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1.
Recurso de Internet en Inglés, Español, Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-48573

RESUMEN

A Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde (OPAS) acolheu com satisfação a inclusão nesta quinta-feira (23) de uma vacina AstraZeneca produzida conjuntamente pela Argentina e pelo México. Trata-se da primeira decisão desse tipo para uma vacina contra a COVID-19 elaborada na América Latina.


Asunto(s)
Organización Panamericana de la Salud , América Latina , Vacunas contra la COVID-19
2.
Recurso de Internet en Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-48577

RESUMEN

O Ministério da Saúde anunciou a inclusão de crianças no Plano Nacional de Operacionalização da Vacinação contra a Covid-19 (PNO). A imunização da faixa etária de 5 a 11 anos não será obrigatória


Asunto(s)
Programas de Inmunización , COVID-19 , Niño , Vacunas contra la COVID-19
3.
Brasília, D.F.; OPAS; 2022-01-13. (OPAS-W/BRA/FGL/COVID-19/22-0009).
No convencional en Portugués | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-55598

RESUMEN

Embora a maioria das vacinas contra COVID-19 só sejam aprovadas para uso em adultos com 18 anos ou mais, um número crescente de vacinas também está sendo autorizado para uso em crianças. Alguns países deram autorização de uso de emergência para vacinas de mRNA para uso na faixa etária adolescente (de 12 a 17 anos): a BNT162b2 desenvolvida pela Pfizer; e a mRNA 1273 desenvolvida pela Moderna. Em novembro de 2021, uma autoridade reguladora rigorosa aprovou a vacina mRNA BNT162b2 para uso em crianças de 5 a 11 anos. Foram concluídos estudos em crianças com 3 anos de idade para duas vacinas inativadas (Sinovac-CoronaVac e BBIBPCorV), e esses produtos foram aprovados pelas autoridades chinesas para a indicação de idade de 3-17 anos.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus , Betacoronavirus , Vacunación , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , Niño , Adolescente
4.
Brasília, D.F.; OPAS; 2022-01-13. (OPAS-W/BRA/FGL/COVID-19/22-0007).
No convencional en Portugués | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-55596

RESUMEN

Estes são os anexos das Recomendações provisórias para uso da vacina Pfizer-BioNTech BNT162b2. Os Anexos 1-8 contêm tabelas que resumem a classificação das recomendações, avaliação, desenvolvimento e análise (GRADE). Os Anexos 9-12 contêm as tabelas do esquema de evidências para recomendações do SAGE (tabelas ETR). As tabelas ETR são baseadas no pacote de trabalho DECIDE 5: Estratégias de comunicação de evidências para orientar as decisões sobre intervenções no sistema de saúde e na saúde pública. Evidências para uma recomendação (para uso pelo painel de orientações) (www.decide-collaboration.eu/, acessado em 5 de novembro de 2021).


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Betacoronavirus , Vacunas , Vacunación , Vacunas contra la COVID-19
5.
Brasília, D.F.; OPAS; 2022-01-13. (OPAS-W/BRA/FGL/COVID-19/22-0006).
No convencional en Portugués | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-55593

RESUMEN

Estes são os anexos das Recomendações provisórias para uso da vacina Moderna mRNA-1273 contra COVID-19. Os Anexos 1-8 contêm tabelas que resumem a classificação de recomendações, avaliação, desenvolvimento e análise (GRADE). Os anexos 9-12 contêm as tabelas do esquema de evidências para recomendações do SAGE (tabelas ETR). As tabelas ETR são baseadas no pacote de trabalho DECIDE 5: Estratégias de comunicação de evidências para orientar as decisões sobre intervenções no sistema de saúde e na saúde pública. Evidências para uma recomendação (para uso pelo painel de orientações) (www.decide-collaboration.eu/, acessado em 4 de novembro de 2021).


