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1.
Psychiatr Hung ; 36(1): 26-39, 2021.
Artículo en Húngaro | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33686013

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Detection of childhood traumas is important both in clinical practice and in research. There is a pressing need for methods that are relatively simple but comprehensive, non-intrusive, and possess adequate psyc - ho metric properties. In this study we translated one of the most widely used and well-studied measure of childhood abuse and neglect and explored the psychometrical properties of this questionnaire. METHODS: The study was based on data from a clinical (N=171) and a normative (N=358) sample. In total 529 adults participated in the testing process. Beside the trauma questionnaire Parental Bonding Inventory, Impact of Events Scale and Dissociative Experiences Scale were administered. RESULTS: We examined the internal consistency of the translated trauma questionnaire. The Cronbach's a coefficients for the five subscales ranged from 0,639 to 0,934. Participants in the clinical sample reached higher scores on all trauma subscales except sexual abuse, than normative adults [PA: t (398)=-2,771; p=0,006; PN: t (398)=-5,990; p=0,000; EA: t (398)=-3,679; p=0,000; EN: t (398)=-4,759; p=0,000; total score: t (398)=-4,669; p=0,000]. Correlations among the trauma questionnaire total score and the scales of Parental Bonding Inventory indicating some medium effects (with maternal care: r=-0,661; p=0,000; with paternal care: r=-0,483; p=0,000). CONCLUSION: Our preliminary findings suggest that this trauma questionnaire is practical and facilitates the systema - tic evaluation of adverse early life events and maximizes the possibility of detecting childhood abuse and neglect.


Asunto(s)
Maltrato a los Niños/diagnóstico , Trauma Psicológico/diagnóstico , Psicometría , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto , Experiencias Adversas de la Infancia/psicología , Niño , Maltrato a los Niños/psicología , Humanos , Hungría , Lenguaje , Relaciones Padres-Hijo , Padres/psicología , Proyectos Piloto , Trauma Psicológico/psicología
2.
Artículo en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53354

RESUMEN

[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To determine predictors associated with physical violence during pregnancy, and to determine the relationship between exposure to intimate partner violence during pregnancy and women’s health and suicide ideation in Guyana. Methods. A secondary data analysis of a cross-sectional household survey. Multivariate logistic regression models were fitted to the data to estimate the association between physical violence during pregnancy, controlling partner behavior, and other predictors. Ordered logistic regression models were fitted to estimate the association between physical violence during pregnancy and women’s health, and lifetime physical partner violence and overall health. Logistic regression models were fitted to estimate associations between physical violence during pregnancy and lifetime physical partner violence and overall health and suicide ideation. Results. The prevalence of lifetime physical/sexual intimate partner violence was 38.8%, current physical/sexual intimate partner violence 11.1%, and violence during pregnancy 9.2%. Controlling partner behavior was significantly and positively associated with maternal experience of physical violence during pregnancy. Experiencing physical partner violence during pregnancy, but not lifetime physical partner violence, was associated with significantly increased odds of poor overall health. Physical violence during pregnancy and lifetime physical violence were both significantly associated with increased odds of suicide ideation. Conclusions. The prevalence of violence during pregnancy in Guyana is high and is associated with adverse health outcomes. These findings suggest the need for intimate partner violence prevention, and for integrating intimate partner violence screening and treatment into antenatal care, reproductive health services, and maternal and child health programs and services to identify and treat at-risk women.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Determinar los factores predictivos relacionados con la violencia física durante el embarazo y determinar la relación entre la exposición a la violencia de pareja durante el embarazo y la ideación suicida y la salud de las mujeres en Guyana. Métodos. Se realizó un análisis secundario de los datos obtenidos de una encuesta domiciliaria transversal. Se adaptaron modelos multifactoriales de regresión logística a los datos para calcular la asociación entre la violencia física durante embarazo, comportamiento controlador de la pareja y otros factores predictivos. Se emplearon modelos ordenados de regresión logística para calcular la asociación entre la violencia física durante el embarazo y la salud de la mujer, y la violencia de pareja a lo largo de la vida y la salud en general. Se aplicaron modelos de regresión logística para calcular la asociación entre la violencia física durante el embarazo y la violencia de pareja a lo largo de la vida y la ideación suicida y la salud en general. Resultados. La prevalencia de la violencia física o sexual infligida por la pareja a lo largo de la vida fue 38,8%, la violencia física o sexual infligida por la pareja en la actualidad fue 11,1% y la violencia durante el embarazo fue 9,2%. El comportamiento controlador de la pareja mostró una asociación positiva y significativa con una experiencia materna de violencia física durante el embarazo. Sufrir violencia física durante el embarazo, aunque no a lo largo de la vida, se asoció significativamente con mayores probabilidades de un estado de salud general deficiente. Tanto la violencia física durante el embarazo como la violencia física a lo largo de la vida se asociaron significativamente con mayores probabilidades de ideación suicida. Conclusiones. La prevalencia de la violencia durante el embarazo en Guyana es alta y está relacionada con consecuencias adversas en materia de salud. Estos resultados ponen de manifiesto la necesidad de prevenir la violencia de pareja y de integrar su detección y tratamiento en la atención prenatal, los servicios de salud reproductiva y los programas y servicios de salud maternoinfantil para detectar y tratar a las mujeres en riesgo.


