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1.
Fam Process ; 2019 Nov 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31715020

RESUMEN

A child's disclosure of sexual victimization is a difficult experience for parents and has been associated with traumatization, disbelief, denial, self-blame, and clinical difficulties. To date, most studies on parents' responses have been quantitative assessments of the psychological impact of disclosure on parents. A paucity of research has qualitatively explored mothers' experiences of their child's disclosure of child sexual abuse (CSA) and fathers' experiences have been even further neglected. The current study seeks to characterize parents' experiences of their child's disclosure of CSA and to uncover the process-oriented nature of parental responses. This qualitative study, using a grounded theory approach to analysis, involved interviews with 10 mothers and four fathers whose children (3-18 years) had experienced sexual abuse. Three themes emerged from the analysis. The first theme-making sense of the abuse in retrospect-captured the process through which parents sought to make sense of their child's disclosure, focusing on why their child had not disclosed the abuse to them earlier, and how they had noticed something was wrong but misattributed their child's behavior to other factors. The second theme-negotiating parental identity as protector-reflected how parents' identity as a protector was challenged, their perception of their world had been forever altered, and they now experienced themselves as hypervigilant and overprotective. The final theme-navigating the services-pertained to parents' struggle in navigating child protection and police services, and feelings of being isolated and alone. These findings highlight the need for empathy and parental support following child disclosure of sexual victimization.

2.
Rev Prat ; 69(4): 407-410, 2019 Apr.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626497

RESUMEN

Child sexual abuse is very common. Whether it is a spontaneous revelation, a sign or an evocative symptom, the suspicion of sexual assault on a child requires the doctor to act, regardless of his specialty or mode of exercise. After the interview, the doctor carries out a general somatic examination and writes an initial descriptive medical certificate. Whatever the situation, it is advisable to send the child to hospital for immediate management -gynecological and anal examination, additional examinations, medication prescriptions-. He must explain to the parents the obligatory nature of the hospital summons and its obligation of protection which may lead to an alert to the Republic prosecutor. Physicians must have anticipated these situations and have contact information for their direct child protection contacts.


Asunto(s)
Abuso Sexual Infantil , Maltrato a los Niños , Examen Físico , Afecto , Niño , Humanos , Masculino , Médicos
3.
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu ; 48(5): 717-727, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601310

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of early trauma and resilience among adolescents in Wuhan, and explore the relationship between early trauma and resilience. METHODS: Totally 4871 students aged 10-16 years were chosen by cluster sampling in Wuhan city from September to October 2015. All subjects completed self-report questionnaires, including general information, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire( CTQ), and the Connor Davidson Resilience Scale( CD-RISC). RESULTS: The mean score of CD-RISC of the total sample was( 64. 70 ± 18. 34). Statistical significance in different gender( t = 5. 373, P<0. 001), age( F = 49. 401, P<0. 001), single child( t = 3. 529, P<0. 001), levels of mother's education( F = 36. 129, P< 0. 001), relationship between parents( F = 89. 831, P < 0. 001), family economic status( F = 36. 547, P<0. 001). The rate of early trauma was 30. 1%. Male( χ~2= 42. 272, P < 0. 001), lower levels of mother 's education( χ~2= 44. 345, P < 0. 001), poorer relationship between parents( χ~2= 133. 045, P < 0. 001), and worse family economic status( χ~2= 31. 231, P<0. 001) were associated with increased risk of early trauma. The scores of emotional abuse, physical abuse, sexual abuse, emotional neglect and physical neglect were negatively correlated with the scores of CD-RISC( r followed by-0. 256, -0. 107, -0. 053, -0. 355 and-0. 308, P<0. 01). Regression analysis implied female, older age, emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and physical neglect( B followed by-0. 156, -0. 117, -0. 109, -0. 214 and-0. 149, P < 0. 01) of primary and middle school students assumed predictive resilience. CONCLUSION: Emotional abuse, emotional neglect, and physical neglect are negatively associated with resilience among children and adolescent. The result suggest that reducing emotional abuse, emotional neglect and physical neglect experience may contribute to child resilience.


