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1.
ESC Heart Fail ; 2022 Jan 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34981657

RESUMEN

AIMS: To assess the 6 months immunogenicity to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) mRNA vaccine in a population of heart transplanted (HTx) recipients and left ventricular assist device (LVAD)-supported patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: A prospective single-centre cohort study of HTx recipients and LVAD-supported patients who received a two-dose SARSCoV-2 mRNA vaccine (BNT162b2, Pfizer-BioNTech). Whole blood for anti-spike IgG (S-IgG) antibodies were drawn at 6 months after the first vaccine dose. S-IgG data at 6 weeks were available for a subgroup of HTx recipients. S-IgG ≥ 50 AU/mL were interpreted positive. The cohort included 53 HTx recipients and 18 LVAD-supported patients. The median time from HTx or LVAD implantation to the 1st vaccine dose was 90 (IQR 30, 172) months and 22 (IQR 6, 78) months, respectively. The seropositivity rates of S-IgG antibodies and their titre levels in HTx recipients and LVAD-supported patients were 45% and 83% respectively, (P = 0.006), and 35 (IQR 7, 306) AU/mL and 311 (IQR 86, 774) AU/mL, respectively, (P = 0.006). Reduced SARSCoV-2 vaccine immunogenicity in HTx recipients was associated with older age [odds ratio (OR) 0.917 confidence interval (CI 0.871, 0.966), P = 0.011] and with the use of anti-metabolites-based immunosuppressive regimens [OR 0.224 (CI 0.065, 0.777), P = 0.018]. mTOR inhibitors were associated with higher immunogenicity [OR 3.1 (CI 1.01, 9.65), P = 0.048]. Out of 13 HTx recipients who were S-IgG seropositive at 6 weeks after the first vaccine dose, 85% remained S-IgG seropositive at 6 month follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: At 6 months post-vaccination, S-IgG immunogenicity in HTx recipients is low, particularly in older HTx recipients and in those treated with anti-metabolites drugs.

2.
Exp Clin Transplant ; 2022 Jan 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34981710

RESUMEN

Coronavirus disease 2019 increases transplant recipients' susceptibility to rare opportunistic infections as a consequence of the impairment that COVID-19 can cause in the immune system. Mucormycosis is a rare complication but has a high risk of fatal outcome. A 50-year-old woman who received a kidney transplant 10 years previously was admitted to the hospital with COVID-19. During follow-up by the inpatient service, the patient developed pain, edema, and proptosis in the right eye. She was diagnosed with rhino-orbitalcerebral mucormycosis. This is the first reported case of rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis in a renal transplant recipient with COVID-19 infection.

3.
Exp Clin Transplant ; 2022 Jan 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34981711

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Kidney transplant recipients are among the high-risk groups for severe COVID-19. To date, no specific antiviral agent has proved uniformly effective against SARS-CoV-2. Favipiravir, the recommended drug by the Turkish Ministry of Health, was uniformly supplied to all patients diagnosed with COVID-19 by a positive nasopharyngeal swab polymerase chain reaction test. The aim of our study was to retrospectively compare our kidney transplant recipients treated with favipiravir who developed COVID-19 infection versus those not treated with favipiravir during the clinical course of the disease, with a special emphasis on the occurrence of side effects and adverse events. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included 37 consecutive kidney transplant recipients with a median age of 46 years (62.2% women). Recipients included 8 with deceased donors and 29 with living related donors; median posttransplant survival was 8.0 years (IQR, 5.5-12.5 years). RESULTS: Twenty-six patients (70.3%) received favipiravir, and 11 (29.7%) did not. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups for baseline demographic characteristics and clinical and laboratory data, except that the favipiravir-treated patients were older and had a higher requirement of oxygen treatment. There were no statistically significant differences between the 2 groups for the course and outcome of COVID-19 infection with regard to adverse side effects/events associated with favipiravir. Laboratory data at baseline, day 7, and day 30 were also comparable between the groups. CONCLUSIONS: Although the efficacy of favipiravir for treatment of COVID-19 infection remains controversial, favipiravir is safe for kidney transplant recipients.

