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1.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33975006

RESUMEN

The prevalence of sink contamination with multi-drug resistant bacteria (MDR) is high. Some MDR can persist during several months and even several years in sink drains. Nevertheless, the risk of transmission to MDR from sinks to hospitalized patients seems to be low. Concurrently, agressive chemical treatments can be deleterious for the integrity of hospital plumbing. The risk of contamination of sinks' surroundings by splashing should be considered when designing patient room in future intensive care settings, in a perspective of "not disinfect but protect" strategy.

2.
Molecules ; 26(9)2021 Apr 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33947079

RESUMEN

Breast cancer is still one of the leading causes of mortality in the female population. Despite the campaigns for early detection, the improvement in procedures and treatment, drastic improvement in survival rate is omitted. Discovery of aquaporins, at first described as cellular plumbing system, opened new insights in processes which contribute to cancer cell motility and proliferation. As we discover new pathways activated by aquaporins, the more we realize the complexity of biological processes and the necessity to fully understand the pathways affected by specific aquaporin in order to gain the desired outcome-remission of the disease. Among the 13 human aquaporins, AQP3 and AQP5 were shown to be significantly upregulated in breast cancer indicating their role in the development of this malignancy. Therefore, these two aquaporins will be discussed for their involvement in breast cancer development, regulation of oxidative stress and redox signalling pathways leading to possibly targeting them for new therapies.

3.
Sci Total Environ ; 773: 145152, 2021 Jun 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33940720

RESUMEN

In the recent decades, the role of wastewater treatment plants has been entrenched for the dissemination of antibiotic resistant bacteria into the environment. The present study explores the dynamics of earthworms-microorganisms interactions involved in the high treatment efficacy of vermifiltration technology along with reduction of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB). This study is the first of its kind to investigate the performance efficacy of vermifilter (VF) for clinical laboratory wastewater treatment. The results of the study showed that earthworms and VF associated microbial community had a significant effect on Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD) and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) reduction (78-85%), coliforms and pathogen removal (>99.9%) and caused a significant shift in the prevalence pattern of ARB. Molecular profiling of resistance causing genes such as ESBL (blaSHV, blaTEM and blaCTX-M), MRSA (mec-A) and Colistin (mcr-1) confirmed the probable mechanisms behind the resistance pattern. The microbial community diversity in the influent, earthworm's coelomic fluid and gut and filter media layers associated with the VF assists in the formation of biofilm, which helps in the removal of pathogens from the wastewater. This biofilm formation further results in a paradigm shift in the resistance profile of ARB and ARG, specifically most effective against drugs, targeting cell wall and protein synthesis inhibition such as Ampicillin, Ticarcillin, Gentamicin and Chloramphenicol. These findings further validate vermifiltration technology as a sustainable and natural treatment technology for clinical laboratory wastewater, specifically for the removal of pathogens and antibiotic resistance.


Asunto(s)
Oligoquetos , Purificación del Agua , Antagonistas de Receptores de Angiotensina , Inhibidores de la Enzima Convertidora de Angiotensina , Animales , Antibacterianos/farmacología , Bacterias/genética , Laboratorios , Oligoquetos/genética
4.
Sci Total Environ ; 773: 145655, 2021 Jun 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33940748

RESUMEN

The combination of ozonation (O3) and biofiltration processes has become practical and desirable in advanced water reclamation for water reuse applications. However, the role of microbial community and its characteristics (source, abundance, composition, viability, structure) on treatment performance has not received the same attention in water reclamation biofilters as in other applications, such as in drinking water biofilters. Microbial community characterization of biofilters used in water reuse applications will add evidence to better understand the potential microorganisms, consequent risks, and mechanisms that will populate drinking water sources and ultimately influence public health and the environment. This critical review provides insights into O3-biofiltration as a treatment barrier with a focus on development, structure, and composition of the microbial community characteristics involved in the process. The effect of microorganism seeding by the influent before and after the biofilter and ozone oxidation effects are explored to capture the microbial ecology interactions and environmental factors affecting the media ecosystem. The findings of reviewed studies concurred in identifying Proteobacteria as the most dominant phylum. However, Proteobacteria and other phyla relative abundance differ substantially depending upon environmental factors (e.g., pH, temperature, nutrients availability, among others) gradients. In general, we found significant gaps to relate and explain the biodegradation performance and metabolic processes within the biofilter, and hence deserve future attention. We highlighted and identified key challenges and future research ideas to assure O3-biofiltration reliability as a promising barrier in advanced water treatment applications.