[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Determinar as variáveis preditivas associadas à violência física contra mulheres na gravidez e avaliar a relação entre exposição à violência por parceiro íntimo na gravidez e saúde e ideação suicida em mulheres na Guiana. Métodos. Foi realizada uma análise dos dados secundários de uma pesquisa transversal domiciliar. Modelos de regressão logística multivariada foram ajustados ao conjunto de dados para estimar a associação entre violência física na gravidez, controlando-se o efeito do comportamento do parceiro e outras variáveis preditivas. Modelos de regressão logística ordinal foram ajustados para estimar a associação entre violência física na gravidez e saúde das mulheres e violência física por parceiro íntimo ao longo da vida e saúde geral. Modelos de regressão logística foram ajustados para estimar a associação entre violência física na gravidez e violência física por parceiro íntimo ao longo da vida e saúde geral e ideação suicida. Resultados. Observou-se uma prevalência de 38,8% de violência física/sexual por parceiro íntimo ao longo da vida, 11,1% de violência física/sexual por parceiro íntimo no momento presente e 9,2% de violência física/sexual na gravidez. Controlando-se o efeito do comportamento do parceiro, verificou-se uma associação positiva significativa com experiência materna de violência física na gravidez. Sofrer violência física por parceiro íntimo na gravidez, mas não violência física por parceiro íntimo ao longo da vida, foi associado a uma chance significativamente maior de saúde geral ruim. Verificou-se uma associação significativa entre violência física na gravidez e violência física ao longo da vida e uma maior chance de ideação suicida. Conclusões. A prevalência da violência contra mulheres na gravidez na Guiana é alta e está associada a desfechos de saúde adversos. Esses resultados apontam para a necessidade de prevenir a violência por parceiro íntimo e integrar a avaliação da violência por parceiro íntimo e o tratamento das mulheres aos serviços de assistência pré-natal e de saúde reprodutiva e programas e serviços de saúde materno-infantil para identificar e tratar as mulheres em risco.


Asunto(s)
Violencia de Pareja , Embarazo , Violencia Doméstica , Abuso Físico , Salud Mental , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Coronavirus , Betacoronavirus , Guyana , Violencia de Pareja , Embarazo , Violencia Doméstica , Abuso Físico , Salud Mental , Infecciones por Coronavirus , Violencia de Pareja , Embarazo , Violencia Doméstica , Salud Mental , Violencia contra la Mujer , Violencia contra la Mujer , Violencia contra la Mujer , Delitos Sexuales , Delitos Sexuales , Delitos Sexuales , Guyana
3.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 70(2): 98-114, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33565948

RESUMEN

Paternal Risk and Protective Factors for Endangerment of Child Well-Being and their Consideration in the Risk Inventories Used Throughout Germany In view of the current family and role models, paternal risk and protective factors can have a significant impact on the risk of violence within a family and should therefore - in addition to the factors on the part of the mother, the child and the closer or other family systems - be taken into consideration when estimating the endangerment of child well-being. In this article we explore which empirical findings on paternal risk and protective factors for abuse, neglect and sexual abuse (sexual violence) in childhood and adolescence were published in international research literature from 1980 to 2019. Seventeen risk factors and four protective factors could be identified, which in 33 quantitative original studies showed a risk-increasing or a buffering influence on violence experiences in families on the part of the father. In addition, the risk inventories used in practice in Germany were analyzed with regard to the paternal risk and protective factors, in order to be able to illustrate the application of the empirically identified factors in early intervention, youth welfare and health care. The article used results from a benchmark survey on risk inventories from 2009. These results were compared with current findings from 2018 as part of a research update. In 2009, 67 % of the instruments "often" contained items on the father, while this was found for 12 % of the instruments in 2018. At the same time, in 2018, 53 % of the risk inventories were "often" asked about custodians, parents or main caregivers. The article thus reflects developments in research and practice in risk assessment for child well-being, in which especially the fathers, who unlike the mothers are often not explicitly addressed during screenings and interventions for families with psychosocial problems, are taken into consideration. The knowledge about the influence of the fathers can feed into the preventive interventions in early interventions and complement them meaningfully.