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Betacoronavirus , Vacunas , Vacunas contra la COVID-19
6.
Brasília, D.F.; OPAS; 2022-01-13. (OPAS-W/BRA/FGL/COVID-19/22-0008).
No convencional en Portugués | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-55592

RESUMEN

O SAGE aplica os princípios da medicina baseada em evidências e estabeleceu um processo metodológico completo para emitir ou atualizar recomendações. Especificamente para vacinas contra a COVID-19, uma descrição detalhada dos processos metodológicos pode ser encontrada no esquema de evidências do SAGE para vacinas contra a COVID-19. Esse esquema contém orientações sobre como levar em consideração os dados provenientes de ensaios clínicos em apoio à emissão de recomendações baseadas em evidências específicas para vacinas.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Infecciones por Coronavirus , SARS-CoV-2 , Betacoronavirus , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , China
7.
Bridgetown; PAHO; 2022-01-07.
en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-55591

RESUMEN

SITUATION IN NUMBERS: Region of the Americas 108,806,129 cases; 2,422,138 deaths in 56 countries, areas, or territories; 1,482,883,046 total vaccine doses administered. | Global 296,496,809 cases; 5,462,631 deaths in 236 countries, areas, or territories; 9,118,223,397 total vaccine doses administered.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Betacoronavirus , Análisis de la Situación , Inmunización , Vacunas , Urgencias Médicas , Américas , Región del Caribe
8.
Brasília, D.F.; OPAS; 2022-01-12. (OPAS-W/BRA/PHE/COVID-19/22-0005).
No convencional en Portugués | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-55580

RESUMEN

A orientação é baseada na evidência resumida no documento de referência sobre o estudo de fase 3 da vacina Janssen Ad26.COV2.S (COVID-19) e o acompanhamento de longo prazo de um pequeno número de participantes no tocante à durabilidade das respostas imunes humorais e celulares. Essas recomendações provisórias se referem à vacina Ad26.COV2.S, fabricada pela Janssen (Johnson e Johnson). A vacina também é conhecida como vacina contra COVID-19 da Johnson & Johnson/Janssen. No texto subsequente, a vacina será denominada Ad26. COV2.S. Em 12 de março de 2021, a vacina Ad26.COV2.S recebeu a Lista de Uso de Emergência (EUL) da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS).


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Betacoronavirus , SARS-CoV-2 , Pandemias , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , Vacunación , Vacunas , Enfermedades Prevenibles por Vacunación
9.
Brasília, D.F.; OPAS; 2022-01-12. (OPAS-W/BRA/PHE/COVID-19/22-0004).
No convencional en Portugués | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-55579

RESUMEN

Esta orientação provisória foi desenvolvida com base na recomendação emitida pelo Grupo Consultivo Estratégico de Especialistas (SAGE) em imunização, em sua reunião extraordinária de 5 de janeiro de 2021, e atualizada durante sua reunião extraordinária de 27 de maio de 2021, sendo novamente atualizada em 19 de novembro de 2021. Estas recomendações provisórias se referem à vacina de mRNA BNT162b2, fabricada pela Pfizer e BioNTech. A denominação comum internacional (DCI) é Tozinameran. A vacina também é conhecida como vacina Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 ou Comirnaty. No texto subsequente, a vacina será denominada BNT162b2. Em 31 de dezembro de 2020, a BNT162b2 recebeu a Lista de Uso de Emergência da OMS (EUL).


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Betacoronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacunación , Vacunas , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , Enfermedades Prevenibles por Vacunación , Pandemias , Epidemias
10.
Brasília, D.F.; OPAS; 2022-01-12. (OPAS-W/BRA/PHE/COVID-19/22-0002).
No convencional en Portugués | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-55577