Asunto(s)
Agua Potable , Microbiota , Purificación del Agua , Filtración , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
5.
J Cereb Blood Flow Metab ; : 271678X211014979, 2021 May 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33969732

RESUMEN

For efficient stroke recovery, the entire neurovascular unit must be repaired. A recent study underscores this concept by highlighting the importance of cellular crosstalk for white mater remodeling. In developing brains and in brains injured by hypoxia, interactions between oligodendrocyte precursors and endothelium play an essential role for physiological and compensatory angiogenesis. Further studies are warranted to build on these emerging findings in the oligovascular niche in order to identify novel therapeutic targets for stroke and other CNS diseases.

6.
Ann Clin Lab Sci ; 51(2): 255-257, 2021 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33941566

RESUMEN

Bacterial peritonitis is a key complication of Peritoneal Dialysis (PD) and a preventable cause of withdrawal from PD treatment. Infection generally arises from contamination with skin commensals during handling of the dialysis delivery system or from translocation of gastrointestinal organisms and more rarely from an environmental organism. Herein, we report the case of a 73-year-old admitted for PD-related peritonitis due to Roseomonas gilardii with an associated environmental exposure from a domestic plumbing issue. We describe the presentation, case, and antibiotic regimen progression from empiric therapy of ceftazidime and vancomycin IP to ciprofloxacin. We acknowledge the importance of performing laboratory sensitivities given the high antibiotic resistance of the Roseomonas genus. We offer that nephrologists should consider Roseomonas as a potential causative organism of peritonitis, especially when initial or further history reveals exposure to potentially contaminated water.

7.
J Environ Manage ; 289: 112461, 2021 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831758

RESUMEN

The application of compost has been recognized as one of the most promising approaches for preserving soil quality and crop production. The present study exhaustively investigates the impact of Water Hyacinth Compost (WHC), Hydrilla verticillata Compost (HVC) and Vegetable Waste Compost (VWC) on soil nutrient quality and engineering properties [Bulk Density (BD), water retention and specific gravity]. For the study, six different proportions constituting 5, 10, 15, 25, 35 and 45% of the composts by weight of the soil were taken. The soil compost mixtures were evaluated at different periods (0, 15, 30, 45, 60 and 120 days) for various nutrients [Na, Mg, P, K, Ca, Total Organic Carbon (TOC), Total Kjeldahl Nitrogen (TKN)], BD, water retention capacity, change in specific gravity and Cation Exchange Capacity (CEC) values. It was observed that when the percentage of compost was increased to 15-45%, it resulted in enhanced nutrient value of the soil. Also, for WHC, HVC and VWC 60 days was sufficient to improve the soil quality to its maximum extend. Based on the optimized physico-chemical properties generated from the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) model, it was found that compared to WHC and HVC, the VWC performed better results viz., generating low BD (0.87 g/cm3), high water retention capacity (45.63%) and degree of saturation (77.49%) of the soil. While WHC, HVC and VWC can be used to improve soil nutrient content and overall physico-chemical parameters in long terms, VWC could be more efficient and beneficial to degraded soil for restoring soil health.


Asunto(s)
Compostaje , Hydrocharitaceae , Nitrógeno/análisis , Nutrientes , Suelo
8.
J Environ Manage ; 289: 112474, 2021 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831759