Asunto(s)
Maltrato a los Niños/prevención & control , Salud del Niño/estadística & datos numéricos , Padre/psicología , Factores Protectores , Adolescente , Niño , Femenino , Alemania , Humanos , Masculino , Madres , Factores de Riesgo
4.
Rev. enferm. UFPE on line ; 15(1): [1-14], jan. 2021. ilus, tab
Artículo en Portugués | BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1146752

RESUMEN

Objetivo: analisar a atuação dos profissionais de Enfermagem da Estratégia Saúde da Família sobre a identificação e notificação dos casos de violência contra crianças e adolescentes. Método: tratase de um estudo quantitativo, descritivo, transversal, realizado nas Unidades Básicas de Saúde. Compôs-se a amostra 215 profissionais de Enfermagem. Utilizou-se, para a coleta de dados, um questionário multitemático padronizado, pré-codificado e autoaplicado. Conduziram-se as análises no software Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Submeteram-se os dados à análise descritiva por meio de frequências absolutas e percentuais. Resultados: observou-se que, entre os profissionais de Enfermagem que participaram do estudo, que 59,5% nunca haviam identificado casos de violência contra crianças ou adolescentes e apenas 11,6% notificaram alguma situação de violência envolvendo crianças e adolescentes durante o período de atuação profissional. Registrouse, entre as notificações, o predomínio das situações de violência física (35,0%) pelos enfermeiros e de negligência/abandono (60,0%) pelos técnicos em Enfermagem. Conclusão: nota-se que muitos profissionais afirmaram detectar aspectos de violência na população jovem, entretanto, o ato notificatório não é uma realidade em Manaus, assim como em outras capitais, o que merece atenção e intervenção referentes à qualificação profissional.(AU)


Objective: to analyze the performance of the Nursing professionals of the Family Health Strategy on the identification and notification of cases of violence against children and adolescents. Method: this a quantitative, descriptive, transversal study carried out in Basic Health Units. The sample was composed of 215 nursing professionals. For data collection, a standardized multithematic questionnaire was used, pre-coded and self-applied. The analyses were conducted in the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software. The data were submitted to descriptive analysis by means of absolute frequencies and percentages. Results: It was observed that among the nursing professionals who participated in the study, 59.5% had never identified cases of violence against children or adolescents and only 11.6% had reported any situation of violence involving children and adolescents during the period of professional activity. Among the notifications, the predominance of physical violence situations (35.0%) by nurses and neglect/ abandonment (60.0%) by Nursing Technicians was recorded. Conclusion: it is noted that many professionals have stated that they detect aspects of violence in the young population; however, the notification act is not a reality in Manaus, as in other capitals, which deserves attention and intervention regarding professional qualification. (AU)


Objetivo: analizar el desempeño de los profesionales de Enfermería en la Estrategia de Salud de la Familia en la identificación y notificación de casos de violencia contra niños y adolescentes. Método: se trata de un estudio cuantitativo, descriptivo, transversal, realizado en las Unidades Básicas de Salud. La muestra fue compuesta de 215 profesionales de Enfermería. Para la recolección de datos se utilizó un cuestionario multitemático estandarizado, precodificado y autoadministrado. Los análisis se realizaron utilizando el software Statistical Package for the Social Sciences. Los datos se sometieron a análisis descriptivo utilizando frecuencias absolutas y porcentuales. Resultados: se observó que, entre los profesionales de Enfermería que participaron en el estudio, el 59,5% nunca había identificado casos de violencia contra niños o adolescentes y solo el 11,6% reportó alguna situación de violencia con niños y adolescentes durante el período rendimiento profesional. Entre las notificaciones, predominaron las situaciones de violencia física (35,0%) por parte de enfermeros y negligencia / abandono (60,0%) por parte de técnicos de Enfermería. Conclusión: se observa que muchos profesionales afirmaron detectar aspectos de violencia en la población joven, sin embargo, la ley de notificación no es una realidad en Manaus, así como en otras capitales, lo que merece atención e intervención en cuanto a la calificación profesional.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , Adolescente , Violencia , Abuso Sexual Infantil , Niño , Maltrato a los Niños , Adolescente , Notificación Obligatoria , Estrategia de Salud Familiar , Grupo de Enfermería , Epidemiología Descriptiva , Estudios Transversales
6.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 70(1): 64-83, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33459220

RESUMEN

Protection Against Violence and Abuse in Medical Institutions - Reasons, Prevalence and Implications for Practice Reported cases of (sexual) abuse in institutions as well as the results of surveys show that violence against children and adolescents, but also against adults, occurs also in medical institutions. There are still few studies on the frequency of these cases. However, the cases that have come to public attention show that medical institutions bear systemic risk factors for such assaults. On the other hand, medical institutions also play an important role in child protection, since many children and adolescents affected by maltreatment including sexual abuse come into contact with the medical system. It is necessary that medical institutions deal with this problem and develop respective institutional protection concepts. A protection concept is a system of measures that ensure better protection against assaults within an organisation. Important steps are analysis of risk factors, structural changes, the creation of plan of procedures and the development of an institutional attitude that assaults are not tolerated. Although the development of protection concepts takes time and resources, it has many advantages for institutions, such as an increased sense of security for professionals, because they know how to proceed in such situation. Now that the obligation to draw up protection concepts is anchored in the quality management guideline of the Federal Joint Committee (G-BA), all hospitals and practices must set out to develop appropriate concepts.