RESUMEN

Esta orientação provisória foi desenvolvida com base na recomendação emitida pelo Grupo Consultivo Estratégico de Especialistas (SAGE) em imunização em sua reunião extraordinária de 21 de janeiro de 2021, e atualizada durante sua reunião extraordinária de 27 de maio de 2021, sendo novamente atualizada em 19 de novembro de 2021. Foram coletadas as declarações de interesses de todos os colaboradores externos, sendo elas avaliadas quanto a quaisquer conflitos de interesse. O resumo dos interesses relatados pode ser encontrado no site da reunião do SAGE e no site do Grupo de Trabalho do SAGE. Esta orientação é baseada na evidência resumida no documento de referência sobre a vacina Moderna mRNA-1273 contra COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , Enfermedades Prevenibles por Vacunación , Inmunización , Epidemias , Vacunación , Vacunas
11.
Brasília, D.F.; OPAS; 2022-01-11. (OPAS-W/BRA/PHE/COVID-19/22-0001).
No convencional en Portugués | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-55569

RESUMEN

A Organização Mundial da Saúde, com o apoio do Grupo Consultivo Estratégico de Especialistas (SAGE) em imunização e seu Grupo de Trabalho de Vacinas contra COVID-19, continua a analisar as evidências emergentes sobre a necessidade e o momento de uma dose de reforço das vacinas atualmente disponíveis contra a COVID-19, vacinas que receberam a Listagem de Uso de Emergência (EUL). Esta declaração expressa o entendimento atual do desempenho e o suprimento de vacinas, conforme apresentado ao SAGE em 7 de dezembro de 2021. Ela resume e contextualiza as evidências atuais sobre a vacinação de reforço.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , Betacoronavirus , Vacunación Masiva
12.
Buenos Aires; OPS; 2022-01.
en Español | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-55559

RESUMEN

Informe de situación generado por la representación de OPS/OMS en Argentina con información importante relacionada con COVID-19 a nivel regional y global, dirigida a tomadores de decisión, organizaciones sociales, funcionarios, académicos y otras instituciones del sector salud, a través de mensajes claros basados en fuentes confiables.


Asunto(s)
Coronavirus , COVID-19 , Argentina , Investigación , Epidemias , Pandemias , Vacunas contra la COVID-19
13.
Preprint | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-473243

RESUMEN

The >30 mutated residues in the Omicron spike protein have led to its rapid classification as a new SARS-CoV-2 variant of concern. As a result, Omicron may escape from the immune system, decreasing the protection provided by COVID-19 vaccines. Preliminary data shows a weaker neutralizing antibody response to Omicron compared to the ancestral SARS-CoV-2 virus, which can be increased after a booster vaccine. Here, we report that CD8+ T cells can recognize Omicron variant epitopes presented by HLA-A*02:01 in both COVID-19 recovered and vaccinated individuals, even 6 months after infection or vaccination. Additionally, the T cell response was stronger for Omicron variant epitopes after the vaccine booster. Altogether, T cells can recognize Omicron variants, especially in vaccinated individuals after the vaccine booster.

14.
Preprint en Inglés | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-475409

RESUMEN

The omicron variant of concern (VOC) of SARS-CoV-2 was first reported in November 2021 in Botswana and South Africa. Omicron variant has evolved multiple mutations within the spike protein and the receptor binding domain (RBD), raising concerns of increased antibody evasion. Here, we isolated infectious omicron from a clinical specimen obtained in Canada. The neutralizing activity of sera from 65 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) vaccine recipients and convalescent individuals against clinical isolates of ancestral SARS-CoV-2, beta, delta, and omicron VOCs was assessed. Convalescent sera from unvaccinated individuals infected by the ancestral virus during the first wave of COVID-19 in Canada (July, 2020) demonstrated reduced neutralization against beta, delta and omicron VOCs. Convalescent sera from unvaccinated individuals infected by the delta variant (May-June, 2021) neutralized omicron to significantly lower levels compared to the delta variant. Sera from individuals that received three doses of the Pfizer or Moderna vaccines demonstrated reduced neutralization of both delta and omicron variants relative to ancestral SARS-CoV-2. Sera from individuals that were naturally infected with ancestral SARS-CoV-2 and subsequently received two doses of the Pfizer vaccine induced significantly higher neutralizing antibody levels against ancestral virus and all VOCs. Importantly, infection alone, either with ancestral SARS-CoV-2 or the delta variant was not sufficient to induce high neutralizing antibody titers against omicron. This data will inform current booster vaccination strategies and we highlight the need for additional studies to identify longevity of immunity against SARS-CoV-2 and optimal neutralizing antibody levels that are necessary to prevent infection and/or severe COVID-19.

