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1.
Rev Saude Publica ; 54: 134, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331528

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the prevalence of adolescents and young adults who were victims of sexual violence at some point in their lives and to compare the presence of depressive and anxious symptoms, quality of life, and use of alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drugs among this population and those who were not abused. METHODS: Validated questionnaires and instruments were applied in a group of university students to assess: sexual profile and behavior, socioeconomic status, presence or not of sexual violence (Questionnaire on Exposure to Traumatizing Events), depressive (Beck Depression Inventory) and anxious symptoms (Beck Anxiety Inventory), quality of life (World Health Organization's Quality of Life Assessment) and the use or abuse of tobacco, alcohol, and illegal drugs (Smoking, Alcohol, and Substance Involvement Screening Test). RESULTS: Out of the 858 students who participated, 71 (8.3%) were victims of sexual violence, 52 girls (73.2%). In the victims of violence group there were more students who already had the first sexual intercourse (p = 0.029), students who already had become pregnant (p = 0.001), students with higher scores for depressive (p < 0.001) and anxious symptoms (p = 0.001), students with worse quality of life (p < 0.001), and who used more tobacco (p = 0.008) and marijuana (p = 0.025) as well as abused hypnotics or sedatives (p = 0.048) than in the non-victim group. CONCLUSION: The abuses are presented in several forms and affect, even in long term, the survivors' life. The sexual violence theme should be addressed and widely discussed in all spheres of society in order to mobilize, to sensitize, and provide society with knowledge, demystifying this subject and drawing attention to this important social issue.


Asunto(s)
Adultos Sobrevivientes del Maltrato a los Niños/psicología , Trastornos Relacionados con Alcohol/psicología , Ansiedad/psicología , Depresión/psicología , Calidad de Vida/psicología , Delitos Sexuales/psicología , Estudiantes/psicología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/psicología , Fumar Tabaco/psicología , Adolescente , Trastornos Relacionados con Alcohol/epidemiología , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Brasil/epidemiología , Niño , Abuso Sexual Infantil/psicología , Abuso Sexual Infantil/estadística & datos numéricos , Depresión/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Drogas Ilícitas , Masculino , Embarazo , Delitos Sexuales/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Fumar Tabaco/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
2.
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law ; 48(4): 580, 2020 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33361175
3.
J Anal Psychol ; 65(5): 865-889, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33202051

RESUMEN

In this paper the author argues that trans-identification and its associated medical treatment can constitute an attempt to evade experiences of psychological distress. This occurs on three levels. Firstly, the trans person themselves may seek to evade dysregulated affects associated with such experiences as attachment trauma, childhood abuse, and ego-alien sexual feelings. Secondly, therapists may attempt to evade feelings, such as fear and hatred, evoked by engaging with these dysregulated affects. Thirdly, we, as a society, may wish to evade acknowledging the reality of such trauma, abuse and sexual distress by hypothesizing that trans-identification is a biological issue, best treated medically. The author argues that the quality of evidence supporting the biomedical approach is extremely poor. This puts young trans people at risk of receiving potentially damaging medical treatment they may later seek to reverse or come to regret, while their underlying psychological issues remain unaddressed.

4.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0242808, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33237979

RESUMEN

This study aimed to extend previous research on the experiences and factors that impact law enforcement personnel when working with distressing materials such as child sexual abuse content. A sample of 22 law enforcement personnel working within one law enforcement organisation in England, United Kingdom participated in anonymous semi-structured interviews. Results were explored thematically and organised in the following headings: "Responses to the material", "Impact of working with distressing evidence", "Personal coping strategies" and "Risks and mitigating factors". Law enforcement professionals experienced heightened affective responses to personally relevant material, depictions of violence, victims' displays of emotions, norm violations and to various mediums. These responses dampened over time due to desensitisation. The stress experienced from exposure to the material sometimes led to psychological symptoms associated with Secondary Traumatic Stress. Job satisfaction, self-care activities, the coping strategies used when viewing evidence, detachment from work outside working hours, social support and reducing exposure to the material were found to mediate law enforcement professionals' resilience. Exposure to distressing material and the risks associated with this exposure were also influenced by specific organisational procedures implemented as a function of the funding available and workload. Recommendations for individual and organisational practices to foster resilience emerged from this research. These recommendations are relevant to all organisations where employees are required to view distressing content.