Asunto(s)
Maltrato a los Niños , Adolescente , Anciano , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Padres , Prevalencia , Estudiantes , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
4.
West Afr J Med ; 36(3): 274-279, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622491

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Despite increasing awareness, sexual abuse of children is still prevalent in the society. This is due to lack of unified description of what constitutes child sexual abuse. This study is aimed to highlight the pattern of sexual abuse among secondary school adolescents in Rivers State. METHODS: The study was a descriptive cross-sectional survey carried out among secondary school adolescents in Port Harcourt Metropolis in Rivers State in 2014. Multistage sampling was employed to recruit study participants. A semi structured pretested self-administered questionnaire was used to obtain necessary information on socio-demographic characteristics of participants and the pattern of sexual abuse. Discretion of information obtained was guaranteed. SPSS version 20 was used for analysis. Bivariate analysis was by Chi square test while test for association between two subgroups was by odd ratio, the level of significance was put at P < 0.05. RESULTS: 1298 adolescents participated in the study, 462 (35.6%) had experienced sexual abuse. The victims consists of 176(38.1%) males and 286 (61.9%) females. (c² =12.02, p = < 0.001). Gender was significantly associated with penetrative (p= 0.006, OR=1.74, CI=1.15 -2.64) and contact with no penetrative ( p=<0.001 , ROR= 2.42, CI= 0.26-0.64) forms of sexual abuse. Adult males were the major perpetrators with adolescents themselves constituting 33.1% of the perpetrators. 33% of the perpetrators were family acquaintances while family members and classmates constituted 20.6% and 22.7% of the perpetrators respectively, with house helps accounting for 18.0% and teachers 3.0 %. About fifty percent of the abuse occurred at the victim's residence. CONCLUSION: Sexual abuse of minors is prevalent in Port Harcourt. The perpetrators are mainly adult males known to the victims. Child perpetrators are not uncommon, with the victims experiencing various forms of sexual abuse. Interventional program designed to create awareness to the public on the enormity of sexual abuse of children is needed so as to arm guardians, parents and even the children on how to prevent such crime.


Asunto(s)
Abuso Sexual Infantil/estadística & datos numéricos , Menores , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Nigeria/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Instituciones Académicas , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
5.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 19(3): 181-188, sept. 2019. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | ID: ibc-FGT-2056

RESUMEN

Background/Objective: Previous studies have shown that childhood abuse is associated with symptoms of depression. This study aims to examine the prevalence of childhood abuse or neglect and its correlation with depression among a sample of Chinese people who use methamphetamine. Method: People who use methamphetamine (MA) (N = 1,173) were recruited from government-operated drug rehabilitation centres in Anhui province, China. Participants were assessed using the short form of Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and the Beck Depression Inventory-II for childhood abuse or neglect and depression symptoms. Results: A total of 44.6% of people who use MA reported moderate/severe childhood abuse or neglect, and 56.9% of this sample were diagnosed with depression. Emotional abuse, sexual abuse, emotional neglect and physical neglect were revealed to increase the risk of depression. Multivariable regression analyses showed that depression scores were significantly predicted by gender, duration of drug use, sexual abuse and emotional neglect (model R2 = .08, p < .001). The interaction between emotional neglect and duration of drug use on the depression was statistically significant. Conclusions: These analyses indicate that sexual abuse and emotional neglect increase the severity of depression in individuals who use MA in drug rehabilitation centres of China


Antecedentes/Objetivo: Estudios previos han demostrado que el abuso infantil está asociado a síntomas depresivos. El objetivo es investigar la prevalencia del abuso infantil entre consumidores de metanfetaminas en muestras chinas y su correlación con la depresión. Método: Se reclutan consumidores de metanfetamina (MA) del centro de rehabilitación de drogas del gobierno chino (N = 1.173). Los participantes fueron evaluados utilizando la forma corta del Childhood Trauma Questionnaire y el Inventario de Depresión de Beck-II para abuso infantil o negligencia y síntomas depresivos, respectivamente. Resultados: El 44,6% de los consumidores de MA reportaron abuso infantil moderado/grave, de los cuales el 56,9% fueron diagnosticados con depresión leve a grave. El abuso emocional, abuso sexual, abandono emocional y negligencia física fueron asociados al incremente del riesgo de depresión. El análisis de regresión multivariada indica que la depresión se predice de manera significativa según el sexo, la duración del consumo de drogas, el abuso sexual y el grado de negligencia emocional (R2 = 0,08; p <  0,001). El efecto de la negligencia emocional y del tiempo de consumo de drogas sobre la depresión fue significativo. Conclusiones: El abuso sexual y el abandono emocional aumentan la gravedad de la depresión en pacientes de centros de rehabilitación de drogas en China

