resultado del Tratamiento , Tuberculosis/complicaciones , Tuberculosis/epidemiología , Tuberculosis/terapia
14.
Infect Dis Rep ; 14(3): 446-452, 2022 Jun 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35735758

RESUMEN

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and tuberculosis (TB) are currently the two leading causes of death among infectious diseases. As we progress towards a "new normal", more information is required regarding post-COVID-19 syndromes. We present a case of latent tuberculosis reactivation 3 months after a successful inpatient treatment of COVID-19. A 74-year-old female from the Philippines presented with a new left mid-lung infiltrate with worsening shortness of breath and lethargy for one week prior to admission. The clinical course of the patient deteriorated despite broad-spectrum antibiotics, diuretics, and high-dose steroid therapy requiring intubation and mechanical ventilation. Her sputum culture yielded the microbiological diagnosis of TB. Anti-tubercular medications were started and the patient had a favorable clinical outcome. Our case demonstrates that immunosuppression secondary to COVID-19 and its treatments may promote the development of an active TB infection from a latent infection. It is important to be aware of this potential increase in risk during and after a COVID-19 treatment. This is especially important in high-risk populations to ensure an early diagnosis and prompt management as well as to reduce transmission.

15.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed ; 222: 106947, 2022 Jun 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35749885

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Chest X-ray (CXR) is a non-invasive imaging modality used in the prognosis and management of chronic lung disorders like tuberculosis (TB), pneumonia, coronavirus disease (COVID-19), etc. The radiomic features associated with different disease manifestations assist in detection, localization, and grading the severity of infected lung regions. The majority of the existing computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system used these features for the classification task, and only a few works have been dedicated to disease-localization and severity scoring. Moreover, the existing deep learning approaches use class activation map and Saliency map, which generate a rough localization. This study aims to generate a compact disease boundary, infection map, and grade the infection severity using proposed multistage superpixel classification-based disease localization and severity assessment framework. METHODS: The proposed method uses a simple linear iterative clustering (SLIC) technique to subdivide the lung field into small superpixels. Initially, the different radiomic texture and proposed shape features are extracted and combined to train different benchmark classifiers in a multistage framework. Subsequently, the predicted class labels are used to generate an infection map, mark disease boundary, and grade the infection severity. The performance is evaluated using a publicly available Montgomery dataset and validated using Friedman average ranking and Holm and Nemenyi post-hoc procedures. RESULTS: The proposed multistage classification approach achieved accuracy (ACC)= 95.52%, F-Measure (FM)= 95.48%, area under the curve (AUC)= 0.955 for Stage-I and ACC=85.35%, FM=85.20%, AUC=0.853 for Stage-II using calibration dataset and ACC = 93.41%, FM = 95.32%, AUC = 0.936 for Stage-I and ACC = 84.02%, FM = 71.01%, AUC = 0.795 for Stage-II using validation dataset. Also, the model has demonstrated the average Jaccard Index (JI) of 0.82 and Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9589. CONCLUSIONS: The obtained classification results using calibration and validation dataset confirms the promising performance of the proposed framework. Also, the average JI shows promising potential to localize the disease, and better agreement between radiologist score and predicted severity score (r) confirms the robustness of the method. Finally, the statistical test justified the significance of the obtained results.

17.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1081, 2022 May 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35641957