Asunto(s)
Maltrato a los Niños/prevención & control , Maltrato a los Niños/estadística & datos numéricos , Instituciones de Salud , Violencia/prevención & control , Violencia/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Abuso Sexual Infantil/prevención & control , Abuso Sexual Infantil/estadística & datos numéricos , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo
8.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33477613

RESUMEN

Childhood maltreatment history has known relationships with various mental and physical diseases; however, little is known about its association with premenstrual syndrome (PMS). In this study, we investigated the association between childhood maltreatment history and PMS among young women in Japan. In a Japanese city, we approached 3815 women aged 10-60 years who visited a gynecology clinic and one general practice clinic. A questionnaire on childhood maltreatment history and PMS was administered to them. We observed that women with histories of childhood maltreatment demonstrated a significantly increased risk of PMS compared with those without such histories (odds ratio: 1.47, 95% confidence interval: 1.20-1.81). Particularly, women with childhood physical or emotional abuse demonstrated a stronger association with PMS, whereas other forms of childhood maltreatment (emotional neglect, witnessing of intimate-partner violence, or sexual abuse) were not associated with PMS. Our results illustrate that childhood maltreatment may be a risk factor for PMS.


Asunto(s)
Adultos Sobrevivientes del Maltrato a los Niños , Maltrato a los Niños , Violencia de Pareja , Síndrome Premenstrual , Adolescente , Adulto , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Japón/epidemiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Síndrome Premenstrual/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
9.
Rev. cienc. cuidad ; 18(1): 42-53, 2021.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1147586

RESUMEN

Objetivo: Construir y evaluar la validez de un instrumento que mida los conocimientos que tienen los estudiantes de enfermería y medicina sobre la detección del abuso sexual en menores de 18 años Materiales y métodos: Descriptivo, cuantitativo-transversal. Se diseñó una escala de 44 ítems agrupados en cinco categorías. A continuación, se realizó una prueba de validez aparente con análisis de estadística descriptiva. Posteriormente, se efectuó la validez de contenido, determinando la razón (CVR) para cada uno de los ítems, así como el índice de validez de contenido global (CVI), basado en el modelo de Lawshe, con un criterio de calificación mayor o igual 0,58. Resultados: En la validez aparente, 18 ítems obtuvieron un porcentaje ≥ 75 % con un óptimo cumplimento en los tres criterios; en 12 ítems se observaron dos criterios > 75 a 100%; 9 ítems con 1 criterio >75% y 5 ítems no cumplieron con ningún criterio <65%. Para la validez de contenido, la escala de 44 ítems obtuvo un CVR < 0.58 para 19 ítems, lo que indica que los ítems presentan un des-acuerdo en el criterio. Con respecto a la segunda medición, se eva-luó la escala con 38 ítems, observando una alta validez de contenido >0,58 para 35 ítems y un índice de validez global satisfactorio de 0.88; se eliminaron tres ítems con bajo índice de contenido. Conclu-sión: La escala diseñada demuestra validez para 35 ítems. Se sugiere continuar con el proceso de validez del constructo y de confiabilidad para que pueda ser implementado en otras culturas.


Objective: To construct and evaluate the validity of an instrument that measures the knowledge that nursing and medical students have about the detection of sexual abuse in children under 18 years of age. Materials and methods: Descriptive, quantitative-cross-sectional. A scale of 44 items grouped into five categories was designed; tests of apparent validity were carried out with descriptive statistical analysis; then, content validity was carried out, where the reason (CVR ) for each of the items and the global content validity index (CVI), based on the Lawshe model, were determined, with a higher qualification criterion ≥ 0.58. Results: In apparent validity, 18 items obtained a percentage ≥ 75% with optimal compliance in all three criteria; 12 items met two criteria > 75 to 100%, 9 items met one criterion > 75%, and 5 items did not meet any criterion < 65%. For content validity, the 44-item scale obtained a TRC < 0.58 for 19 items, which indicates that the items present a disagreement in the criteria. For the second measurement, the scale was evaluated with 38 items, observing a high content validity >0.58 for 35 items and a satisfactory global validity index of 0.88; three items with a low content index were eliminated. Conclusion: The scale finally designed demonstrates validity for 35 items; it is suggested to continue with the process of construct validity and reliability so that it can be implemented in other cultures.