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Psicológica , Emociones/fisiología , Aplicación de la Ley , Policia/psicología , Adulto , Anciano , Niño , Maltrato a los Niños/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Satisfacción en el Trabajo , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Profesionalismo , Apoyo Social , Reino Unido/epidemiología , Violencia/psicología
5.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33171688

RESUMEN

Child and adolescent sexual abuse (CSA) is an important global health problem, especially in non-Western low- and middle-income countries. A number of studies have indicated that, in Latin American countries, male CSA is phenomenon of great concern. However, research on this topic is seriously lacking, and more specifically, on male-on-male CSA. We carried out a qualitative and quantitative secondary analysis of 680 cases of alleged male-on-male CSA that occurred between the years 2017 and 2018 in the Caribbean Region of Colombia. We analyzed the contents of forensic interviews with the alleged victims, conducted by professionals working at the Colombian Institute of Legal Medicine and Forensic Sciences. Our findings indicated a high prevalence of cases of alleged male-on-male CSA among young minors. Most of these cases were allegedly perpetrated by offenders known to the victim and involved high levels of violence. Evidence-based and culturally grounded preventative actions, such as training-based programs for teachers and parents among other public health initiatives are needed to address this type of CSA. Further research is also required to gain a more fine-grained understanding of the cultural and social context of CSA in the Caribbean Latin American countries.


Asunto(s)
Abuso Sexual Infantil/psicología , Criminales/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Región del Caribe , Niño , Abuso Sexual Infantil/etnología , Preescolar , Colombia/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Problemas Sociales
6.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 11(1): 1804806, 2020 Sep 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33062210

RESUMEN

Background: Empathy is essential for interpersonal relationships, yet remains difficult to measure. Some evidence suggests that early traumatic experiences leads to alterations in empathic responding. Objective: This study sought to differentiate connections between subtypes of childhood maltreatment, a pictorial test of affective empathy (PET), and self-reported empathy (Interpersonal Reactivity Index; IRI) by using network analysis approach to investigate the structure of relationships between childhood maltreatment and later empathic responding. Method: 301 participants completed the PET, the Early Trauma Inventory Self Report-Short Form (ETISR-SF), the IRI, and questionnaires assessing current mood and perceived stress levels. Results: The PET showed a strong positive association with the IRI subscale empathic concern (EC), after conditioning on all other nodes in the network. EC proved to be a highly central node and was positively related to severity of childhood sexual abuse (CSA), yet not to childhood physical abuse or emotional maltreatment. Pathways between emotional maltreatment and physical abuse and the PET were indirect, passing through self-reported EC and CSA. Conclusions: Our study suggests that CSA more so than other childhood maltreatment experiences is associated with increased self-reported affective empathy, but is not captured directly through a pictorial test of affective empathy.

7.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 11(1): 1807171, 2020 Sep 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33062212

RESUMEN

Background: PTSD symptoms are frequent in child victims of sexual abuse. Yet, authors have argued that early trauma could lead to alterations in development that go far beyond the primary symptoms of PTSD and have proposed Complex PTSD as an alternative diagnosis encompassing difficulties in affect regulation, relationships and self-concept. Objective: To delineate profiles in child victims of sexual abuse and explore whether profiles are associated with treatment response to Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioural Therapy. Method: Latent class analysis was used to identify symptom profiles at baseline assessment of 384 children ages 6 to 14, recruited in a Child Advocacy Centre following disclosure of sexual abuse. Dimensions of Complex PTSD diagnosis as proposed by the ICD-11 were derived from self-report questionnaires. Results: Latent class analysis identified a best fitting model of three classes: Classic PTSD regrouping 51% of children, Complex PTSD describing 23% of children, and Resilient describing 25% of children. Trauma-focused therapy was associated with a significant reduction of dissociation, internalizing, and externalizing problems for children of all three classes. Trauma-focused therapy was also linked to a significant reduction of PTSD symptoms with larger effect size (d = .90; 95%CI: 0.63-1.16) for children classified in the Complex PTSD class. Conclusion: These findings highlight the utility of a person-oriented approach to enhance our understanding of the diversity of profiles in child victims. The results offer empirical support for the ICD-11 PTSD and Complex PTSD distinction in a clinical sample of sexually abused children and the relevance of this distinction in foreseeing treatment outcomes.

