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1.
Foodborne Pathog Dis ; 2021 May 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33978473

RESUMEN

Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infections are an important health burden for human populations in Ontario and worldwide. We assessed 452 STEC cases that were reported to Ontario's reportable disease surveillance system between 2015 and 2017. A retrospective scan statistic using a Poisson model was used to detect high-rate STEC clusters at the forward sortation area (FSA; the first three digits of a postal code) level. A significant spatial cluster in the southwest region of Ontario was identified. A case-case logistic regression analysis was applied to compare FSA-level socioeconomic and demographic characteristics among STEC cases included inside the spatial cluster with cases outside of the cluster. Cases included in the spatial cluster had higher odds of living in FSAs with a low median family income, low proportion of lone-parent families, and low proportion of the visible minority population. In addition, STEC cases inside the cluster had higher odds of coming from rural FSAs. Our study demonstrated that STEC cases were spatially clustered in Ontario and their clustering was associated with FSA-level socioeconomic and demographic determinants of cases.

2.
Chemosphere ; 274: 129956, 2021 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33979909

RESUMEN

The threat to wildlife from chemical exposure exists regardless of the presence of conservation boundaries. An issue exacerbated by the use of environmentally persistent insecticides for vector control and long-range transport of legacy persistent organic pollutants. In this comparative study between two important conservation regions in South Africa, Kruger National Park (KNP) and Ndumo Game Reserve (NGR), we assessed organochlorine pesticide (OCP) accumulation in several anuran species collected from within the conservation regions. The two conservation regions differ in size and subsequent proximity of collection sites to OCP input sources. Detectable concentrations of OCPs were present in ∼ half the frogs analysed from KNP and ∼all frogs from NGR and total OCP loads were similar between regions, where measured in the same species. The OCP profiles in KNP frogs were representative of legacy pesticides likely introduced via long-range transport, whereas NGR profiles showed influence of current use of DDT consistent with close proximity to sources. This indicates amphibians can accumulate OCPs within conservation regions and that the exposure of non-target organisms inside conservation regions to current use pesticides has a strong association with proximity to sources. These results serve to inform conservation management decision making with regard to the non-target organism effects of chemical interventions such as vector control pesticide use in and around conservation regions.


Asunto(s)
Hidrocarburos Clorados , Malaria , Plaguicidas , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Anfibios , Animales , Bioacumulación , DDT/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Hidrocarburos Clorados/análisis , Plaguicidas/análisis , Sudáfrica , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
3.
Environ Pollut ; 286: 117239, 2021 Apr 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33990048

RESUMEN

Several environmental pollutants, including pesticides, herbicides and persistent organic pollutants play an important role in the development of chronic diseases. However, most studies have examined environmental pollutants toxicity in target organisms or using a specific toxicological test, losing the real effect throughout the ecosystem. In this sense an integrative environmental risk of pollutants assessment, using different model organisms is necessary to predict the real impact in the ecosystem and implications for target and non-target organisms. The objective of this study was to use alachlor, a chloroacetanilide herbicide responsible for chronic toxicity, to understand its impact in target and non-target organisms and at different levels of biological organization by using several model organisms, including membranes of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC), rat liver mitochondria, bacterial (Bacillus stearothermophilus), plant (Lemna gibba) and mammalian cell lines (HeLa and neuro2a). Our results demonstrated that alachlor strongly interacted with membranes of DPPC and interfered with mitochondrial bioenergetics by reducing the respiratory control ratio and the transmembrane potential. Moreover, alachlor also decreased the growth of B. stearothermophilus and its respiratory activity, as well as decreased the viability of both mammalian cell lines. The values of TC50 increased in the following order: Lemna gibba < neuro2a < HeLa cells < Bacillus stearothermophilus. Together, the results suggest that biological membranes constitute a putative target for the toxic action of this lipophilic herbicide and point out the risks of its dissemination on environment, compromising ecosystem equilibrium and human health.