Objetivo: Construir e avaliar a validade de um instrumento que mensure os conhecimentos que têm os estudantes de enfermagem e medicina sobre a detecção do abuso sexual em menores de 18 anos. Materiais e métodos: Descritivo, quantitativo, transversal. Formulou-se uma escala de 44 itens agrupados em cinco categorias. Realizou-se uma prova de validade aparente com empregan-do-se estatística descritiva. Posteriormente, efeituou-se a validade de conteúdo, determinando a razão (CVR) para cada um dos itens, assim como o índice de validade de conteúdo global (CVI), baseado no modelo de Lawshe, com um critério maior ou igual a 0,58. Resultados: Na valida-de aparente 18 itens obtiveram percentuais ≥ 75% com óptimo cumprimento dos três critérios; em 12 itens observaram-se critérios > 75% a 100%; 9 itens com um critério >75% e 5 itens não cumpriram com nenhum critério <65%. Para a validade de conteúdo, a escala de 44 itens obteve um CVR <0,58 para 19 itens, indicando que apresentavam discordância no critério. Na segunda medição, avaliou-se o instrumento com 38 itens, observando-se alta validade de conteúdo >0,58 para 35 itens e um índice de validade global satisfatório de 0,88. Eliminaram-se três itens com baixo índice de conteúdo. Conclusão: O instrumento formulado demostrou validade para 35 itens. Sugere-se continuar no processo de validade de constructo e confiabilidade para poder ser utilizado em outras culturas.


Asunto(s)
Abuso Sexual Infantil , Industria de la Construcción , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
10.
Maturitas ; 143: 209-215, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33308631

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To examine the association of adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) with overall menopausal symptom burden in midlife women. STUDY DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional study of women between the ages of 40 and 65 years who were seen for specialty consultation in the Menopause and Women's Sexual Health Clinic, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN between May 1, 2015 and December 31, 2016. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Participants completed the ACE questionnaire to assess childhood abuse and neglect, the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) to assess menopausal symptom burden, the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) to assess depression, the Generalized Anxiety Disorder questionnaire (GAD-7) to assess anxiety, and provided information on current abuse (physical, sexual and verbal/emotional). RESULTS: Women meeting inclusion criteria (N = 1670) had a median age of 53.7 years (interquartile range: 49.1, 58.0). Of these women, 977 (58.5 %) reported any ACE and 288 (17.2 %) reported ≥4 ACEs. As menopausal symptoms increased in severity from the first to fourth quartile, the odds ratio of ACE 1-3 (vs. 0) increased from 1 to 2.50 (trend p < 0.01), and the odds ratio of ACE ≥ 4 (vs. 0) increased from 1 to 9.61 (trend p < 0.01), a pattern that was consistent across all menopausal symptom domains. The association between severe menopausal symptoms and higher childhood adversity (ACE score 1-3 or ≥4 vs. ACE = 0) remained significant after adjusting for age, partner status, education, employment, depression, anxiety, and hormone therapy use (OR 1.84 and 4.51, p < 0.01). CONCLUSION: In this large cross-sectional study, there was a significant association between childhood adversity and self-reported menopausal symptoms that persisted even after adjustment for multiple confounders. These associations highlight the importance of screening women with bothersome menopausal symptoms for childhood adversity, and of offering appropriate management and counseling for the adverse experiences, when indicated.


Asunto(s)
Experiencias Adversas de la Infancia , Envejecimiento , Menopausia , Adulto , Anciano , Envejecimiento/fisiología , Envejecimiento/psicología , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Niño , Maltrato a los Niños , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Menopausia/fisiología , Menopausia/psicología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Sexualidad
11.
Nursing (Säo Paulo) ; 23(271): 5055-5066, dez.2020.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1147039

RESUMEN

Objetivo: Descrever o perfil epidemiológico da violência sexual em crianças e adolescentes residentes do município de São Paulo. Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo descritivo. Foram utilizados dados secundários, oriundos do Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação no período de janeiro de 2015 a dezembro de 2017. Resultados: Para o período foram notificados 2.884 casos de violência sexual envolvendo crianças e adolescentes. Houve evolução do número de casos notificados entre os anos (2015­401; 2016­1049 e 2017 - 1434). A faixa etária com a maior estimativa de risco para violência sexual foi de 5 a 9 anos. A prevalência dos casos ocorreu no sexo feminino (81,1%) e na raça negra (47,2%). Em relação aos agressores prevaleceu os amigos/conhecidos (20,9%) e os pais (16,8%). Conclusão: Evidenciou-se o agravo temporal e evolutivo da violência sexual à saúde de crianças e adolescentes e observou-se desigualdades no ciclo de vida, gênero e raça.(AU)


Objective: To describe the epidemiological profile of sexual violence in children and adolescents living in the city of São Paulo. Methods: This is a descriptive study. Secondary data from the Notifiable Diseases Information System from January 2015 to December 2017 were used. Results: 2,884 cases of sexual violence involving children and adolescents were reported for the period. There was an evolution in the number of reported cases between the years (2015­401; 2016­1049 and 2017 - 1434). The age group with the highest risk estimate for sexual violence was 5 to 9 years. The prevalence of cases occurred in females (81.1%) and blacks (47.2%). Regarding the aggressors, friends / acquaintances (20.9%) and parents (16.8%) prevailed. Conclusion: The temporal and evolutionary aggravation of sexual violence to the health of children and adolescents was evidenced and inequalities were observed in the life cycle, gender and race.(AU)