8.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 11(1): 1764707, 2020 Jun 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33029307

RESUMEN

Background: Evaluation of one's own body highly depends on psychopathology. In contrast to healthy women, body evaluation is negative in women from several diagnostic groups. Particularly negative ratings have been reported in disorders related to childhood sexual abuse (CSA) including borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, it is unknown whether this negative evaluation persists beyond symptomatic remission, whether it depends on the topography of body areas (sexually connoted versus neutral areas), and whether it depends on CSA. Objective: First, we aimed at a quantitative comparison of body evaluation across three diagnostic groups: current BPD (cBPD), remitted BPD (rBPD), and healthy controls (HC). Second, we aimed at clarifying the potentially moderating role of a history of CSA and of the sexual connotation of body areas. Methods: The study included 68 women from the diagnostic groups of interest (cBPD, rBPD, and HC). These diagnoses were established with the International Personality Disorder Examination. The participants used the Survey of Body Areas to quantify the evaluation of the own body and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire for assessing CSA. Results: While the evaluation of the own body was generally negative in women from the cBPD group it was positive in those who had remitted from BPD. However, their positive scores were strictly confined to neutral body areas, whereas the evaluation of sexually connoted body areas was negative, resembling the respective evaluation in cBPD patients and contrasting the positive evaluation of sexually connoted areas in healthy women. The negative evaluation of sexually connoted areas in remitted women was significantly related to a history of CSA. Conclusions: Women with BPD may require a specifically designed intervention to achieve a positive evaluation of their entire body. The evaluation of sexually connoted body areas seems to remain an issue even after remission from the disorder has been achieved.

10.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 3): 349-352, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030451

RESUMEN

Sexual abuse in childhood is associated with many adverse consequences for survival during their lifetime. Numerous research studies clearly show the link between sexual abuse of children and the spectrum of unfavorable mental, social, sexual, interpersonal and behavioral as well as physical health consequences. Current research shows the strongest link between sexual abuse of children and the presence of depression, alcohol and abuse of other psychoactive substances and nutritional disorders in surviving women and anxiety-related disorders in male survivors. There is also an increased risk of re-victimization, especially for girls. Negative effects of mental health in children with sexual abuse include posttraumatic symptoms, depression, helplessness, negative evaluation, aggressive behavior and behavioral problems. Recent research links sexual assault on children with psychotic disorders, including schizophrenia and dysfunctional disorders, as well as personality disorders. Sexual abuse of children involving penetration is specifically identified as a risk factor for the development of psychotic and schizophrenic symptoms. Many studies have shown that sexual victimization in childhood is a significant risk factor for suicidal ideation and suicidal behaviors.


Asunto(s)
Abuso Sexual Infantil/psicología , Abuso Sexual Infantil/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Trastornos de Ansiedad/epidemiología , Niño , Humanos , Trastornos Psicóticos/epidemiología , Conducta Sexual
11.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 3): 367-370, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030455

RESUMEN

Although family should be the basis for the development and formation of a child's personality, violence is mostly done in the family, and remains undiscovered for a long time. The real number of abused children is much more than that displayed in the registered cases. The secrecy of the problem is an important feature of this phenomenon. Families in which abuse takes place are mostly isolated. Social isolation does not come about by chance; secrecy is usually encouraged by an abuser to control over famoly members. In most cases, social reaction to violence is late, inadequate and focused on the consequences, but not on the causes. "Abuse implies an act of execution that directly inflicts damage, while neglect implies an act of non-fulfillment of something that is necessary for the well-being of a child". The most common forms of domestic violence are physical, emotional abuse in the presence of violence against the mother, and in a lesser extent sexual abuse. In addition, there is physical, emotional, educational and medical neglect. The presence of violence against the mother and the feeling of impotence leave the same consequences as the endured violence. It is considered that children living in violent families are likely to live under cumulative stress. Traumatic responses include a wide range of conditions from acute stress reactions through post-traumatic stress disorder to complex long-lasting, repeated trauma syndrome. All children will not react to this kind of experience in the same way, with the protective and risk factors in developmental psychopathology having a significant role to play. Because of their developmental vulnerability and dependency, children are at greater risk of violence than adults. Researches point to the need for a multidisciplinary approach to treatment and prevention of child abuse, with greater interaction between health institutions, relevant centers for social work, police, court, government and non-governmental sector, and the existence of adequate family and criminal laws.