4.
J Hazard Mater ; 413: 125445, 2021 07 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33930965

RESUMEN

Preliminary analyses of satellite measurements from around the world showed drops in nitrogen dioxide (NO2) coinciding with lockdowns due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Several studies found that these drops correlated with local decreases in transportation and/or industry. None of these studies, however, has rigorously quantified the statistical significance of these drops relative to natural meteorological variability and other factors that influence pollutant levels during similar time periods in previous years. Here, we develop a novel statistical protocol that accounts for seasonal variability, transboundary influences, and new factors such as COVID-19 restrictions in explaining trends in several pollutant levels at 16 ground-based measurement sites in Southern Ontario, Canada. We find statistically significant and temporary drops in NO2 (11 out 16 sites) and CO (all 4 sites) in April-December 2020, with pollutant levels 20% lower than in the previous three years. Fewer sites (2-3 out of 16) experienced statistically significant drops in O3 and PM2.5. The statistical significance testing framework developed here is the first of its kind applied to air quality data. It highlights the benefit of a rigorous assessment of statistical significance, should analyses of pollutant levels post COVID-19 lockdowns be used to inform policy decisions.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Ontario , Pandemias , Material Particulado/análisis
5.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2021-05-04. (PAHO/CDE/CE/21-0001).
No convencional en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53884

RESUMEN

This technical note aims to help countries enhance their health commitments and actions in the updated round of nationally determined contributions (NDCs). It provides seven key messages formulated from an analysis of NDCs submitted by countries of the Americas before March 2020. Each key message is accompanied by key findings of the situation, rationale, suggested actions, inspiring examples, and additional resources that PAHO, the UNFCCC, and the NDC Partnership can offer to support countries’ enhancement of health commitments in the updated round of NDCs. This technical note represents an opportunity beyond NDC processes to ensure that recovery plans in the face of COVID-19 are low carbon and climate resilient, while identifying and maximizing health-related co-benefits.


Asunto(s)
Cambio Climático , Salud Ambiental , Enfermedad Crónica , Factores de Riesgo , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Américas
6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(5): e218799, 2021 05 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33938935

RESUMEN

Importance: Socioeconomically marginalized communities have been disproportionately affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. Income inequality may be a risk factor for SARS-CoV-2 infection and death from COVID-19. Objective: To evaluate the association between county-level income inequality and COVID-19 cases and deaths from March 2020 through February 2021 in bimonthly time epochs. Design, Setting, and Participants: This ecological cohort study used longitudinal data on county-level COVID-19 cases and deaths from March 1, 2020, through February 28, 2021, in 3220 counties from all 50 states, Puerto Rico, and the District of Columbia. Main Outcomes and Measures: County-level daily COVID-19 case and death data from March 1, 2020, through February 28, 2021, were extracted from the COVID-19 Data Repository by the Center for Systems Science and Engineering at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland. Exposure: The Gini coefficient, a measure of unequal income distribution (presented as a value between 0 and 1, where 0 represents a perfectly equal geographical region where all income is equally shared and 1 represents a perfectly unequal society where all income is earned by 1 individual), and other county-level data were obtained primarily from the 2014 to 2018 American Community Survey 5-year estimates. Covariates included median proportions of poverty, age, race/ethnicity, crowding given by occupancy per room, urbanicity and rurality, educational level, number of physicians per 100 000 individuals, state, and mask use at the county level. Results: As of February 28, 2021, on average, each county recorded a median of 8891 cases of COVID-19 per 100 000 individuals (interquartile range, 6935-10 666 cases per 100 000 individuals) and 156 deaths per 100 000 individuals (interquartile range, 94-228 deaths per 100 000 individuals). The median county-level Gini coefficient was 0.44 (interquartile range, 0.42-0.47). There was a positive correlation between Gini coefficients and county-level COVID-19 cases (Spearman ρ = 0.052; P < .001) and deaths (Spearman ρ = 0.134; P < .001) during the study period. This association varied over time; each 0.05-unit increase in Gini coefficient was associated with an adjusted relative risk of COVID-19 deaths: 1.25 (95% CI, 1.17-1.33) in March and April 2020, 1.20 (95% CI, 1.13-1.28) in May and June 2020, 1.46 (95% CI, 1.37-1.55) in July and August 2020, 1.04 (95% CI, 0.98-1.10) in September and October 2020, 0.76 (95% CI, 0.72-0.81) in November and December 2020, and 1.02 (95% CI, 0.96-1.07) in January and February 2021 (P < .001 for interaction). The adjusted association of the Gini coefficient with COVID-19 cases also reached a peak in July and August 2020 (relative risk, 1.28 [95% CI, 1.22-1.33]). Conclusions and Relevance: This study suggests that income inequality within US counties was associated with more cases and deaths due to COVID-19 in the summer months of 2020. The COVID-19 pandemic has highlighted the vast disparities that exist in health outcomes owing to income inequality in the US. Targeted interventions should be focused on areas of income inequality to both flatten the curve and lessen the burden of inequality.