Objetivo: Describir el perfil epidemiológico de la violencia sexual en niños y adolescentes residentes en la ciudad de São Paulo. Métodos: Se trata de un estudio descriptivo. Se utilizaron datos secundarios del Sistema de Información de Enfermedades Notificables de enero de 2015 a diciembre de 2017. Resultados: En el período se reportaron 2.884 casos de violencia sexual en niños y adolescentes. Hubo una evolución en el número de casos notificados entre los años (2015­401; 2016­1049 y 2017­1434). El grupo de edad con el mayor riesgo estimado de violencia sexual fue de 5 a 9 años. La prevalencia de casos ocurrió en mujeres (81,1%) y negros (47,2%). En cuanto a los agresores, predominaron los amigos / conocidos (20,9%) y los padres (16,8%). Conclusión: se evidenció el agravamiento temporal y evolutivo de la violencia sexual a la salud de niños y adolescentes y se observaron desigualdades en el ciclo de vida, género y raza.(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Niño , Adolescente , Abuso Sexual Infantil , Salud del Niño , Epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo , Salud del Adolescente , Factores Socioeconómicos , Maltrato a los Niños , Sistemas de Información en Salud
12.
Diagn. tratamento ; 25(4): 138-146, 20201200. tab
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-1146909

RESUMEN

Introdução: O enfrentamento da violência sexual contra crianças e adolescentes exige que se conheçam todos os fatores envolvidos, para a elaboração de estratégias governamentais de enfrentamento. Objetivo: Descrever a epidemiologia da violência sexual infantojuvenil admitidas em um hospital de referência de Macapá (AP), Amazônia Brasileira. Método: Trata-se de um estudo exploratório-descritivo, com abordagem quantitativa, realizado em um hospital infantojuvenil de referência estadual, situado no município de Macapá (AP), acerca dos atendimentos a crianças e adolescentes vítimas de violência sexual durante o ano de 2016, mesclando dados públicos e de prontuários. Resultados: Foram analisados 55 prontuários e fichas de notificações, sendo que a faixa etária de 8 a 10 anos foi a mais prevalente, com predominância do sexo feminino 76,4%. O agressor do sexo masculino foi o mais prevalente 69,1% e 37,7% deles eram desconhecidos da vítima. A própria residência da vítima foi o local com maior índice de casos 49,1%, sendo que 81,8% ocorreram na cidade de Macapá. Conclusão: Registrou-se alto índice de abusos sexuais infantis em Macapá, com predomínio de vítimas do sexo feminino, com menos de 10 anos, agredidas em sua própria residência, por abusadores do espaço doméstico (intrafamiliar) e por estranhos (extrafamiliar). Os autores: padrasto, primo e tio representaram 28,3%, desconhecidos corresponderam a 37,7%, sendo o ambiente e o vínculo do agressor "não informado" em 71,4% dos casos. A falha no preenchimento dos dados no formulário de atendimento às vítimas de violência sexual compromete a definição precisa e clara do panorama que envolve a situação de saúde pública.


Asunto(s)
Delitos Sexuales , Abuso Sexual Infantil , Niño , Salud del Niño , Epidemiología
13.
J Am Acad Psychiatry Law ; 48(4): 580, 2020 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33361175
14.
Rev Saude Publica ; 54: 134, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33331528

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to investigate the prevalence of adolescents and young adults who were victims of sexual violence at some point in their lives and to compare the presence of depressive and anxious symptoms, quality of life, and use of alcohol, tobacco, and illegal drugs among this population and those who were not abused. METHODS: Validated questionnaires and instruments were applied in a group of university students to assess: sexual profile and behavior, socioeconomic status, presence or not of sexual violence (Questionnaire on Exposure to Traumatizing Events), depressive (Beck Depression Inventory) and anxious symptoms (Beck Anxiety Inventory), quality of life (World Health Organization's Quality of Life Assessment) and the use or abuse of tobacco, alcohol, and illegal drugs (Smoking, Alcohol, and Substance Involvement Screening Test). RESULTS: Out of the 858 students who participated, 71 (8.3%) were victims of sexual violence, 52 girls (73.2%). In the victims of violence group there were more students who already had the first sexual intercourse (p = 0.029), students who already had become pregnant (p = 0.001), students with higher scores for depressive (p < 0.001) and anxious symptoms (p = 0.001), students with worse quality of life (p < 0.001), and who used more tobacco (p = 0.008) and marijuana (p = 0.025) as well as abused hypnotics or sedatives (p = 0.048) than in the non-victim group. CONCLUSION: The abuses are presented in several forms and affect, even in long term, the survivors' life. The sexual violence theme should be addressed and widely discussed in all spheres of society in order to mobilize, to sensitize, and provide society with knowledge, demystifying this subject and drawing attention to this important social issue.