Asunto(s)
Maltrato a los Niños/psicología , Violencia Doméstica/psicología , Trauma Psicológico/psicología , Adulto , Niño , Maltrato a los Niños/legislación & jurisprudencia , Maltrato a los Niños/prevención & control , Maltrato a los Niños/terapia , Violencia Doméstica/legislación & jurisprudencia , Violencia Doméstica/prevención & control , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Madres/psicología , Trauma Psicológico/prevención & control , Trauma Psicológico/terapia , Factores de Riesgo , Instituciones Académicas , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/prevención & control , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/psicología , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/terapia
12.
Child Abuse Negl ; 110(Pt 2): 104694, 2020 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32900515

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic exposes individuals not only to health-related risks, but also to psychosocial fear and acute stress. Previous studies reveal that individuals who experienced child abuse (CA), especially those who suffer from complex posttraumatic stress disorder (CPTSD), are at a higher risk of reacting with fear and stress when faced with stressful life-events. OBJECTIVE: To test whether exposure to CA is implicated in a higher risk of COVID-19-related fear and acute stress, and whether CPTSD intervenes in such processes. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTINGS: A convenience sample of 837 adults participated in the study during the first peak of COVID-19 in Israel. METHODS: Participants completed self-report questionnaires, assessing child physical, sexual and emotional abuse, CPTSD (ITQ), COVID-19-related acute stress disorder (COVID-19 ASD; ASDS) and fear of COVID-19. RESULTS: Bivariate analyses showed that participants who experienced CA were higher than participants who did not experience CA in COVID-19 ASD (p = .032), but not in fear of COVID-19 (p = .65). Mediation analyses demonstrated two significant paths: in the first, CA was associated with elevated fear of COVID-19 (effect = .061, .059; p < 0.05) and COVID-19 ASD (effect = .14, .084; p < 0.05) through the mediation of CPTSD; in the second path, when controlling for the mediation of CPTSD, CA was associated with reduced fear of COVID-19 (effect = -.15; p = 0.001), and COVID-19 ASD (effect = -.12; p = 0.024). CONCLUSIONS: The findings reveal a complex pattern, indicating that CPTSD may be a risk factor for elevated levels of COVID-19 distress among individuals who experienced CA. However, some CA survivors may express reduced COVID-19 distress.


Asunto(s)
/psicología , Maltrato a los Niños/psicología , Miedo , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/psicología , Estrés Psicológico/psicología , Adulto , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Israel , Masculino , Análisis Multivariante , Pandemias , Factores de Riesgo , Autoinforme , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/complicaciones , Estrés Psicológico/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
13.
Psychiatry Res ; 293: 113451, 2020 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32977048

RESUMEN

This study compared women with binge eating disorders or bulimia nervosa with and without night eating syndrome regarding childhood maltreatment and psychopathology relative to healthy controls. The 426 participants (aged 18-60) were divided into two groups: eating disorders (n = 158) and healthy controls (n = 268). Eating disorders was divided into bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, and night eating syndrome with binge eating. Participants completed questionnaires: childhood trauma, eating disorders, self-esteem, and psychopathology. No significant differences were found for most variables in the eating disorders subgroups except physical neglect, which was more prevalent in night eating syndrome with binge eating. All variables differed significantly between eating disorders and healthy controls. Significant correlations emerged between childhood maltreatment, psychopathology, emotional abuse, and self-esteem in eating disorders. Regression showed that emotional abuse significantly predicted self-esteem in eating disorders, and group significantly moderated the effect of emotional abuse on psychopathology. Results emphasize that in this specific sample and variables, night eating syndrome with binge eating may be a variant of binge eating disorder or bulimia nervosa and not a separate diagnostic entity. The results highlight the importance of early assessment of childhood maltreatment, particularly emotional abuse, in patients with night eating syndrome.