Asunto(s)
Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Disparidades en Atención de Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Renta/estadística & datos numéricos , Factores Socioeconómicos , /economía , /prevención & control , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/normas , Grupos Étnicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mortalidad , Evaluación de Necesidades , Determinantes Sociales de la Salud , Marginación Social , Estados Unidos/epidemiología
8.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 144: 133-142, 2021 May 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33955851

RESUMEN

Complex interactions among hosts, pathogens, and the environment affect the vulnerability of amphibians to the emergence of infectious diseases such as chytridiomycosis, caused by Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Boana curupi is a forest-dwelling amphibian endemic to the southern Atlantic Forest of South America, a severely fragmented region. Here, we evaluated whether abiotic factors (including air and water temperature, relative air humidity, and landscape) are correlated with chytrid infection intensity and prevalence in B. curupi. We found individuals infected with Bd in all populations sampled. Prevalence ranged from 25-86%, and the infection burden ranged from 1 to over 130000 zoospore genomic equivalents (g.e.) (mean ± SD: 4913 ± 18081 g.e.). The infection load differed among populations and was influenced by forest cover at scales of 100, 500, and 1000 m, with the highest infection rates recorded in areas with a higher proportion of forest cover. Our results suggest that the fungus is widely distributed in the populations of B. curupi in southern Brazil. Population and disease monitoring are necessary to better understand the relationships between host, pathogen, and environment, especially when, as in the case of B. curupi, threatened species are involved.


Asunto(s)
Quitridiomicetos , Micosis , Anfibios , Animales , Anuros , Brasil/epidemiología , Bosques , Micosis/epidemiología , Micosis/veterinaria
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 9412, 2021 05 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33941805

RESUMEN

The spread of the novel coronavirus disease (COVID-19) continues to show that geographic barriers alone cannot contain the virus. Asymptomatic carriers play a critical role in the nature of this virus, which is rapidly escalating into a global pandemic. Asymptomatic carriers can inadvertently transmit the virus through the air stream. Many diseases can infect human bodies with tiny droplets or particles that carry various viruses and bacteria that are generated by the respiratory system of infected patients. This article presents the numerical results of the spread of droplets or particles in a room. The proposed numerical model in this work takes into account the sedimentation of particles or droplets under the action of gravitational sedimentation and transport in the room during the process of breathing and sneezing or coughing. Three different cases are numerically investigated taking into account normal breathing and coughing or sneezing, respectively, and three different rates of particle ejection from the mouth are considered. Navier-Stokes equations for incompressible flows were used to describe three-dimensional air flow inside ventilated rooms. The influence of ventilation rate on social distancing is also computationally investigated. It was found that particles can move up to 5 m with a decrease in concentration in the direction of the air flow. The conclusions made in this work show that, given the environmental conditions, the two meter social distance recommended by WHO is insufficient.