RESUMEN

In this study, a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with aerobic granular sludge (AGS) was operated with synthetic wastewater containing environmental relevant concentrations of 17ß-estradiol (E2), 17α-ethinylestradiol (EE2) and sulfamethoxazole (SMX). Despite the presence of the studied PhAC, the granular fraction clearly predominated (TSSgran/TSS ranging from 0.82 to 0.98) throughout the monitoring period, presenting aggregates with high organic fraction (VSS/TSS above 0.83) and good settling characteristics (SVI5 ranging from 15 to 39 mL/gTSS). A principal component analysis (PCA) with quantitative image analysis (QIA) based data allowed to distinguish the different operational periods, namely with mature granules (CONT), and the E2, EE2, and SMX feeding periods. It further revealed a positive relationship between the biomass density, sludge settling ability, overall and granular biomass contents, granulation properties, granular biomass fraction and large granules fraction and size. Moreover, a discriminant analysis (DA) allowed to successfully discriminate not only the different operational periods, mainly by using the floccular apparent density, granular stratification and contents data, but also the PhAC presence in samples. The filamentous bacteria contents, sludge settling properties, settling properties stability and granular stratification, structure and contents parameters were found to be crucial for that purpose.


Asunto(s)
Aguas del Alcantarillado , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos , Aerobiosis , Biomasa , Reactores Biológicos , Aguas Residuales
9.
Bioresour Technol ; 332: 125087, 2021 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831791

RESUMEN

The effects of functional membrane covering (FMC) on nitrogen transformation and related functional genes during aerobic composting were investigated by performing a comparable experiment. The FMC increased the pile temperature, promoted compost maturity, and decreased nitrogen loss. The FMC reduced NH3 and N2O emissions by 7.34% and 26.27%, respectively. The water film and the micro-positive pressure environment under the membrane effectively prevented NH3 escaping. The FMC up-regulated the amoA gene copy number (promoting NH3/NH4+ oxidation). The reduction of N2O emission by the FMC was mainly related to denitrifying genes (nirK, nirS, and nosZ). The FMC down-regulated the nirK and nirS gene copy numbers, but up-regulated the nosZ gene copy number. Pearson correlation analysis indicated that the functional membrane characteristics and differences between the composting pile environments caused by the FMC significantly affected the nitrogen forms and the related functional genes. The FMC strongly decreased nitrogen emissions and therefore conserved nitrogen.


Asunto(s)
Compostaje , Desnitrificación , Estiércol , Nitrógeno , Óxido Nitroso/análisis , Suelo
10.
J Environ Manage ; 289: 112536, 2021 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33845266

RESUMEN

The pressure on the apparel industry to make its products more sustainable is growing. Concrete measures have hardly been taken so far, also because they aim to avoid consumption which reduces profits. Studies mostly examine impacts on the environment, but not how the market volume can remain at a maximum for producers. To uncover direct market effects from sustainability approaches, this study asked 500 German consumers about their willingness-to-pay and preference order for three different measures, namely "slowing in consumption", "recyclability of petrochemical clothing" or its "production from bioplastics". An outdoor trekking jacket served as test object, and influences from sociodemographic and latent variables, as sportiness and environmental awareness, were measured. The results were mapped in a market model from which the output volume was derived. It was found that interest in the topic of plastics-containing outdoor clothing was rather determined by the application. This increased with the sportiness of the respondents (r = 0.13; p = 0.003), but not with their personal environmental awareness. Consent to bioplastics use did not depend on the level of experience, but older consumers appreciated this option more (p = 0.027). Only 20% of the respondents favoured slowing, 26% bioplastics, but 53% recycling of petroplastics. Therefore, research should investigate recyclability, policy should support this measure, and companies should practice take-back and reuse in new clothing. Consumers can maintain fast consumption and would even accept higher prices.


Asunto(s)
Industrias , Reciclaje , Comportamiento del Consumidor , Alemania , Plásticos
11.
Bioresour Technol ; 332: 125102, 2021 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33853722

RESUMEN

Environmental pollutants including emerging contaminants are a growing concern worldwide. Organic wastes, such as food waste, compost, animal manure, crop residues, and sludge are generally used as feedstock. The conventional treatment methodologies (primary and secondary treatment process) do not mitigate or remove pollutants effectively. Hence, an effective, low-cost, and environmentally friendly tertiary treatment process is an urgent need. Biochar finds interesting applications in environmental processes like pollutant remediation, greenhouse gas mitigation, and wastewater treatment. Studies have shown that different types of adsorbents (biochars) like, native and engineered biochar are being used in the removal or mitigation of heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), polychlorinated biphenyls, pesticides, disinfectants, polychlorinated dibenzofurans, and dibenzo-p-dioxins from contaminated sites for environmental management. The review discusses ample studieswhich can offer solutions for environmental sustenance and managementand the emerging trends and techno-economic prospectives of biochar for sustainable environmental management.