5.
Int J Nephrol ; 2022: 1148378, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35036007

RESUMEN

Background: There is very little published data on outcomes of COVID-19 among chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. We compared the outcomes of COVID-19 in a tertiary care renal hospital among CKD V patients on hemodialysis (HD), peritoneal dialysis (PD), and dialysis initiation, in terms of duration of hospitalization, in-patient mortality, and 30-day mortality. Methods: A total of 436 CKD V patients, on either HD, PD, or dialysis initiation, with COVID-19 who were admitted at the National Kidney and Transplant Institute (NKTI) from March 13, 2020, to August 31, 2020, were included. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis was performed. Comparison of probability of mortality by group was performed using Log-Rank test. p values ≤0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: Among 436 CKD V patients, 298 (68%) were on HD, 103 (24%) were on PD, and 35 (8%) required dialysis initiation. Overall in-hospital mortality was 34%; 38% were on HD, 20% on PD, and 37% on dialysis initiation. Total 30-day mortality was 27%; 32% were on HD, 26% on PD, and 16% on dialysis initiation. Median follow-up was 24 days. Among the 137 deaths recorded, total median time to death was 10 days; 8.5 days, 15.5 days, and 9 days for HD, PD, and dialysis initiation groups, respectively. Probability of mortality was significantly higher in HD patients versus PD patients (p < 0.00001) and in the dialysis initiation group compared to PD patients (p=0.0234). Mortality probability, however, was not significantly different in HD patients versus the dialysis initiation group (p=0.63). Conclusion: Among CKD V patients diagnosed with COVID-19 at the NKTI, those on HD and on dialysis initiation had significantly higher in-hospital and 30-day mortality, compared to patients on PD.

6.
Cornea ; 41(2): 224-231, 2022 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35037905

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the risk of symptomatic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection after corneal transplantation surgery, with cataract surgeries as controls, and the impact of the novel coronavirus disease pandemic in the clinical and surgical complications of corneal transplantation and cataract surgeries. METHODS: A retrospective matched case-control study of 480 consecutive individuals who underwent surgery at the Bascom Palmer Eye Institute between May 2020 and November 2020. A total of 240 patients who underwent corneal transplantation with tissue obtained from the Florida Lions Eye Bank were age, race, ethnicity, and sex matched with 240 patients who underwent cataract surgery during the same day and by the same surgical team. Only the first corneal transplant or cataract surgery during this period was considered for each individual. All donors and recipients were deemed SARS-CoV-2 negative by a nasopharyngeal polymerase chain reaction test before surgery. Postoperative SARS-CoV-2 infections were defined as previously SARS-CoV-2(-) individuals who developed symptoms or had a positive SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction test during the first postoperative month. RESULTS: Mean age, sex, race, and ethnicity were similar between groups. There were no differences between the corneal transplant and cataract groups in the rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection before (5.8% vs. 7.5%, P= 0.6) or after surgery (2.9% vs. 2.9%, P = 1). The rates of postoperative complications did not increase during the pandemic, compared with previously reported ranges. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, postoperative SARS-CoV-2 infection was similar for individuals undergoing corneal transplantation or cataract surgery. Further research is required to evaluate the transmission of SARS-CoV-2 through corneal tissue.

7.
Am J Transplant ; 2022 Jan 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35038362

RESUMEN

Kidney transplant recipients (KTR) have been considered as patients at higher risk of SARS-CoV-2-related disease severity, thus COVID-19 vaccination was highly recommended. However possible interferences of different immunosuppression with development of both humoral and T-cell-mediated immune response to COVID-19 vaccination has not been determined. Here we evaluated the association between mTOR-inhibitors (mTOR-I) and immune response to mRNA BNT162b2 (Pfizer-Biontech) vaccine in KTR. To this aim 132 consecutive KTR vaccinated against COVID-19 in the early 2021 were enrolled, and humoral and T-cell-mediated immune response were assessed after 4-5 weeks. Patients treated with mTOR-I showed significantly higher anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG titer (p=0.003) and higher percentages of anti-SARS-CoV-2 S1/RBD Ig (p=0.024), than those without. Moreover, SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell-derived IFNγ release was significantly increased in patients treated with mTOR-I (p<0.001), than in those without. Multivariate analysis confirmed that therapy with mTOR-I gained better humoral (p=0.005) and T-cell-mediated immune response (p=0.005) in KTR. The presence of mTOR-I is associated to a better immune response to COVID-19 vaccine in KTR compared to therapy without mTOR-I, not only by increasing vaccine-induced antibodies but also stimulating anti-SARS-CoV-2 T-cell response. These finding are consistent with a potential beneficial role of mTOR-I as modulators of immune response to COVID-19 vaccine in KTR.