Asunto(s)
Microbiología del Aire , /transmisión , Tos , Espiración , Estornudo , Humanos , Modelos Teóricos , Pandemias , Tamaño de la Partícula
10.
Bull Math Biol ; 83(6): 67, 2021 May 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33959821

RESUMEN

Viral diseases of honey bees are important economically and ecologically and have been widely modelled. The models reflect the fact that, in contrast to the typical case for vertebrates, invertebrates cannot acquire immunity to a viral disease, so they are of SIS or (more often) SI type. Very often, these diseases may be transmitted vertically as well as horizontally, by vectors as well as directly, and through the environment, although models do not generally reflect all these transmission mechanisms. Here, we shall consider an important additional complication the consequences of which have yet to be fully explored in a model, namely that both infected honey bees and their vectors may best be described using more than one infection class. For honey bees, we consider three infection classes. Covert infections occur when bees have the virus under control, such that they do not display symptoms of the disease, and are minimally or not at all affected by it. Acutely overtly infected bees often exhibit severe symptoms and have a greatly curtailed lifespan. Chronically overtly infected bees typically have milder symptoms and a moderately shortened lifespan. For the vector, we consider just two infection classes which are covert infected and overt infected as has been observed in deformed-wing virus (DWV) vectored by varroa mites. Using this structure, we explore the impact of spontaneous transition of both mites and bees from a covertly to an overtly infected state, which is also a novel element in modelling viral diseases of honey bees made possible by including the different infected classes. The dynamics of these diseases are unsurprisingly rather different from the dynamics of a standard SI or SIS disease. In this paper, we highlight how our compartmental structure for infection in honey bees and their vectors impact the disease dynamics observed, concentrating in particular on DWV vectored by varroa mites. If there is no spontaneous transition, then a basic reproduction number [Formula: see text] exists. We derive a condition for [Formula: see text] that reflects the complexities of the system, with components for vertical and for direct and vector-mediated horizontal transmission, using the directed graph of the next-generation matrix of the system. Such a condition has never previously been derived for a honey-bee-mite-virus system. When spontaneous transitions do occur, then [Formula: see text] no longer exists, but we introduce a modification of the analysis that allows us to determine whether (i) the disease remains largely covert or (ii) a substantial outbreak of overt disease occurs.

11.
Gut Microbes ; 13(1): 1-7, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33960272

RESUMEN

Mortality and morbidity from SARS-CoV2 (COVID-19) infections in children remains low, including an exceedingly low rate of horizontal and vertical transmission. However, unforeseen complications to childhood health have emerged secondary to the pandemic. Few studies to date have examined unintended complications of the pandemic in newborns and infants. In this Commentary, we discuss the impact that COVID-19 may have on inheritance of the newborn microbiome and its assembly throughout the first years of life. In the early stages of the pandemic when vertical transmission of COVID-19 was poorly understood, several studies reported increased rates of C-sections in COVID-19 positive women. Initial recommendations discouraged COVID-19 positive mothers from breastfeeding and participating in skin-to-skin care, advising them to isolate during their window of infectivity. These shifts in perinatal care can adversely impact microbial colonization during the first 1000 days of life. While obstetrical and neonatal management have evolved to reflect our current knowledge of perinatal transmission, we are observing other changes in early life exposures of infants, including increased attention to hygiene, fewer social interactions, and decreased global travel, all of which are major drivers of early-life gut colonization. Composition of the gut microbiota in adults directly impacts severity of infection, suggesting a role of microbial communities in modulating immune responses to COVID-19. Conversely, the role of the intestinal microbiome in susceptibility and severity of COVID-19 in newborns and children remains unknown. The onset of adulthood diseases is related to the establishment of a healthy gut microbiome during childhood. As we continue to define COVID-19 biology, further research is necessary to understand how acquisition of the neonatal microbiome is affected by the pandemic. Furthermore, infection control measures must be balanced with strategies that promote microbial diversity to impart optimal health outcomes and potentially modulate susceptibility of children to COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
/complicaciones , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiología , Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa , Microbiota/fisiología , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/etiología , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/fisiopatología , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Embarazo
12.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(6): 331, 2021 May 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33966107