15.
Preprint en Inglés | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21268460

RESUMEN

The frequency of SARS-CoV-2 breakthrough infections in fully vaccinated individuals increased with the emergence of the Delta variant, particularly with longer time from vaccine completion. However, whether breakthrough infections lead to onward transmission remains unclear. Here, we conducted a study involving 125 patients comprised of 72 vaccinated and 53 unvaccinated individuals, to assess the levels of infectious virus in vaccinated and unvaccinated individuals. Quantitative plaque assays showed no significant differences in the titers of virus between these cohorts. However, the proportion of nasopharyngeal samples with culturable virus was lower in the vaccinated patients relative to unvaccinated patients (21% vs. 40%). Finally, time-to-event analysis with Kaplan-Myer curves revealed that protection from culturable infectious virus waned significantly starting at 5 months after completing a 2-dose regimen of mRNA vaccines. These results have important implications in timing of booster dose to prevent onward transmission from breakthrough cases.

16.
Preprint en Inglés | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21268582

RESUMEN

Large-scale vaccination campaigns have prevented countless SARS-CoV-2 infections, hospitalizations and deaths. However, the emergence of variants that escape from immunity challenges the effectiveness of current vaccines. Given this continuing evolution, an important question is when and how to update SARS-CoV-2 vaccines to antigenically match circulating variants, similar to seasonal influenza viruses where antigenic drift necessitates periodic vaccine updates. Here, we studied SARS-CoV-2 antigenic drift by assessing neutralizing activity against variants-of-concern (VOCs) of a unique set of sera from patients infected with a range of VOCs. Infections with ancestral or Alpha strains induced the broadest immunity, while individuals infected with other VOCs had more strain-specific responses. Omicron was substantially resistant to neutralization by sera elicited by all other variants. Antigenic cartography revealed that all VOCs preceding Omicron belong to one antigenic cluster, while Omicron forms a new antigenic cluster associated with immune escape and likely requiring vaccine updates to ensure vaccine effectiveness.

17.
Preprint en Inglés | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21268111

RESUMEN

Vaccination-based exposure to spike protein derived from early SARS-CoV-2 sequences is the key public health strategy against COVID-19. Successive waves of SARS-CoV-2 infections have been characterised by the evolution of highly mutated variants that are more transmissible and that partially evade the adaptive immune response. Omicron is the fifth of these "Variants of Concern" (VOC) and is characterised by a step change in transmission capability, suggesting significant antigenic and biological change. It is characterised by 45 amino acid substitutions, including 30 changes in the spike protein relative to one of the earliest sequences, Wuhan-Hu-1, of which 15 occur in the receptor- binding domain, an area strongly associated with humoral immune evasion. In this study, we demonstrate both markedly decreased neutralisation in serology assays and real-world vaccine effectiveness in recipients of two doses of vaccine, with efficacy partially recovered by a third mRNA booster dose. We also show that immunity from natural infection (without vaccination) is more protective than two doses of vaccine but inferior to three doses. Finally, we demonstrate fundamental changes in the Omicron entry process in vitro, towards TMPRSS2-independent fusion, representing a major shift in the replication properties of SARS-CoV-2. Overall, these findings underlie rapid global transmission and may alter the clinical severity of disease associated with the Omicron variant.