6.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 6(10): 830-839, 2019 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519507

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Although many meta-analyses have examined the association between childhood sexual abuse and subsequent outcomes, the scope, validity, and quality of this evidence has not been comprehensively assessed. We aimed to systematically review existing meta-analyses on a wide range of long-term psychiatric, psychosocial, and physical health outcomes of childhood sexual abuse, and evaluate the quality of the literature. METHODS: In this umbrella review, we searched four databases (PsycINFO, PubMed, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, and Global Health) from inception to Dec 31, 2018, to identify meta-analyses of observational studies that examined the association between childhood sexual abuse (before 18 years of age) and long-term consequences (after 18 years). We compared odds ratios (ORs) across different outcomes. We also examined measures of quality, including heterogeneity between studies and evidence for publication bias. This study is registered with PROSPERO, CRD42016049701. FINDINGS: We identified 19 meta-analyses that included 559 primary studies, covering 28 outcomes in 4 089 547 participants. Childhood sexual abuse was associated with 26 of 28 specific outcomes: specifically, six of eight adult psychiatric diagnoses (ORs ranged from 2·2 [95% CI 1·8-2·8] to 3·3 [2·2-4·8]), all studied negative psychosocial outcomes (ORs ranged from 1·2 [1·1-1·4] to 3·4 [2·3-4·8]), and all physical health conditions (ORs ranged from 1·4 [1·3-1·6] to 1·9 [1·4-2·8]). Strongest psychiatric associations with childhood sexual abuse were reported for conversion disorder (OR 3·3 [95% CI 2·2-4·8]), borderline personality disorder (2·9 [2·5-3·3]), anxiety (2·7 [2·5-2·8]), and depression (2·7 [2·4-3·0]). The systematic reviews for two psychiatric outcomes (post-traumatic stress disorder and schizophrenia) and one psychosocial outcome (substance misuse) met high quality standards. Quality was low for meta-analyses on borderline personality disorder and anxiety, and moderate for conversion disorder. Assuming causality, population attributable risk fractions for outcomes ranged from 1·7% (95% CI 0·7-3·3) for unprotected sexual intercourse to 14·4% (8·8-19·9) for conversion disorder. INTERPRETATION: Although childhood sexual abuse was associated with a wide range of psychosocial and health outcomes, systematic reviews on only two psychiatric disorders (post-traumatic stress disorder and schizophrenia) and one psychosocial outcome (substance misuse) were of a high quality. Whether services should prioritise interventions that mitigate developing certain psychiatric disorders following childhood abuse requires further review. Higher-quality meta-analyses for specific outcomes and more empirical studies on the developmental pathways from childhood sexual abuse to later outcomes are necessary. FUNDING: Wellcome Trust.


Asunto(s)
Abuso Sexual Infantil/psicología , Abuso Sexual Infantil/estadística & datos numéricos , Estado de Salud , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Niño , Humanos
7.
Psychiatr Danub ; 31(Suppl 3): 509-511, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488781

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The present retrospective case-control study is aimed at evaluating the presence of childhood traumatic factors and the difficulty in regulating emotions, within a sample of patients with eating disorders compared to the group of healthy controls. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We included 65 people assessed for eating disorders, 40 patients and 25 healthy controls, who were given two tests: the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire-Short Form (CTQ-SF) to investigate the presence of traumatic events and the Difficulties in Emotion Regulation Scale (DERS) to assess the emotional regulation. RESULTS: People with eating disorders showed higher average scores, and therefore greater severity than the control group, in all the domains explored, both considering traumatic experiences and emotional dysregulation. The domain emotional neglect showed the closest correlation with eating disorders (average scoring 15.9 vs 9.9 of healthy controls), followed by emotional abuse (12.2 vs 7.8), physical neglect (8.2 vs 6.6), physical abuse (8.3 vs 6.6) and sexual abuse (7.2 vs 5.6). In the same way, the emotional dysregulation was greater among people with eating disorder than healty controls, concerning every items explored by DERS, as clarity (average scoring 14.8 vs 11.4), awareness (17.1 vs 11.7), goals (16.3 vs 12.9), strategy (22.0 vs 14.7), non acceptance (17.4 vs 12.1) and impulse (16.5 vs 11.4). CONCLUSIONS: Childhood traumatic experiences and emotional dysregulation result significantly higher in people with eating disorders than healthy controls.