RESUMEN

This study investigates the changes of short-lived climate pollutants and other air pollutants during the COVID-19 pandemic in Tehran, Iran. Concentrations of air pollutants were obtained from 21 monitoring stations for the period from 5 January 2019 to 5 August 2019, representing normal conditions unaffected by COVID-19, and the period 5 January 2020 to 5 August 2020, i.e., during the COVID-19 crisis. We concentrated our analysis on three time windows (23 February 2020 to 15 March 2020, 18 March 2020 to 3 April 2020, and 5 April 2020 to 17 April 2020) during the lockdown when different sets of measures were taken to limit the spread of COVID-19. In comparison to the period not affected by COVID-19 measures, mean concentrations of pollutants were increased during the first lockdown period; when the number of COVID-19 patients increased sharply compared to the other periods, the mean surface concentrations of NO2, SO2, and CO were decreased and concentrations of other pollutants (i.e., O3, PM10, and PM2.5) were increased during the second lockdown period compared to the corresponding period in 2019. In the third period, the mean concentrations were decreased compared to the corresponding period in 2019. For the full period, decreases in mean concentrations of O3, NO2, SO2, CO, and PM10 and increases in PM2.5 were observed during the COVID-19 crisis, compared to 2019. Overall, the strongest reductions, 12% and 6%, respectively, were observed for CO and NO2, pointing to reduced emissions from traffic as a result of lockdown measures. The concentrations of other pollutants changed little, suggesting that the lockdown measures did not result in strong changes in the emissions from stationary sources.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Contaminación del Aire , Contaminantes Ambientales , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Irán/epidemiología , Pandemias , Material Particulado/análisis
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 773: 145545, 2021 Jun 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33940731

RESUMEN

During 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic resulted in a widespread lockdown in many cities in China. In this study, we assessed the impact of changes in human activities on air quality during the COVID-19 pandemic by determining the relationships between air quality, traffic volume, and meteorological conditions. The megacities of Wuhan, Beijing, Shanghai, and Guangzhou were selected as the study area, and the variation trends of air pollutants for the period January-May between 2016 and 2020 were analyzed. The passenger volume of public transportation (PVPT) and the passenger volume of taxis (PVT) along with data on precipitation, temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and boundary layer height were used to identify and quantify the driving force of the air pollution variation. The results showed that the change rates of fine particulate matter (PM2.5), NO2, and SO2 before and during the lockdown in the four megacities ranged from -49.9% to 78.2% (average: -9.4% ± 59.3%), -55.4% to -32.3% (average: -43.0% ± 9.7%), and - 21.1% to 11.9% (average: -10.9% ± 15.4%), respectively. The response of NO2 to the lockdown was the most sensitive, while the response of PM2.5 was smaller and more delayed. During the lockdown period, haze from uninterrupted industrial emissions and fireworks under the effect of air mass transport from surrounding areas and adverse climate conditions was probably the cause of abnormally high PM2.5 concentrations in Beijing. In addition, the PVT was the most significant factor for NO2, and meteorology had a greater impact on PM2.5 than NO2 and SO2. There is a need for more national-level policies for limiting firework displays and traffic emissions, as well as further studies on the formation and transmission of secondary air pollutants.