Asunto(s)
Adultos Sobrevivientes del Maltrato a los Niños/psicología , Trastorno por Atracón/psicología , Bulimia/psicología , Maltrato a los Niños/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Trastorno por Atracón/complicaciones , Bulimia Nerviosa/psicología , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Niño , Abuso Sexual Infantil/psicología , Trastornos de Alimentación y de la Ingestión de Alimentos , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Síndrome de Alimentación Nocturna/epidemiología , Autoimagen , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
14.
Pediatrics ; 146(4)2020 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32943535

RESUMEN

Potential long-lasting adverse effects of child maltreatment have been widely reported, although little is known about the distinctive long-term impact of differing types of maltreatment. Our objective for this special article is to integrate findings from the Mater-University of Queensland Study of Pregnancy, a longitudinal prenatal cohort study spanning 2 decades. We compare and contrast the associations of specific types of maltreatment with long-term cognitive, psychological, addiction, sexual health, and physical health outcomes assessed in up to 5200 offspring at 14 and/or 21 years of age. Overall, psychological maltreatment (emotional abuse and/or neglect) was associated with the greatest number of adverse outcomes in almost all areas of assessment. Sexual abuse was associated with early sexual debut and youth pregnancy, attention problems, posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms, and depression, although associations were not specific for sexual abuse. Physical abuse was associated with externalizing behavior problems, delinquency, and drug abuse. Neglect, but not emotional abuse, was associated with having multiple sexual partners, cannabis abuse and/or dependence, and experiencing visual hallucinations. Emotional abuse, but not neglect, revealed increased odds for psychosis, injecting-drug use, experiencing harassment later in life, pregnancy miscarriage, and reporting asthma symptoms. Significant cognitive delays and educational failure were seen for both abuse and neglect during adolescence and adulthood. In conclusion, child maltreatment, particularly emotional abuse and neglect, is associated with a wide range of long-term adverse health and developmental outcomes. A renewed focus on prevention and early intervention strategies, especially related to psychological maltreatment, will be required to address these challenges in the future.


Asunto(s)
Maltrato a los Niños/psicología , Maltrato a los Niños/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Conducta del Adolescente , Asma/epidemiología , Déficit de la Atención y Trastornos de Conducta Disruptiva/epidemiología , Australia/epidemiología , Estatura , Niño , Cognición , Estudios de Cohortes , Grasas de la Dieta/administración & dosificación , Escolaridad , Femenino , Humanos , Inteligencia , Estudios Longitudinales , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Embarazo , Embarazo en Adolescencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Calidad de Vida , Conducta Sexual , Trastornos del Sueño-Vigilia/epidemiología , Abandono Escolar/estadística & datos numéricos , Desempleo/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven
15.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2020-09-29. (PAHO/ECC/COVID-19/20-001).
No convencional en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52774

RESUMEN

[Introduction]. On 30 January 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) announced that the COVID-19 outbreak was a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. COVID-19 is an acute respiratory illness (ARI) caused by a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Most people infected with this virus will experience mild to moderate respiratory illness and recover without requiring special treatment. Others, however, may become seriously ill. Older people, and those with underlying medical conditions like cardiovascular disease, diabetes, chronic respiratory disease, and cancer are more likely to develop serious illness. COVID-19 spreads primarily through contact and droplets of saliva or discharge from the nose when an infected person coughs or sneezes. The best way to prevent and slow down transmission is to be well informed about COVID-19, including how it spreads and how to protect yourself and others. While there is still much to learn about the novel coronavirus that causes COVID-19, basic protective measures focus on washing your hands or using an alcohol-based rub frequently, keeping at least a 1 meter (3 feet) distance from others, avoiding to touch your face, practicing respiratory etiquette (e.g., by coughing into a flexed elbow), and seeking medical care early in case of symptoms (e.g., fever, cough and difficulty breathing). Additional infection prevention and control (IPC) measures that are needed will depend on the local COVID-19 transmission dynamics and the type of contact required by the shelter activity, including any care activity.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Violencia Doméstica , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Control de Infecciones , Mujeres , Violencia contra la Mujer , Maltrato a los Niños , Niño , Región del Caribe
16.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(9): e2013588, 2020 09 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32955573