Asunto(s)
Maltrato a los Niños/psicología , Emociones , Trastornos de Alimentación y de la Ingestión de Alimentos/etiología , Trastornos de Alimentación y de la Ingestión de Alimentos/psicología , Niño , Humanos , Estudios Retrospectivos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
9.
Psicothema (Oviedo) ; 31(3): 271-276, ago. 2019. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | ID: ibc-FGT-2294

RESUMEN

Background: Child sexual abuse continues to be a problem aggravated by difficulty of detection. The aim of this study was to compare intra-familial (IF) and extra-familial (EF) child sexual abuse cases in search of differential variables that may allow for better intervention and prevention. Method: A sample of 221 forensic/legal cases (44.8% IF and 55.2% EF) dealing with children between 3 and 18 years of age (75% female) was analysed. Results: IF sexual abuse was significantly more likely to occur more than once (p = .000; OR = 6.353), with greater delay in its revelation (>1 year OR = 8.132), and with younger victims (9.05 vs. 11.45; p = .000). Intellectual disability was more prevalent among EF victims (p = .017; OR = 3.053). There was a higher proportion of reconstructed families, more legal records, and more histories of domestic violence among IF sexual abuse families. Even among EF cases, 78% of abusers were known to the victims, and in around 80% of all cases the abuse was reported by a family member. Conclusion: Results point to the need for further development of detection programs in schools, police or health contexts since reporting by professionals is scarce


Antecedentes: el abuso sexual infantil (ASI) sigue siendo un problema agravado por dificultades de detección. Este estudio compara casos de ASI intrafamiliar (IF) y ASI extrafamiliar (EF) en busca de variables diferenciales que permitan una mejor intervención y prevención. Método: se analizó 221 casos forenses (55,2% EF) relacionados con menores entre 3 y 18 años (75% mujeres). Resultados: el abuso IF fue significativamente más probable que ocurriera de forma repetida (p = ,000; OR = 6,353), con mayor retraso en su revelación (>1 año OR = 8,132) y con víctimas más jóvenes (9,05 vs. 11,45 años; p = ,000). La discapacidad intelectual fue más frecuente entre las víctimas de abuso EF (p = ,017; OR = 3,053). Se encontró mayor proporción de familias reconstruidas, más antecedentes judiciales y más historia de violencia doméstica entre los abusos IF. De forma llamativa, incluso entre los casos EF el 78% de los abusadores eran conocidos y, entre ambos tipos de abuso, en torno al 80% de las veces un familiar fue quien denunció. Conclusiones: los resultados señalan la necesidad de mejorar los protocolos de detección en las escuelas, la policía o los contextos de salud ya que el informe de profesionales es escaso

11.
Georgian Med News ; (291): 145-150, 2019 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418748

RESUMEN

The purpose of the study was to identify the most optimal sign of a victim of non-violent sexual intercourse with a minor based on the analysis of approaches to the definition of such a sign in the criminal legislation of different countries, as well as the doctrinal provisions of medicine and jurisprudence. In the process of research, such methods of scientific knowledge were used as: a dialectical approach, a comparative law method, general logical methods (analysis, synthesis, induction, deduction, generalization), as well as a dogmatic method. The study of criminal legislation of a number of foreign countries and proposals expressed in criminal law science allowed to identify the main approaches to the definition of the sign of a victim, the presence or absence of which should have criminal law significance for qualifying the act as non-violent sexual intercourse with a minor. Such approaches are: 1) the age approach, according to which a person who has not attained a certain age is recognized as a victim; 2) the medical-physiological approach, which involves reaching a victim of puberty; 3) the mixed approaches: a) cumulative, providing for a person to reach puberty and a certain age; b) alternative, providing for a person to reach puberty or a certain age. The advantages and disadvantages of each approach are analyzed. It was concluded that there is no universal approach to determining the most optimal sign of a victim of non-violent sexual intercourse with a minor, since all the considered approaches have both advantages and disadvantages. A legislator in each particular state should independently determine which approach to use, the age of sexual consent to establish, taking into account the peculiarities of the mentality, traditions, culture, priorities of criminal law protection. Moreover, when choosing an age or one of the mixed approaches, it would be advisable to raise the issue of differentiating the age of sexual consent of boys and girls.