Asunto(s)
Contaminación del Aire , Contaminación del Aire/análisis , Beijing/epidemiología , China/epidemiología , Ciudades , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Conceptos Meteorológicos , Pandemias
14.
Microbiome ; 9(1): 97, 2021 04 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33941275

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Although localized aggressive periodontitis (LAP), generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAP), and chronic periodontitis (CP) are microbially driven diseases, our inability to separate disease-specific associations from those common to all three forms of periodontitis has hampered biomarker discovery. Therefore, we aimed to map the genomic content of, and the biological pathways encoded by, the microbiomes associated with these clinical phenotypes. We also estimated the extent to which these biomes are governed by the Anna Karenina principle (AKP), which states that eubiotic communities are similar between individuals while disease-associated communities are highly individualized. METHODS: We collected subgingival plaque from 25 periodontally healthy individuals and diseased sites of 59 subjects with stage 3 periodontitis and used shotgun metagenomics to characterize the aggregate of bacterial genes. RESULTS: Beta-dispersion metrics demonstrated that AKP was most evident in CP, followed by GAP and LAP. We discovered broad dysbiotic signatures spanning the three phenotypes, with over-representation of pathways that facilitate life in an oxygen-poor, protein- and heme-rich, pro-oxidant environment and enhance capacity for attachment and biofilm formation. Phenotype-specific indicators were more readily evident in LAP microbiome than GAP or CP. Genes that enable acetate-scavenging lifestyle, utilization of alternative nutritional sources, oxidative and nitrosative stress responses, and siderophore production were unique to LAP. An attenuation of virulence-related functionalities and stress response from LAP to GAP to CP was apparent. We also discovered that clinical phenotypes of disease resolved variance in the microbiome with greater clarity than the newly established grading system. Importantly, we observed that one third of the metagenome of LAP is unique to this phenotype while GAP shares significant functional and taxonomic features with both LAP and CP, suggesting either attenuation of an aggressive disease or an early-onset chronic disease. CONCLUSION: Within the limitations of a small sample size and a cross-sectional study design, the distinctive features of the microbiomes associated with LAP and CP strongly persuade us that these are discrete disease entities, while calling into question whether GAP is a separate disease, or an artifact induced by cross-sectional study designs. Further studies on phenotype-specific microbial genes are warranted to explicate their role in disease etiology. Video Abstract.


Asunto(s)
Periodontitis Agresiva , Microbiota , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Metagenoma , Metagenómica , Microbiota/genética
15.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 17(4): e1008860, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33835998

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic is posing an unprecedented threat to the whole world. In this regard, it is absolutely imperative to understand the mechanism of metabolic reprogramming of host human cells by SARS-CoV-2. A better understanding of the metabolic alterations would aid in design of better therapeutics to deal with COVID-19 pandemic. We developed an integrated genome-scale metabolic model of normal human bronchial epithelial cells (NHBE) infected with SARS-CoV-2 using gene-expression and macromolecular make-up of the virus. The reconstructed model predicts growth rates of the virus in high agreement with the experimental measured values. Furthermore, we report a method for conducting genome-scale differential flux analysis (GS-DFA) in context-specific metabolic models. We apply the method to the context-specific model and identify severely affected metabolic modules predominantly comprising of lipid metabolism. We conduct an integrated analysis of the flux-altered reactions, host-virus protein-protein interaction network and phospho-proteomics data to understand the mechanism of flux alteration in host cells. We show that several enzymes driving the altered reactions inferred by our method to be directly interacting with viral proteins and also undergoing differential phosphorylation under diseased state. In case of SARS-CoV-2 infection, lipid metabolism particularly fatty acid oxidation, cholesterol biosynthesis and beta-oxidation cycle along with arachidonic acid metabolism are predicted to be most affected which confirms with clinical metabolomics studies. GS-DFA can be applied to existing repertoire of high-throughput proteomic or transcriptomic data in diseased condition to understand metabolic deregulation at the level of flux.