Asunto(s)
Bifenilos Policlorados , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Eliminación de Residuos , Contaminantes del Suelo , Animales , Carbón Orgánico , Alimentos , Bifenilos Policlorados/análisis , Hidrocarburos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análisis , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis
12.
J Environ Manage ; 289: 112558, 2021 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33857713

RESUMEN

Landfill leachate is commonly treated offsite with municipal wastewater. This offsite leachate treatment may be limited or no longer applicable due to the increasingly stringent regulations and concerns related to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substance (PFAS) discharge into the environment, resulting in development of full-scale, onsite leachate treatment facilities. To help landfills prepare for the potential shift from offsite to onsite leachate treatment for PFAS compliance, this study analyzed and compared the environmental, human health, and economic performances of a typical onsite and a typical offsite leachate treatment alternative through life cycle assessment (LCA) and life cycle cost assessment (LCCA) using a landfill site located in Zhuzhou, China as a testbed. Two distinct functional units (FUs) were investigated: 1 m3 of leachate treated and 1 g of PFAS removed. Our results show that the onsite scenario offered benefits from human health and economic perspectives, while the offsite scenario generally performed better from the environmental perspective when a leachate PFAS concentration of 150,704 ng/L was assumed. The extent of this tradeoff varied when different functional units were adopted. The onsite scenario will not be competitive from all three perspectives when PFAS concentration in the raw leachate is less than 1666 ng/L.


Asunto(s)
Eliminación de Residuos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , China , Humanos , Instalaciones de Eliminación de Residuos , Aguas Residuales , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
13.
J Environ Manage ; 289: 112571, 2021 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33866133

RESUMEN

Constructed wetlands (CWs) are a potential solution for wastewater treatment due to their capacity to support native species and provide tertiary wastewater treatment. However, CWs can expose wildlife communities to excess nutrients and harmful contaminants, affecting their development, morphology, and behavior. To examine how wastewater CWs may affect wildlife, we raised Southern leopard frogs, Lithobates sphenocephalus, in wastewater from conventional secondary lagoon and tertiary CW treatments for comparison with pondwater along with the presence and absence of a common plant invader to these systems - common duckweed (Lemna minor) - and monitored their juvenile development for potential carryover effects into the terrestrial environment. The tertiary CW treatment did not change demographic or morphological outcomes relative to conventional wastewater treatment in our study. Individuals emerging from both wastewater treatments demonstrated lower terrestrial survival rates than those emerging from pondwater throughout the experiment though experiment-wide survival rates were equivalent among treatments. Individuals from wastewater treatments transformed at larger sizes relative to those in pondwater, but this advantage was minimized in the terrestrial environment. Individuals that developed with duckweed had consistent but marginally better performance in both environments. Our results suggest a potential trade-off between short-term benefits of development in treated effluent and long-term consequences on overall fitness. Overall, we demonstrate that CWs for the purpose of wastewater treatment may not be suitable replicates for wildlife habitat and could have consequences for local population dynamics.


Asunto(s)
Aguas Residuales , Purificación del Agua , Animales , Anuros , Ecosistema , Humanos , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos , Aguas Residuales/análisis , Humedales
14.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(9): 6052-6064, 2021 05 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33826310

RESUMEN

Many sanitation interventions suffer from poor sustainability. Failure to maintain or replace toilet facilities risks exposing communities to environmental pathogens, yet little is known about the factors that drive sustained access beyond project life spans. Using data from a cohort of 1666 households in Kwale County, Kenya, we investigated the factors associated with changes in sanitation access between 2015 and 2017. Sanitation access is defined as access to an improved or unimproved facility within the household compound that is functional and in use. A range of contextual, psychosocial, and technological covariates were included in logistic regression models to estimate their associations with (1) the odds of sustaining sanitation access and (2) the odds of gaining sanitation access. Over two years, 28.3% households sustained sanitation access, 4.7% lost access, 17.7% gained access, and 49.2% remained without access. Factors associated with increased odds of households sustaining sanitation access included not sharing the facility and presence of a solid washable slab. Factors associated with increased odds of households gaining sanitation access included a head with at least secondary school education, level of coarse soil fragments, and higher local sanitation coverage. Results from this study can be used by sanitation programs to improve the rates of initial and sustained adoption of sanitation.