10.
Clin Transplant ; : e14585, 2022 Jan 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34997797

RESUMEN

Vaccination is a promising strategy to control the ongoing pandemic; however, solid organ recipients tend to develop a weaker immune response to vaccination. Anti-spike SARS-CoV-2 antibodies titers were measured 2-4 weeks post-vaccination completion in 131 KT patients without previous infection. Demographic, clinical, and laboratorial parameters were analyzed to identify which factors contributed to seroconversion. Factors that influenced seroconversion, that occurred in 76 patients (58%), were longer time post-transplant, immunosuppression without an antiproliferative drug and vaccination with mRNA vaccines. Patients who received mRNA vaccines had significantly higher rates of seroconversion compared with adenovirus vector vaccines (67% vs 33%, P < .001) and higher anti-spike IgG titers. These findings reinforce the need to discuss the vaccination strategy in this population, including a third dose with a mRNA vaccine.

11.
Clin Transplant ; : e14578, 2022 Jan 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35043494

RESUMEN

Telemedicine has become prevalent during the novel-coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. The study explored patient factors associated with telemedicine utilization among post- kidney and pancreas transplant patients at a university center. After analyzing 2,801 patients and their visits using chi-square test and logistic regression, we found that government-insured (p<0.0001) post-kidney and pancreas transplant patients were less likely to use telemedicine. Sex (p = 0.748), patient race (p = 0.920), age groups (p = 0.812), and traveling distance (p = 0.837) were not associated with telemedicine use. Centers should consider focusing on the subgroup of government-insured patients to improve telemedicine use and future studies should consider exploring barriers for underutilization of telehealth in this population. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

13.
JAMA Cardiol ; 2022 Jan 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35044415

RESUMEN

Importance: Wide state-level variability in waiting list outcomes have been noted for patients listed for heart transplant in the US, but little is known regarding center-level transplant rates since the heart allocation policy change. Objective: To evaluate center-level transplant rates following the recent allocation policy change for heart transplant. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used data from the United Network for Organ Sharing database from October 18, 2015, to March 1, 2020, for a nationwide analysis of transplant centers in the US. Transplant candidates were stratified into 2 time cohorts, with era 1 denoting the 3-year period before the policy change (October 18, 2018), and era 2 representing the 500-day period after the policy change but before the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. Data were analyzed from May to June 2021. Exposure: The heart allocation policy change enacted on October 18, 2018. Main Outcomes and Measures: Competing risk regression for waiting list outcomes was performed to calculate adjusted era 1 and era 2 center-level transplant rates. Rates were compared across regions and states, as well as within organ procurement organizations. Pearson correlation coefficient was used to assess center-level factors associated with era 2 transplant rates. Results: Of 15 940 transplant candidates included for analysis, 5063 (median [IQR] age, 56 [45-63] years; 1385 women [27.4%]) comprised the era 2 cohort. The proportion of patients with temporary mechanical circulatory support increased between era 1 and era 2 (extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, 2.00% vs 3.42%; percutaneous ventricular assist device, 0.66% vs 1.86%; intra-aortic balloon pump, 5.21% vs 13.10%). The adjusted mean center-level likelihood of transplant increased after the rule change (from 48.1% in era 1 to 78.0% in era 2). Significant variation in transplant rates was observed across regions and states even among centers with shared organ procurement organizations. The largest absolute difference in transplant rates was 27.1% for 2 centers belonging to the same organ procurement organization. Centers with higher transplant volumes in era 2 and with a greater proportion of candidates with intra-aortic balloon pump were observed to have higher transplant rates. Conclusions and Relevance: Despite sharing organ supply and having a small geographical distance, these findings suggest that intercenter disparities in the likelihood of transplant have persisted following the heart allocation policy change. Further work is necessary to ensure equitable allocation of organs in heart transplant.