Asunto(s)
/metabolismo , Pulmón/metabolismo , Modelos Biológicos , Algoritmos , Biomasa , Bronquios/metabolismo , Bronquios/virología , /virología , Células Cultivadas , Biología Computacional , Células Epiteliales/metabolismo , Células Epiteliales/virología , Perfilación de la Expresión Génica , Humanos , Pulmón/patología , Pulmón/virología , Análisis de Flujos Metabólicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Redes y Vías Metabólicas/genética , Metabolómica , Pandemias , Fosforilación , Mapas de Interacción de Proteínas , /patogenicidad , Transcriptoma
16.
J Gen Virol ; 102(4)2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33843572

RESUMEN

The identification of SARS-CoV-2-like viruses in Malayan pangolins (Manis javanica) has focused attention on these endangered animals and the viruses they carry. We successfully isolated a novel respirovirus from the lungs of a dead Malayan pangolin. Similar to murine respirovirus, the full-length genome of this novel virus was 15 384 nucleotides comprising six genes in the order 3'-(leader)-NP-P-M-F-HN-l-(trailer)-5'. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that this virus belongs to the genus Respirovirus and is most closely related to murine respirovirus. Notably, animal infection experiments indicated that the pangolin virus is highly pathogenic and transmissible in mice, with inoculated mice having variable clinical symptoms and a fatality rate of 70.37 %. The virus was found to replicate in most tissues with the exception of muscle and heart. Contact transmission of the virus was 100 % efficient, although the mice in the contact group displayed milder symptoms, with the virus mainly being detected in the trachea and lungs. The isolation of a novel respirovirus from the Malayan pangolin provides new insight into the evolution and distribution of this important group of viruses and again demonstrates the potential infectious disease threats faced by endangered pangolins.


Asunto(s)
/virología , Infecciones por Respirovirus , Respirovirus , Animales , Especies en Peligro de Extinción , Femenino , Genoma Viral , Ratones , Filogenia , Respirovirus/clasificación , Respirovirus/aislamiento & purificación , Respirovirus/patogenicidad , Infecciones por Respirovirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Respirovirus/veterinaria , Infecciones por Respirovirus/virología
17.
OMICS ; 25(4): 234-241, 2021 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33794117

RESUMEN

A key lesson emerging from COVID-19 is that pandemic proofing planetary health against future ecological crises calls for systems science and preventive medicine innovations. With greater proximity of the human and animal natural habitats in the 21st century, it is also noteworthy that zoonotic infections such as COVID-19 that jump from animals to humans are increasingly plausible in the coming decades. In this context, glycomics technologies and the third alphabet of life, the sugar code, offer veritable prospects to move omics systems science from discovery to diverse applications of relevance to global public health and preventive medicine. In this expert review, we discuss the science of glycomics, its importance in vaccine development, and the recent progress toward discoveries on the sugar code that can help prevent future infectious outbreaks that are looming on the horizon in the 21st century. Glycomics offers veritable prospects to boost planetary health, not to mention the global scientific capacity for vaccine innovation against novel and existing infectious agents.


Asunto(s)
/administración & dosificación , Glicómica/organización & administración , Pandemias/prevención & control , Zoonosis/epidemiología , Animales , /prevención & control , /biosíntesis , Ecosistema , Salud Global/economía , Salud Global/tendencias , Humanos , Cooperación Internacional , Vacunación Masiva/métodos , Medicina Preventiva/métodos , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/química , Glicoproteína de la Espiga del Coronavirus/inmunología , Vacunas Sintéticas/administración & dosificación , Vacunas Sintéticas/biosíntesis , Zoonosis/inmunología , Zoonosis/prevención & control , Zoonosis/transmisión
18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806343

RESUMEN

Pharmaceuticals enhance our quality of life; consequently, their consumption is growing as a result of the need to treat ageing-related and chronic diseases and changes in the clinical practice. The market revenues also show an historic growth worldwide motivated by the increase on the drug demand. However, this positivism on the market is fogged because the discharge of pharmaceuticals and their metabolites into the environment, including water, also increases due to their inappropriate management, treatment and disposal; now, worldwide, this fact is recognized as an environmental concern and human health risk. Intriguingly, researchers have studied the most effective methods for pharmaceutical removal in wastewater; however, the types of pharmaceuticals investigated in most of these studies do not reflect the most produced and consumed pharmaceuticals on the market. Hence, an attempt was done to analyze the pharmaceutical market, drugs consumption trends and the pharmaceutical research interests worldwide. Notwithstanding, the intensive research work done in different pharmaceutical research fronts such as disposal and fate, environmental impacts and concerns, human health risks, removal, degradation and development of treatment technologies, found that such research is not totally aligned with the market trends and consumption patterns. There are other drivers and interests that promote the pharmaceutical research. Thus, this review is an important contribution to those that are interested not only on the pharmaceutical market and drugs consumption, but also on the links, the drivers and interests that motivate and determine the research work on certain groups of pharmaceuticals on water and wastewater.