Asunto(s)
Saneamiento , Cuartos de Baño , Composición Familiar , Humanos , Kenia , Suelo
15.
Water Sci Technol ; 83(8): 1781-1796, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33905352

RESUMEN

Organochlorines have diverse structures and applications and are included in the list of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) due to their toxicity and environmental persistence. The reduced capacity of conventional wastewater treatment plants to remove these compounds encourages the development of cost-effective and efficient remediation approaches. Fungal biotechnology can contribute to the development of these technologies through their enzymatic machinery but faces several drawbacks related to the use of dispersed mycelium. In this sense, investigations concerning the degradation of organochlorines using immobilized fungi demonstrated an increase in contaminant removal efficiency compared with degradation by free cells. Despite this interest, the mechanisms of immobilized fungi have not been comprehensively reviewed. In this paper, recent advances of laboratory and field studies in organochlorine compounds removal by fungi are reviewed, focusing on the role of immobilization techniques. Firstly, the mechanisms of organochlorines bioconversion by fungi and the factors affecting enzyme activity are elucidated and discussed in detail. Then, the main targeted compounds, fungi, technics, and materials used for immobilization are discussed, as well as their advantages and limitations. Furthermore, critical points for future studies of fungi immobilization for organochlorine removal are proposed.


Asunto(s)
Hidrocarburos Clorados , Purificación del Agua , Hongos , Micelio
16.
Water Sci Technol ; 83(8): 1797-1812, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33905353

RESUMEN

The rapid expansion of global trade and human activities has resulted in a massive increase in wastewater pollution into the atmosphere. Suspended solids, organic and inorganic particles, dissolved solids, heavy metals, dyes, and other impurities contained in wastewater from various sources are toxic to the atmosphere and pose serious health risks to humans and animals. Coagulation-flocculation technology is commonly used in wastewater treatment to remove cell debris, colloids, and contaminants in a comfortable and effective manner. Flocculants, both organic and inorganic, have long been used in wastewater treatment. However, because of their low performance, non-biodegradability, and associated health risks, their use has been limited. The use of eco-friendly bioflocculants in wastewater treatment has become essential due to the health implications of chemical flocculants. Because of their availability, biodegradability, and protection, plant-derived coagulants/flocculants and plant-based grafted bioflocculants have recently made significant progress in wastewater treatment. This study will undoubtedly provide a clearer understanding of the current state, challenges, and solutions for bioflocculation in wastewater remediation using green materials for the sake of a cleaner climate.


Asunto(s)
Metales Pesados , Purificación del Agua , Animales , Colorantes , Floculación , Humanos , Eliminación de Residuos Líquidos , Aguas Residuales
17.
Molecules ; 26(5)2021 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804572

RESUMEN

This study focused on the application of mesoporous silica monoliths for the removal of organic pollutants. The physico-chemical textural and surface properties of the monoliths were investigated. The homogeneity of the textural properties along the entire length of the monoliths was assessed, as well as the reproducibility of the synthesis method. The adsorption properties of the monoliths for gaseous toluene, as a model of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs), were evaluated and compared to those of a reference meso-structured silica powder (MCM-41) of commercial origin. Silica monoliths adsorbed comparable amounts of toluene with respect to MCM-41, with better performances at low pressure. Finally, considering their potential application in water phase, the adsorption properties of monoliths toward Rhodamine B, selected as a model molecule of water soluble pollutants, were studied together with their stability in water. After 24 h of contact, the silica monoliths were able to adsorb up to the 70% of 1.5 × 10-2 mM Rhodamine B in water solution.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Ambientales/aislamiento & purificación , Gases/química , Compuestos Orgánicos/aislamiento & purificación , Dióxido de Silicio/química , Compuestos Orgánicos Volátiles/aislamiento & purificación , Purificación del Agua/métodos
18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807661