17.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 7768383, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35036437

RESUMEN

Background: The suspension of the surgical activity, the burden of the infection in immunosuppressed patients, and the comorbidities underlying end-stage organ disease have impacted transplant programs significantly, even life-saving procedures, such as liver transplantation. Methods: A review of the literature was conducted to explore the challenges faced by transplant programs and the adopted strategies to overcome them, with a focus on indications for imaging in liver transplant candidates. Results: Liver transplantation relies on an appropriate imaging method for its success. During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, chest CT showed an additional value to detect early signs of SARS-CoV-2 infection and other screening modalities are less accurate than radiology. Conclusion: There is an emerging recognition of the chest CT value to recommend its use and help COVID-19 detection in patients. This examination appears highly sensitive for liver transplant candidates and recipients, who otherwise would have not undergone it, particularly when asymptomatic.

18.
BMJ Open ; 12(1): e055367, 2022 01 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35022176

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 pandemic significantly affected the provisions of health services to necessary but deprioritised fields, such as transplantation. Many programmes had to ramp-down their activity, which may significantly affect transplant volumes. We aimed to pragmatically analyse measures of transplant activity and compare them by a country's income level and cumulative COVID-19 incidence (CCI). DESIGN, SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: From June to September 2020, we surveyed transplant physicians identified as key informants in their programmes. Of the 1267 eligible physicians, 40.5% from 71 countries participated. OUTCOME: Four pragmatic measures of transplant activity. RESULTS: Overall, 46.5% of the programmes from high-income countries anticipate being able to maintain >75% of their transplant volume compared with 31.6% of the programmes from upper-middle-income countries, and with 21.7% from low/lower-middle-income countries (p<0.001). This could be because more programmes in high-income countries reported being able to perform transplantation/s (86.8%%-58.5%-67.9%, p<0.001), maintain prepandemic deceased donor offers (31.0%%-14.2%-26.4%, p<0.01) and avoid a ramp down phase (30.9%%-19.7%-8.3%, p<0.001), respectively. In a multivariable analysis that adjusted for CCI, programmes in upper-middle-income countries (adjusted OR, aOR=0.47, 95% CI 0.27 to 0.81) and low/lower-middle-income countries (aOR 0.33, 95% CI 0.16 to 0.67) had lower odds of being able to maintain >75% of their transplant volume, compared with programmes in high-income countries. Again, this could be attributed to lower-income being associated with 3.3-3.9 higher odds of performing no transplantation/s, 66%-68% lower odds of maintaining prepandemic donor offers and 37%-76% lower odds of avoiding ramp-down of transplantation. Overall, CCI was not associated with these measures. CONCLUSIONS: The impact of the pandemic on transplantation was more in lower-income countries, independent of the COVID-19 burden. Given the lag of 1-2 years in objective data being reported by global registries, our findings may inform practice and policy. Transplant programmes in lower-income countries may need more effort to rebuild disrupted services and recuperate from the pandemic even if their COVID-19 burden was low.

19.
Clin Transplant ; : e14596, 2022 Jan 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35037301

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: More patients are waitlisted for solid organs than transplants are performed each year. The COVID-19 pandemic immediately increased waitlist mortality and decreased transplants and listings. METHODS: To calculate the number of candidate listings after the pandemic began and short-term changes that may affect waiting time, we conducted a Scientific Registry of Transplant Recipients surveillance study from January 1, 2012, to February 28, 2021. RESULTS: The number of candidates on the liver waitlist continued a steady decline that began before the pandemic. Numbers of candidates on the kidney, heart, and lung waitlists decreased dramatically. More than 3000 fewer candidates were awaiting a kidney transplant on March 7, 2021, than on March 8, 2020. Listings and removals decreased for each solid organ beginning in March 2020. The number of heart and lung listings returned to equal or above that of removals. Listings for kidney transplant, which is often less urgent than heart and lung transplant, remain below numbers of removals. Removals due to transplant decreased for all organs, while removals due to death increased for only kidneys. CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence of the predicted surge in listings for solid organ transplant with a plateau or control of the pandemic. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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