Asunto(s)
Preparaciones Farmacéuticas , Investigación Farmacéutica , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Incidencia , Calidad de Vida , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos , Aguas Residuales/análisis , Agua , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33806616

RESUMEN

This study aimed to assess the association of exposure to particle-bound (PM2.5) polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with potential genotoxicity and cancer risk among children living near the petrochemical industry and comparative populations in Malaysia. PM2.5 samples were collected using a low-volume sampler for 24 h at three primary schools located within 5 km of the industrial area and three comparative schools more than 20 km away from any industrial activity. A gas chromatography-mass spectrometer was used to determine the analysis of 16 United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) priority PAHs. A total of 205 children were randomly selected to assess the DNA damage in buccal cells, employing the comet assay. Total PAHs measured in exposed and comparative schools varied, respectively, from 61.60 to 64.64 ng m-3 and from 5.93 to 35.06 ng m-3. The PAH emission in exposed schools was contributed mainly by traffic and industrial emissions, dependent on the source apportionment. The 95th percentiles of the incremental lifetime cancer risk estimated using Monte Carlo simulation revealed that the inhalation risk for the exposed children and comparative populations was 2.22 × 10-6 and 2.95 × 10-7, respectively. The degree of DNA injury was substantially more severe among the exposed children relative to the comparative community. This study reveals that higher exposure to PAHs increases the risk of genotoxic effects and cancer among children.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Atmosféricos , Neoplasias , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/análisis , Contaminantes Atmosféricos/toxicidad , Niño , Daño del ADN , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Malasia , Mucosa Bucal , Neoplasias/inducido químicamente , Neoplasias/epidemiología , Material Particulado/análisis , Material Particulado/toxicidad , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análisis , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/toxicidad , Medición de Riesgo , Instituciones Académicas , Estaciones del Año
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(5)2021 Mar 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807605

RESUMEN

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary liver cancer and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Chronic infections with hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV), alcoholic liver disease (ALD), and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)/non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are the major extrinsic risk factors of HCC development. Genetic background is pivotal in HCC pathogenesis, and both germline mutations and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) are intrinsic risk factors of HCC. These HCC risk factors predispose to hepatic injury and subsequent activation of fibrogenesis that progresses into cirrhosis and HCC. Probiotic bacteria can mitigate HCC risk by modulating host gut microbiota (GM) to promote growth of beneficial microbes and inhibit HCC-associated dysbiosis, thus preventing pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs)-mediated hepatic inflammation. Probiotics have antiviral activities against HBV and HCV infections, ameliorate obesity and risk of NAFLD/NASH, and their antioxidant, anti-proliferative, anti-angiogenic, and anti-metastatic effects can prevent the HCC pathogenesis. Probiotics also upregulate the expression of tumor suppressor genes and downregulate oncogene expression. Moreover, metabolites generated by probiotics through degradation of dietary phytochemicals may mitigate the risk of HCC development. These multiple anticancer mechanisms illustrate the potential of probiotics as an adjuvant strategy for HCC risk management and treatment.


Asunto(s)
Bacterias/crecimiento & desarrollo , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/microbiología , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/prevención & control , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/fisiología , Neoplasias Hepáticas/microbiología , Neoplasias Hepáticas/prevención & control , Probióticos/farmacología , Animales , Humanos , Inflamación/microbiología , Inflamación/prevención & control , Hígado/microbiología , Factores de Riesgo
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