Asunto(s)
Adultos Sobrevivientes del Maltrato a los Niños/psicología , Trastornos Relacionados con Alcohol/psicología , Ansiedad/psicología , Depresión/psicología , Calidad de Vida/psicología , Delitos Sexuales/psicología , Estudiantes/psicología , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/psicología , Fumar Tabaco/psicología , Adolescente , Trastornos Relacionados con Alcohol/epidemiología , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Brasil/epidemiología , Niño , Abuso Sexual Infantil/psicología , Abuso Sexual Infantil/estadística & datos numéricos , Depresión/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Drogas Ilícitas , Masculino , Embarazo , Delitos Sexuales/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/epidemiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Fumar Tabaco/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
15.
J Anal Psychol ; 65(5): 865-889, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33202051

RESUMEN

In this paper the author argues that trans-identification and its associated medical treatment can constitute an attempt to evade experiences of psychological distress. This occurs on three levels. Firstly, the trans person themselves may seek to evade dysregulated affects associated with such experiences as attachment trauma, childhood abuse, and ego-alien sexual feelings. Secondly, therapists may attempt to evade feelings, such as fear and hatred, evoked by engaging with these dysregulated affects. Thirdly, we, as a society, may wish to evade acknowledging the reality of such trauma, abuse and sexual distress by hypothesizing that trans-identification is a biological issue, best treated medically. The author argues that the quality of evidence supporting the biomedical approach is extremely poor. This puts young trans people at risk of receiving potentially damaging medical treatment they may later seek to reverse or come to regret, while their underlying psychological issues remain unaddressed.

16.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 11(1): 1804806, 2020 Sep 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33062210

RESUMEN

Background: Empathy is essential for interpersonal relationships, yet remains difficult to measure. Some evidence suggests that early traumatic experiences leads to alterations in empathic responding. Objective: This study sought to differentiate connections between subtypes of childhood maltreatment, a pictorial test of affective empathy (PET), and self-reported empathy (Interpersonal Reactivity Index; IRI) by using network analysis approach to investigate the structure of relationships between childhood maltreatment and later empathic responding. Method: 301 participants completed the PET, the Early Trauma Inventory Self Report-Short Form (ETISR-SF), the IRI, and questionnaires assessing current mood and perceived stress levels. Results: The PET showed a strong positive association with the IRI subscale empathic concern (EC), after conditioning on all other nodes in the network. EC proved to be a highly central node and was positively related to severity of childhood sexual abuse (CSA), yet not to childhood physical abuse or emotional maltreatment. Pathways between emotional maltreatment and physical abuse and the PET were indirect, passing through self-reported EC and CSA. Conclusions: Our study suggests that CSA more so than other childhood maltreatment experiences is associated with increased self-reported affective empathy, but is not captured directly through a pictorial test of affective empathy.

17.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 11(1): 1807171, 2020 Sep 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33062212

RESUMEN

Background: PTSD symptoms are frequent in child victims of sexual abuse. Yet, authors have argued that early trauma could lead to alterations in development that go far beyond the primary symptoms of PTSD and have proposed Complex PTSD as an alternative diagnosis encompassing difficulties in affect regulation, relationships and self-concept. Objective: To delineate profiles in child victims of sexual abuse and explore whether profiles are associated with treatment response to Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioural Therapy. Method: Latent class analysis was used to identify symptom profiles at baseline assessment of 384 children ages 6 to 14, recruited in a Child Advocacy Centre following disclosure of sexual abuse. Dimensions of Complex PTSD diagnosis as proposed by the ICD-11 were derived from self-report questionnaires. Results: Latent class analysis identified a best fitting model of three classes: Classic PTSD regrouping 51% of children, Complex PTSD describing 23% of children, and Resilient describing 25% of children. Trauma-focused therapy was associated with a significant reduction of dissociation, internalizing, and externalizing problems for children of all three classes. Trauma-focused therapy was also linked to a significant reduction of PTSD symptoms with larger effect size (d = .90; 95%CI: 0.63-1.16) for children classified in the Complex PTSD class. Conclusion: These findings highlight the utility of a person-oriented approach to enhance our understanding of the diversity of profiles in child victims. The results offer empirical support for the ICD-11 PTSD and Complex PTSD distinction in a clinical sample of sexually abused children and the relevance of this distinction in foreseeing treatment outcomes.