18.
Preprint en Inglés | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-22268599

RESUMEN

PurposeWe investigated SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine-induced binding and live-virus neutralizing antibody response in NSCLC patients to the SARS-CoV-2 wild type strain and the emerging Delta and Omicron variants. Methods82 NSCLC patients and 53 healthy adult volunteers who received SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines were included in the study. Blood was collected longitudinally, and SARS-CoV-2-specific binding and live-virus neutralization response to 614D (WT), B.1.617.2 (Delta), B.1.351 (Beta) and B.1.1.529 (Omicron) variants were evaluated by Meso Scale Discovery (MSD) assay and Focus Reduction Neutralization Assay (FRNT) respectively. We determined the longevity and persistence of vaccine-induced antibody response in NSCLC patients. The effect of vaccine-type, age, gender, race and cancer therapy on the antibody response was evaluated. ResultsBinding antibody titer to the mRNA vaccines were lower in the NSCLC patients compared to the healthy volunteers (P=<0.0001). More importantly, NSCLC patients had reduced live-virus neutralizing activity compared to the healthy vaccinees (P=<0.0001). Spike and RBD-specific binding IgG titers peaked after a week following the second vaccine dose and declined after six months (P=<0.001). While patients >70 years had lower IgG titers (P=<0.01), patients receiving either PD-1 monotherapy, chemotherapy or a combination of both did not have a significant impact on the antibody response. Binding antibody titers to the Delta and Beta variants were lower compared to the WT strain (P=<0.0001). Importantly, we observed significantly lower FRNT50 titers to Delta (6-fold), and Omicron (79-fold) variants (P=<0.0001) in NSCLC patients. ConclusionsBinding and live-virus neutralizing antibody titers to SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines in NSCLC patients were lower than the healthy vaccinees, with significantly lower live-virus neutralization of B.1.617.2 (Delta), and more importantly, the B.1.1.529 (Omicron) variant compared to the wild-type strain. These data highlight the concern for cancer patients given the rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant.

19.
Preprint en Inglés | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-22268629

RESUMEN

With the continued threat of COVID-19, predictors of vaccination hesitancy and mitigation behaviors are critical to identify. Prior studies have found that cognitive factors are associated with some COVID-19 mitigation behaviors, but few studies employ representative samples and to our knowledge no prior studies have examined cognitive predictors of vaccine hesitancy. The purpose of the present study, conducted among a large national sample of Canadian adults, was to examine associations between cognitive variables (executive function, delay discounting, and temporal orientation) and COVID-19 mitigation behaviors (vaccination, mask wearing, social distancing, and hand hygiene). Findings revealed that individuals with few executive function deficits, limited delay discounting and who adopted a generally future-orientation mindset were more likely to be double-vaccinated and to report performing COVID-19 mitigation behaviors with high consistency. The most reliable findings were for delay discounting and future orientation, with executive function deficits predicting mask wearing and hand hygiene behaviors but not distancing and vaccination. These findings identify candidate mediators and moderators for health communication messages targeting COVID-19 mitigation behaviors and vaccine hesitancy.

20.
Preprint en Inglés | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-22268634

RESUMEN

The highly mutated SARS-CoV-2 Omicron (B.1.1.529) variant has been shown to evade a substantial fraction of neutralizing antibody responses elicited by current vaccines that encode the WA1/2020 Spike immunogen1, resulting in increased breakthrough infections and reduced vaccine efficacy. Cellular immune responses, particularly CD8+ T cell responses, are likely critical for protection against severe SARS-CoV-2 disease2-6. Here we show that cellular immunity induced by current SARS-CoV-2 vaccines is highly cross-reactive against the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant. Individuals who received Ad26.COV2.S or BNT162b2 vaccines demonstrated durable CD8+ and CD4+ T cell responses that showed extensive cross-reactivity against both the Delta and Omicron variants, including in central and effector memory cellular subpopulations. Median Omicron-specific CD8+ T cell responses were 82-84% of WA1/2020-specific CD8+ T cell responses. These data suggest that current vaccines may provide considerable protection against severe disease with the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant despite the substantial reduction of neutralizing antibody responses.

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