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To investigate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic along the U.S.-Mexico border region and evaluate the relationship of COVID-19 related mortality, socioeconomic status, and vaccination. METHODS: We used indirect standardization to age-adjust mortality rates and calculate standardized mortality ratios [SMR] in both countries. To examine the impact of socioeconomic factors, we calculated the Human Development Index (HDI) by county/municipality. We performed linear regression to understand the relationship between mortality, vaccination, and HDI. We used choropleth maps to visualize the trends seen in the region. RESULTS: Between January 22nd, 2020 and December 1st, 2021, surges of cases and deaths were similar in dyad cities along the U.S.-Mexico border visualizing the interconnectedness of the region. Mortality was higher in U.S. counties along the border compared to the national average (SMR 1.17, 95% CI 1.15-1.19). In Mexico, border counties had a slightly lower mortality to the national average (SMR 0.94, 95% CI 0.93-0.95). In U.S. border states, SMR was shown to negatively correlate with human development index (HDI), a socioeconomic proxy, resulting in a higher SMR in the border region compared to the rest of the counties. Conversely in Mexican border states, there was no association between SMR and HDI. Related to vaccination, U.S. counties along the border were vaccinated at a greater percentage than non-border counties and vaccination was negatively correlated with HDI. In Mexico, states along the border had a higher ratio of vaccinations per person than non-border states. CONCLUSIONS: The U.S.-Mexico border is a divide of incredible importance not only to immigration but as a region with unique social, economic, environmental, and epidemiological factors that impact disease transmission. We investigated how the COVID-19 pandemic followed trends of previously studied diseases in the corridor such as tuberculosis, HIV, and influenza H1N1. These data state how targeted intervention along the U.S.-Mexico border region is a necessity when confronting COVID-19 and have implications for future control of infectious diseases in the region.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Subtipo H1N1 del Virus de la Influenza A , Tuberculosis , COVID-19/epidemiología , Humanos , México/epidemiología , Pandemias , Tuberculosis/epidemiología
18.
Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 78: 103950, 2022 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35693102

RESUMEN

As of the 24th of February 2022, the war in Ukraine has increased the risk for infectious diseases outbreaks in the country and beyond. The disruption of healthcare services, the destruction of critical infrastructure, the displacement of millions of civilians and the crowded living conditions in bunkers pose a formiddable threat to public health. Infections are emphasized due to the low rates of vaccination against COVID-19 and the high prevalence of chronic infections such as Tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS in Ukraine compared to the WHO Europe region. Collaboration between authorities and humanitatian organizations is necessary, in order to strengthen epidemiological surveillance and deploy vital resources that are required for the prevention and the management of infections.

19.
Int Rev Immunol ; : 1-15, 2022 Jun 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35666083

RESUMEN

Accumulating data emphasize a strong link between obesity and the severity of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), including mortality. Obesity interferes with several components of the immune system including lymphoid tissue's integrity, leukocytes' development and function, complement system's activation, and the coordination of innate and adaptive immune responses. Overall, obesity results in a less efficient immune response to infectious agents. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 exploits this weakened immune system in people with obesity to precipitate COVID-19, and in some cases death. It is therefore the author's recommendation that obesity should be viewed as another form of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and be treated with the appropriate seriousness. Unlike the previously described acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) that is caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), obesity is a comorbidity-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. People with AIDS do not die from HIV, but may die from opportunistic pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, AIDS is ascribed its due importance in the course of deterioration of the patient. Similarly, obesity should be acknowledged further as a risk factor for mortality from COVID-19. Obesity is a modifiable condition and even in people with a strong genetic predisposition, lifestyle modifications can reverse obesity, and even moderate weight loss can improve the inflammatory milieu. Strong public health actions are warranted to promote lifestyle measures to reduce the burden from overweight and obesity that currently affect more than one-third of the global population, with projections alarming this may reach 55-80% within the next thirty years.


Accumulating data emphasize a strong link between obesity and the severity of coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), including mortality. Obesity interferes with several components of the immune system, reducing the body's capacity for defence against infectious agents, such as viruses and bacteria. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 takes advantage of this weakened defence in people with obesity to precipitate COVID-19, and in some cases death. It is therefore the author's recommendation that obesity should be viewed as another form of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and be treated with the appropriate seriousness. Unlike the previously described acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) that is caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), obesity is a comorbidity-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. People with AIDS do not die from HIV, but may die from opportunistic pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, AIDS is ascribed its due importance in the course of deterioration of the patient. Similarly, obesity should be acknowledged further as a risk factor for mortality from COVID-19. Obesity is a modifiable condition and even in people with a strong genetic predisposition, lifestyle modifications can reverse obesity. Strong public health actions are warranted to promote lifestyle measures to reduce the burden from overweight and obesity that currently affect more than one-third of the global population, with projections alarming this may reach 55-80% within the next thirty years.

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