Asunto(s)
Coito/psicología , Víctimas de Crimen/legislación & jurisprudencia , Víctimas de Crimen/psicología , Pubertad/psicología , Adolescente , Factores de Edad , Niño , Abuso Sexual Infantil/legislación & jurisprudencia , Abuso Sexual Infantil/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Maduración Sexual
12.
J Trauma Stress ; 32(5): 742-752, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31361352

RESUMEN

Loss and abuse in children can lead to unresolved-disorganized (UD) attachment. How this condition relates to brain structure and functional connectivity (FC) is unknown. We therefore aimed to investigate gray matter volume (GMV) and resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) correlates of UD attachment in adolescents. Based on previous neuroimaging studies of trauma effects, we hypothesized that the structure of the amygdala and hippocampus and the FC of the latter would be linked to UD attachment. Anatomical and RSFC data were collected from a mixed group of adolescents (N = 74) with symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) related to childhood sexual abuse (CSA), anxiety/depressive symptoms, and without psychiatric disorder as part of the Emotional Pathways' Imaging Study in Clinical Adolescents (EPISCA). Bilateral volumes of the amygdala and hippocampus were measured using the FMRIB Software Library, and RSFC of the hippocampus was assessed using seed-based correlation. UD attachment was measured using the Adult Attachment Interview. Hierarchical regression and correlation were used to assess the associations between UD status (continuous and categorical), brain structure, and FC, adjusting for a general psychopathology factor, puberty stage, gender, age, and IQ. UD attachment was associated with a smaller left hippocampal volume, R2 = .23, and a higher level of FC between the hippocampus and the middle temporal gyrus and lateral occipital cortex. The associations among UD attachment, specific brain structure, and FC across psychopathological classifications shows promise for dimensional complements to the dominant classificatory approach in clinical research and practice.

13.
Infant Ment Health J ; 40(5): 640-658, 2019 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31335984

RESUMEN

Latina immigrant women are vulnerable to traumatic stress and sexual health disparities. Without autonomy over their reproductive health and related decision-making, reproductive justice is elusive. We analyzed behavioral health data from 175 Latina immigrant participants (M age = 35; range = 18-64) of the International Latino Research Partnership (ILRP) study. We used descriptive and inferential statistics to compare immigrant mothers of minor children to those without, regarding their psychological and reproductive health, and correlates of past exposure to sexual trauma. Over one third (38%) of ILRP participants had minor children, and 58% had citizenship in their host country. The rate for sexual assault was 30 and 61%, respectively, for physical assault; these rates were similarly high for women with and without minor children. Women who reported sexual assault scored significantly higher for depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and substance-abuse screens. Odds of experiencing sexual assault was highest for women who experienced physical assault (odds ratio = 10.74), and for those from the Northern Triangle (odds ratio = 8.41). Subgroups of Latina migrant mothers are vulnerable to traumatic stress and related sexual and mental health risks. Given these findings, we frame the implications in a reproductive justice framework and consider consequences for caregiver-child well-being.

14.
Psychiatr Prax ; 46(5): 256-262, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31269519

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This paper explores the frequency of sexual abuse allegations against Catholic priests and deacons in the years 2009 to 2015 in relation to the male general population in Germany. METHOD: An annual rate of sexual abuse accusations is calculated from the sexual abuse allegations against Catholic priests identified in the MHG-study for the years 2009 to 2015. This is compared to figures of the male general population from the police crime statistics. RESULTS: The number of suspected men in the general population ranged from 17.6 - 20.0/100.000 between 2009 and 2015. For Catholic priests the rate of accusations ranged from 8.4 to 31.7/100.000. A decrease of the quota was not detectable in either group during the study period. DISCUSSION: The findings suggest that there is a relatively constant rate of people being disposed to child sexual abuse in the group of Catholic priests. These results should be addressed specifically in the prevention work of the Catholic Church.