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to assess the health risks that may arise from the implementation of greywater reuse and rainwater harvesting for household use, especially for toilet flushing. In addition, the risk of cross connections between these systems and the drinking water system was considered. Quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) is a method that uses mathematical modelling to estimate the risk of infection when exposure to pathogens happens and was used in this study to assess the health risks. The results showed that using rainwater without prior treatment for toilet flushing poses an annual infection risk from L. pneumophila at 0.64 per-person-per-year (pppy) which exceeds the Dutch standard of 10-4 pppy. The use of untreated greywater showed a risk that is below the standard. However, treatment is recommended due to the ability of P. aeruginosa to grow in the reuse system. Moreover, showering and drinking with cross-connected water has a high annual infection risk that exceeds the standard due to contact with Staphylococcus aureus and E. coli O157:H7. Several measures can be implemented to mitigate the risks such as treating the greywater and rainwater with a minimum of 5-log removal, closing the toilet lid while flushing, good design of greywater and rainwater collection systems, and rigorous plumbing installation procedures.


Asunto(s)
Conservación de los Recursos Hídricos , Legionella pneumophila , Escherichia coli , Humanos , Medición de Riesgo , Microbiología del Agua , Abastecimiento de Agua
19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809592

RESUMEN

The ubiquitous occurrence of heavy metals in the aquatic environment remains a serious environmental and health issue. The recovery of metals from wastes and their use for the abatement of toxic heavy metals from contaminated waters appear to be practical approaches. In this study, manganese was recovered from groundwater treatment sludge via reductive acid leaching and converted into spherical aggregates of high-purity MnO2. The as-synthesized MnO2 was used to adsorb Cu(II) and Pb(II) from single-component metal solutions. High metal uptake of 119.90 mg g-1 for Cu(II) and 177.89 mg g-1 for Pb(II) was attained at initial metal ion concentration, solution pH, and temperature of 200 mg L-1, 5.0, and 25 °C, respectively. The Langmuir isotherm model best described the equilibrium metal adsorption, indicating that a single layer of Cu(II) or Pb(II) was formed on the surface of the MnO2 adsorbent. The pseudo-second-order model adequately fit the Cu(II) and Pb(II) kinetic data confirming that chemisorption was the rate-limiting step. Thermodynamic studies revealed that Cu(II) or Pb(II) adsorption onto MnO2 was spontaneous, endothermic, and had increased randomness. Overall, the use of MnO2 prepared from groundwater treatment sludge is an effective, economical, and environmentally sustainable substitute to expensive reagents for toxic metal ion removal from water matrices.


Asunto(s)
Agua Subterránea , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Purificación del Agua , Adsorción , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Cinética , Plomo , Compuestos de Manganeso , Óxidos , Aguas del Alcantarillado , Termodinámica , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
20.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(9): 5608-5619, 2021 05 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33881842

RESUMEN

Extensive use of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) has caused their ubiquitous presence in natural waters. One of the standard practices for PFAS removal from water is adsorption onto granular activated carbon (GAC); however, this approach generates a new waste stream, i.e., PFAS-laden GAC. Considering the recalcitrance of PFAS molecules in the environment, inadequate disposal (e.g., landfill or incineration) of PFAS-laden GAC may let PFAS back into the aquatic cycle. Therefore, developing approaches for PFAS-laden GAC management present unique opportunities to break its forever circulation within the aqueous environment. This comprehensive review evaluates the past two decades of research on conventional thermal regeneration of GAC and critically analyzes and summarizes the literature on regeneration of PFAS-laden GACs. Optimized thermal regeneration of PFAS-laden GACs may provide an opportunity to employ existing regeneration infrastructure to mineralize the adsorbed PFAS and recover the spent GAC. The specific objectives of this review are (i) to investigate the role of physicochemical properties of PFAS on thermal regeneration, (ii) to assess the changes in regeneration yield as well as GAC physical and chemical structure upon thermal regeneration, and (iii) to critically discuss regeneration parameters controlling the process. This literature review on the engineered regeneration process illustrates the significant promise of this approach that can break the endless environmental cycle of these forever chemicals, while preserving the desired physicochemical properties of the valuable GAC adsorbent.


Asunto(s)
Fluorocarburos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Purificación del Agua , Adsorción , Carbón Orgánico , Fluorocarburos/análisis , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
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