RESUMEN

Importance: A growing body of literature suggests that exposure to early-life adversity (ELA) is associated with accelerated biological aging, offering 1 mechanism through which ELA may be associated with an increased risk for age-related disease. These investigations, however, have been predominantly cross-sectional and focused on adults and females. Objective: To evaluate associations of threat-related (ie, physical abuse) and deprivation-related (ie, emotional neglect) ELA exposure with cellular and reproductive strategy metrics of biological aging among boys and girls with specific genetic backgrounds around the period of pubertal onset. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this cohort study, 997 boys and girls in grade 1 to grade 3 from 3 large elementary schools were recruited from Bengbu, Anhui Province, China, and were followed up from March 21, 2016 (baseline; wave 1), for 4 consecutive years, through March 25, 2019. Main Outcomes and Measures: The outcome was accelerated biological aging in both cellular and reproductive strategy metrics: telomere attrition and age at thelarche (for girls) and testicular maturation (for boys). Multi-informant assessment of exposure to threat-related and deprivation-related ELA was done at baseline (wave 1) and 1-year follow-up (wave 2). The polygenic risk score (PRS) was computed based on 17 single-nucleotide variations for early pubertal timing. Results: Of the 997 participants (579 girls [58.1%]; mean [SD] age at baseline, 8.0 [0.8] years), 550 (55.2%) reported exposure to threat-related ELA and 443 (44.4%) reported exposure to deprivation-related ELA. Threat-related ELA was associated with onset of thelarche 2.6 months earlier and deprivation-related ELA with onset of thelarche 3.3 months earlier in exposed girls than in unexposed peers; these associations were observed only among girls with a low PRS. Among boys, a similar pattern was found. Threat-related ELA was associated with testicular volume of 4 mL or more 1.4 months earlier and deprivation-related ELA was associated with testicular volume of 4 mL or more 2.3 months earlier than in unexposed peers but only among those with a low PRS. Boys and girls with greater exposure to threats showed a significantly higher percentage of telomere length change during 1-year follow-up, but only among those with low PRS (boys: ß = 1.50; 95% CI, 0.80-2.21; P < .001; girls: ß = 2.40; 95% CI, 1.78-3.05; P < .001) and moderate PRS (boys: ß = 1.09; 95% CI, 0.43-1.75; P = .001; and girls: ß = 1.27; 95% CI, 0.77-1.77; P < .001). No associations of deprivation-related ELA with percentage of telomere length change were found. Conclusions and Relevance: This study suggests that the accelerating association of ELA with biological aging might occur at an earlier age and in a genetic background-dependent and dimension-specific manner.


Asunto(s)
Experiencias Adversas de la Infancia , Envejecimiento Prematuro , Maltrato a los Niños , Pubertad/fisiología , Homeostasis del Telómero/fisiología , Envejecimiento/genética , Envejecimiento Prematuro/epidemiología , Envejecimiento Prematuro/genética , Causalidad , Niño , Desarrollo Infantil/fisiología , China/epidemiología , Femenino , Interacción Gen-Ambiente , Humanos , Masculino , Medición de Riesgo , Factores Sexuales , Maduración Sexual/genética
17.
Psychopathology ; 53(5-6): 298-305, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32937629

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Early life maltreatment (ELM) has a high risk of transmission across generations, known as "the cycle of abuse." ELM is also an important risk factor for developing mental disorders, and having a mental disorder increases the risk of child abuse. Both the abuse potential in mothers with ELM and in mothers with a history of mental disorders might be associated with a disturbed mother-child interaction. OBJECTIVE: The current study examined differences in emotional availability between mothers with a history of ELM and previous or current mental disorders (non-resilient), mothers with ELM without mental disorders (resilient), and control mothers without ELM and without mental disorders. METHODS: Thirty-three non-resilient mothers, 18 resilient mothers, and 37 control mothers and their 5- to 12-year-old children participated in a standardized mother-child interaction task. Videotaped interactions were rated by three independent, trained raters based on the Emotional Availability Scales (EA Scales) and compared between the groups. RESULTS: The non-resilient mothers and their children showed reduced maternal sensitivity, structuring, non-intrusiveness, non-hostility, responsiveness, and involvement compared to the resilient mothers and their children and the control mothers and their children (p = 0.006, ηp2 = 0.12). No differences on any of the EA Scales were found between resilient mothers and control mothers. CONCLUSIONS: These deficits in mother-child interaction in non-resilient mothers might contribute to mechanisms that could explain the cycle of abuse. Interestingly, resilient mothers, who did not develop a mental disorder despite having experienced ELM, did not show these deficits. Thus, prevention programs promoting resilience might be a key to break the cycle of abuse.