Asunto(s)
Catolicismo , Abuso Sexual Infantil , Clero , Niño , Alemania , Humanos , Masculino
15.
J Forensic Leg Med ; 66: 91-94, 2019 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31247508

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Evaluation of an index case of child abuse necessitates risk assessment of other children who could be vulnerable to abuse from the same perpetrator/s. OBJECTIVE: To determine the effectiveness of the addition of a prompt to the standard clinical pro forma used for the assessment of new referrals to a child and adolescent sexual assault treatment service in terms of impact upon detection of other at risk children. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: All referrals to a Child and Adolescent Sexual Assault Treatment Service, Galway, West Ireland. METHODS: Retrospective chart review of all children assessed between September 2016 and March 2017. Intervention initiated on September 1st, 2017. Prospective chart review of all children assessed between September 2017 and March 2018. Chart reviews established whether potential risk to siblings, and other close child contacts, of the index case had been adequately considered. RESULTS: Comparing pre and post intervention groups, documentation of children at risk significantly increased from 70% to 96% (p = 0.0124). Cases in which a letter was sent to social services regarding other "at risk" children also significantly increased from 50% to 92% (p = 0.0005). There was a change in the percentage of "at risk" children examined or planned for examination, from 66% to 84%, however that was not statistically significant (p = 0.80). CONCLUSIONS: Introduction of a simple prompt within the standard clinical pro forma had a significant positive impact upon clinicians' consideration of other "at risk" children. We suggest that other services consider including a similar section in their own pro forma documents.


Asunto(s)
Abuso Sexual Infantil/prevención & control , Control de Formularios y Registros , Medición de Riesgo , Niño , Abuso Sexual Infantil/diagnóstico , Documentación , Humanos , Irlanda , Auditoría Médica , Estudios Prospectivos , Derivación y Consulta , Estudios Retrospectivos
16.
Eur. j. psychol. appl. legal context (Internet) ; 11(1): 1-7, ene.-jun. 2019. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS | ID: ibc-183537

RESUMEN

Research findings suggest that sex offenders show worse performance than the general population in neuropsychological tests. Nevertheless, moderators such as age of the victim, use of antisocial control groups, and characteristics of administered measures have been highlighted. Here, 100 participants completed a battery of cognitive measures tapping fluid reasoning, verbal ability, and three basic executive processes (inhibition, switching, and updating). They were matched by educational level and classified in four groups: controls, non-sex offenders, rapists, and child abusers. The analyses revealed that rapists showed lower fluid reasoning scores than controls and child abusers. Furthermore, rapists and child abusers showed lower executive updating performance than controls and non-sex offenders. Importantly, child abusers did show fluid reasoning scores on a par with controls (controlling for updating differences), but their executive updating performance was equivalent to the one revealed by rapists (controlling for fluid intelligence differences). Implications of these findings for the design of efficient intervention programs are discussed


Los datos de investigación empírica sugieren que los delincuentes sexuales presentan un peor desempeño que la población general en las pruebas neuropsicológicas. Aun así, se ha resaltado la influencia de variables moderadoras como la edad de la víctima, el uso de grupos control que incluyan individuos antisociales y las características de las medidas utilizadas. En este estudio cien participantes completaron una batería de pruebas cognitivas que evalúan razonamiento fluido, capacidad verbal y tres funciones ejecutivas básicas (inhibición, cambio y actualización). Los participantes estaban igualados en su nivel educativo y divididos en cuatro grupos: controles, delincuentes no sexuales, agresores sexuales con víctimas adultas y abusadores de menores. Los análisis revelaron que los agresores sexuales con víctimas adultas presentaban puntuaciones menores que los controles y los abusadores de menores en razonamiento fluido. Más aún, los agresores con víctimas adultas y los abusadores tenían peor desempeño que los controles y los delincuentes no sexuales en actualización ejecutiva. Es destacable que los abusadores de menores mostraran puntuaciones en razonamiento fluido equiparables a las de los controles (controlando estadísticamente las diferencias en actualización), pero su desempeño en actualización ejecutiva fue equivalente al mostrado por los agresores con víctimas adultas (controlando estadísticamente las diferencias en inteligencia fluida). Finalmente se discuten las implicaciones de estos resultados para el diseño de programas de intervención efectivos


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Violación/psicología , Delitos Sexuales/psicología , Abuso Sexual Infantil/psicología , Función Ejecutiva , Psicología Criminal/métodos , Criminales/psicología , Conducta Criminal , Pruebas Neuropsicológicas/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios de Casos y Controles
17.
Public Health Rep ; 134(4): 432-440, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170033