18.
Eur J Psychotraumatol ; 11(1): 1764707, 2020 Jun 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33029307

RESUMEN

Background: Evaluation of one's own body highly depends on psychopathology. In contrast to healthy women, body evaluation is negative in women from several diagnostic groups. Particularly negative ratings have been reported in disorders related to childhood sexual abuse (CSA) including borderline personality disorder (BPD). However, it is unknown whether this negative evaluation persists beyond symptomatic remission, whether it depends on the topography of body areas (sexually connoted versus neutral areas), and whether it depends on CSA. Objective: First, we aimed at a quantitative comparison of body evaluation across three diagnostic groups: current BPD (cBPD), remitted BPD (rBPD), and healthy controls (HC). Second, we aimed at clarifying the potentially moderating role of a history of CSA and of the sexual connotation of body areas. Methods: The study included 68 women from the diagnostic groups of interest (cBPD, rBPD, and HC). These diagnoses were established with the International Personality Disorder Examination. The participants used the Survey of Body Areas to quantify the evaluation of the own body and the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire for assessing CSA. Results: While the evaluation of the own body was generally negative in women from the cBPD group it was positive in those who had remitted from BPD. However, their positive scores were strictly confined to neutral body areas, whereas the evaluation of sexually connoted body areas was negative, resembling the respective evaluation in cBPD patients and contrasting the positive evaluation of sexually connoted areas in healthy women. The negative evaluation of sexually connoted areas in remitted women was significantly related to a history of CSA. Conclusions: Women with BPD may require a specifically designed intervention to achieve a positive evaluation of their entire body. The evaluation of sexually connoted body areas seems to remain an issue even after remission from the disorder has been achieved.

19.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 3): 349-352, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030451

RESUMEN

Sexual abuse in childhood is associated with many adverse consequences for survival during their lifetime. Numerous research studies clearly show the link between sexual abuse of children and the spectrum of unfavorable mental, social, sexual, interpersonal and behavioral as well as physical health consequences. Current research shows the strongest link between sexual abuse of children and the presence of depression, alcohol and abuse of other psychoactive substances and nutritional disorders in surviving women and anxiety-related disorders in male survivors. There is also an increased risk of re-victimization, especially for girls. Negative effects of mental health in children with sexual abuse include posttraumatic symptoms, depression, helplessness, negative evaluation, aggressive behavior and behavioral problems. Recent research links sexual assault on children with psychotic disorders, including schizophrenia and dysfunctional disorders, as well as personality disorders. Sexual abuse of children involving penetration is specifically identified as a risk factor for the development of psychotic and schizophrenic symptoms. Many studies have shown that sexual victimization in childhood is a significant risk factor for suicidal ideation and suicidal behaviors.


Asunto(s)
Abuso Sexual Infantil/psicología , Abuso Sexual Infantil/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Trastornos de Ansiedad/epidemiología , Niño , Humanos , Trastornos Psicóticos/epidemiología , Conducta Sexual
20.
Psychiatr Danub ; 32(Suppl 3): 367-370, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33030455

RESUMEN

Although family should be the basis for the development and formation of a child's personality, violence is mostly done in the family, and remains undiscovered for a long time. The real number of abused children is much more than that displayed in the registered cases. The secrecy of the problem is an important feature of this phenomenon. Families in which abuse takes place are mostly isolated. Social isolation does not come about by chance; secrecy is usually encouraged by an abuser to control over famoly members. In most cases, social reaction to violence is late, inadequate and focused on the consequences, but not on the causes. "Abuse implies an act of execution that directly inflicts damage, while neglect implies an act of non-fulfillment of something that is necessary for the well-being of a child". The most common forms of domestic violence are physical, emotional abuse in the presence of violence against the mother, and in a lesser extent sexual abuse. In addition, there is physical, emotional, educational and medical neglect. The presence of violence against the mother and the feeling of impotence leave the same consequences as the endured violence. It is considered that children living in violent families are likely to live under cumulative stress. Traumatic responses include a wide range of conditions from acute stress reactions through post-traumatic stress disorder to complex long-lasting, repeated trauma syndrome. All children will not react to this kind of experience in the same way, with the protective and risk factors in developmental psychopathology having a significant role to play. Because of their developmental vulnerability and dependency, children are at greater risk of violence than adults. Researches point to the need for a multidisciplinary approach to treatment and prevention of child abuse, with greater interaction between health institutions, relevant centers for social work, police, court, government and non-governmental sector, and the existence of adequate family and criminal laws.


Asunto(s)
Maltrato a los Niños/psicología , Violencia Doméstica/psicología , Trauma Psicológico/psicología , Adulto , Niño , Maltrato a los Niños/legislación & jurisprudencia , Maltrato a los Niños/prevención & control , Maltrato a los Niños/terapia , Violencia Doméstica/legislación & jurisprudencia , Violencia Doméstica/prevención & control , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Madres/psicología , Trauma Psicológico/prevención & control , Trauma Psicológico/terapia , Factores de Riesgo , Instituciones Académicas , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/prevención & control , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/psicología , Trastornos por Estrés Postraumático/terapia
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