Asunto(s)
Adultos Sobrevivientes del Maltrato a los Niños/psicología , Maltrato a los Niños/psicología , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Relaciones Madre-Hijo/psicología , Madres/psicología , Adulto , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
18.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(9): e2017682, 2020 09 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32960280

RESUMEN

Importance: Although research has examined factors associated with child sexual exploitation (CSE), consensus is lacking in regard to which factors should be prioritized, thereby hindering policy reform, prevention efforts, and development of early detection and intervention. Objective: To provide a meta-analytic synthesis of studies examining factors associated with CSE and to quantify their relative importance. Data Sources: Electronic databases searched to June 2019 included Medline, PsycINFO, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, EMBASE, and Informit, yielding 396 nonduplicative records. Literature search was performed in July 2019. Study Selection: Inclusion criteria were quantitative investigations of sexual exploitation and mean sample age of 18 years or younger. Data Extraction and Synthesis: Literature review and data extraction followed Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Thirty-seven studies met final inclusion criteria. Two independent reviewers extracted all relevant data. Random-effects meta-analyses were used to derive odds ratios (ORs) for each factor. Data were analyzed from September 1 to October 28, 2019, and prediction intervals calculated in June 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Child sexual exploitation, defined as coerced sexual acts between a child or a young person (aged ≤18 years) and an individual or a group in exchange for money, gifts, substances, or other commodities and associated factors. Results: Thirty-seven unique studies were included with a total of 67 453 unique participants (mean [SD] age of 16.2 [2.5] years; 49.9% female). Fifty-two factors associated with CSE were included in the meta-analysis. The strongest factors significantly associated with exposure to sexual exploitation were engagement in sexual risk behaviors (OR, 6.31 [95% CI, 3.12-12.76]; P < .001), having more than 5 sexual partners (OR, 5.96 [95% CI, 1.63-21.87]; P = .007), a diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (OR, 5.29 [95% CI, 3.40-8.22]; P < .001), historical exposure to child pornography (OR, 5.50 [95% CI, 0.99-30.53]; P = .049), and a history of childhood sexual abuse (OR, 3.80 [95% CI, 3.19-4.52]; P < .001). A number of other potentially modifiable factors had moderate to strong associations. Conclusions and Relevance: In this systematic review and meta-analysis, children and adolescents affected by sexual exploitation showed high levels of sexual risk taking, multiple sexual partners, posttraumatic stress disorder, exposure to child pornography, and childhood trauma. Accurate detection of CSE may prevent this type of sexual violence occurring to adolescents and/or provide opportunities for intervention and recovery. Therefore, prevention and intervention efforts will likely benefit from integrating these factors into screening, assessment, and treatment.


Asunto(s)
Abuso Sexual Infantil/estadística & datos numéricos , Trabajo Sexual/estadística & datos numéricos , Problemas Sociales/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Niño , Abuso Sexual Infantil/psicología , Demografía , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Trabajo Sexual/psicología , Conducta Sexual/psicología , Problemas Sociales/psicología
20.
Health Psychol ; 39(11): 986-996, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969695

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This study investigated associations between child maltreatment and body mass, body weight perceptions, and weight control behaviors among men and women. METHOD: Data were derived from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health). Multinomial logistic regression was used to investigate links between dimensions of childhood maltreatment and adult (a) classifications of body mass index (BMI), (b) discrepancies in perceived weight and actual BMI categories, and (c) normative and risky weight control behaviors. RESULTS: Childhood maltreatment was highly predictive of BMI classification, weight perception discrepancies, and weight control behaviors for women. Women who reported physical abuse, sexual abuse, and neglect had increased risks for being slightly or very overweight, and among those who reported physical abuse and/or a combination of physical abuse and neglect, there is an increased likelihood of holding overweight perceptions. Finally, female victims of physical abuse, physical abuse and neglect, and of neglect only were more likely to adopt risky (e.g., diet pills or purging) versus normative (e.g., diet and exercise) weight control behaviors. CONCLUSION: Results indicated that women who reported childhood maltreatment have increased risks for developing body and weight related issues, confirming research documenting female-specific effects of childhood maltreatment. For women, certain forms of maltreatment strongly predicted BMI groupings, discrepant weight perceptions, and risky weight behaviors. Taken together, findings suggest that child maltreatment is a predictor of health-related outcomes. Moreover, results highlight the importance of assessing gender-specific effects when examining outcomes related to body, weight, and dieting. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).


Asunto(s)
Adultos Sobrevivientes del Maltrato a los Niños/psicología , Maltrato a los Niños/psicología , Conductas Relacionadas con la Salud/fisiología , Sobrepeso/etiología , Sobrepeso/psicología , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
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