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine the number, risk factors, and demographic characteristics of potential human trafficking victims from tips reported to a social services agency in a major Midwest metropolitan area from 2008 through 2017. METHODS: The agency, comprising 90 employees serving more than 10 000 persons annually, received federal funding to raise awareness about trafficking and to identify and support persons who are at risk for trafficking through training, coalition building, direct outreach and service, and case management. We, the authors, counted the numbers of tips and potential victims reported to the agency by year, type of trafficking, economic sector, sex, region of origin, and age and looked for new risk factors for trafficking. RESULTS: Data were available for 213 tips received from September 1, 2008, through June 30, 2017, and for 82 potential victims identified from July 1, 2011, through June 30, 2017. Labor trafficking (126 tips, 57 potential victims) was more common than sex trafficking (59 tips, 17 potential victims). The number of tips varied during the study period. Tips and potential victims were diverse and included male and female children and adults. Most victims were from Mexico (n = 68), the United States (n = 47), Asia (n = 31), and Central and South America (n = 23). Potential victims were exploited in several industries including agriculture, construction, commercial sex, and landscaping. New risk factors for trafficking were exploitation within marriage and work in the sales industry. CONCLUSIONS: Domestic and foreign-born men, women, and children are all at risk for labor and sex trafficking. Direct outreach to foreign-born victims should be a priority. The new risk factors should be explored.


Asunto(s)
Abuso Sexual Infantil/estadística & datos numéricos , Trabajo Infantil/estadística & datos numéricos , Trata de Personas/estadística & datos numéricos , Trabajo Sexual/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Medio Oeste de Estados Unidos , Factores Sexuales , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adulto Joven
18.
FP Essent ; 480: 11-15, 2019 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31063340

RESUMEN

Adverse childhood experiences include direct abuse, such as emotional, physical, or sexual abuse; neglect, which can be emotional or physical; and family or household problems. Exposure to violence is one of several types of adverse childhood experiences that can affect individuals for the rest of their lives. The effects of exposure to violence during childhood include associated physical and mental health conditions, as well as concerns about involvement in intimate partner violence in adulthood. Family physicians can aid in the prevention of and response to adverse childhood experiences in several ways. On an individual level, they can assess patients for such experiences and provide trauma-informed care. They also can educate children and their parents and caregivers about exposure to violence and adverse childhood experiences. On a societal level, they can advocate for safer media, communities, schools, and home environments for children and adolescents. Early results of studies of physician education in this area have yielded promising results.


Asunto(s)
Experiencias Adversas de la Infancia , Maltrato a los Niños , Estado de Salud , Violencia de Pareja , Violencia , Adolescente , Cuidadores , Niño , Humanos , Factores de Riesgo
19.
FP Essent ; 480: 28-31, 2019 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31063343

RESUMEN

In the United States, approximately 1 in 5 women will experience a sexual assault in her lifetime. In most reported cases, men are identified as perpetrators regardless of the sex of the individual assaulted. There typically is some form of relationship between the survivor and the perpetrator-whether it be an acquaintance, friend, family member, or authority figure. As such, female patients should be asked routinely about a history of sexual assault, particularly if the patient reports relevant physical symptoms and/or substance abuse. Factors that could lead to children experiencing sexual assault (particularly via domestic minor sex trafficking) include a history of abuse, substance use, mental health issues, family dysfunction, and the involvement of Child Protective Services. Short-term goals of primary care include management of physical injuries and psychological needs, evaluation for pregnancy, and prevention of sexually transmitted infections. Long-term effects may include sexual dysfunction, mental disorders (eg, depression, posttraumatic stress disorder), and medical symptoms (eg, chronic headache, infections).


Asunto(s)
Víctimas de Crimen , Trata de Personas , Delitos Sexuales , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual , Niño , Femenino , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Embarazo , Salud Pública , Estados Unidos , Violencia
20.
PLoS Med ; 16(5): e1002799, 2019 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31048837

RESUMEN

In a Perspective, Jordan Greenbaum and Hanni Stoklosa make the case for inclusion of codes for human trafficking in international diagnosis classification systems.


Asunto(s)
Víctimas de Crimen/clasificación , Esclavización/clasificación , Estado de Salud , Trata de Personas/clasificación , Clasificación Internacional de Enfermedades , Delitos Sexuales/clasificación , Terminología como Asunto , Consenso , Humanos
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