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1.
Metas enferm ; 23(10): 21-32, dic.-ene. 2021. tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS-Express | IBECS | ID: ibc-ET2-7574

RESUMEN

OBJETIVO: identificar los factores asociados con la obesidad del niño o de la niña al año de vida, y determinar la relación entre el peso/talla de la madre con la presencia de sobrepeso del recién nacido al año de vida. MÉTODO: estudio observacional retrospectivo en recién nacidos (RN) de madres gestantes primíparas sin patología, atendidos en el Hospital de Verín (enero 2014-abril 2017). Se recogieron variables maternas; variables neonatales, así como el tipo de alimentación durante su primer año de vida y las características antropométricas de niños/as al mes, 3, 6 y 12 meses del nacimiento. Se llevaron a cabo análisis descriptivos, bivariantes y correlaciones entre características de la madre y valores antropométricos de menores. RESULTADOS: un 6,03% de los RN presentó sobrepeso u obesidad. Un 9,2% tenía sobrepeso al mes de vida, 3,1% a los 3 meses, 5,3% a los 6 meses y 16% al año. Los que presentaban sobrepeso al año eran aquellos que tenían mayor peso al nacimiento, no encontrándose relación entre el sobrepeso al nacimiento y a lo largo de su primer año con las características gestacionales de la madre. Los niños presentaron cifras ligeramente más elevadas de índice de masa corporal (IMC) que las niñas durante el primer año de vida, siendo significativo solo a los 3 meses. También existieron evidencias significativas de la asociación de la talla materna con el peso/talla del RN a lo largo de su primer año de vida. La alimentación recibida durante los tres primeros meses juega un papel importante al final de su primer año, observándose una reducción de la talla y del peso en los niños que a partir del tercer mes se alimentaban con lactancia artificial en comparación con las niñas, en las que su peso aumentó en casi 1 kg al prescindir de la lactancia materna a partir de ese tercer mes. CONCLUSIONES: las características gestacionales no se relacionaron con una presencia de obesidad durante el primer año de vida, siendo las características en el momento del nacimiento del niño y el tipo de alimentación las que se asociaron con un exceso de peso al año


OBJECTIVE: to identify those factors associated with obesity in boys or girls during their first year of life, and to determine the relationship between the weight/height of the mother and the presence of overweight in newborns on the first year of life. METHOD: an observational retrospective study in newborns (NBs) from primiparous mothers without any other condition, managed at the Hospital de Verín (January, 2014- April, 2017). Maternal variables were collected, as well as neonatal variables, type of feeding during their first year of life, and the anthropometric characteristics of the children at one month and 3, 6 and 12 months after birth. Descriptive, bivariate analysis was conducted, and correlations between characteristics of the mother and anthropometric values of the children. RESULTS: 6.03% of the NBs presented overweight or obesity; 9.2% had overweight at one month of life, 3.1% at 3 months, 5.3% at 6 months, and 16% at one year. Those who presented excess weight at one year were those with higher weight at birth; no relationship was found between overweight at birth and during their first year with the gestational characteristics of the mother. Boys presented slightly higher figures of body mass index (BMI) than girls during their first year of life, which was significant only at 3 months. There was also significant evidence regarding the association of maternal height with the weight/height of the NB over their first year of life. The type of feeding received during the first three months played an important role at the end of their first year: a reduction in their height and weight was observed in boys who were fed with formula in comparison with girls, whose weight increased in almost 1 kilo when breastfeeding was withdrawn from the third month onwards. CONCLUSIONS: gestational characteristics were not associated with the presence of obesity during the first year of life; on the other hand, the characteristics of the child at the time of birth and type of feeding were associated with an excess weight at one year

2.
Preprint en Portugués | SciELO Preprints | ID: pps-1636

RESUMEN

Objective: To analyze the association between exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) on the introduction of ultra-processed foods in children under 12 months. Methods: Cohort study conducted with children in Vitória da Conquista, Bahia, Brazil. The main exposure was EBF (days: <120; 120-179; ≥180). The outcome variable was the introduction of four or more types of ultra-processed in the first year of life. Poisson regression analysis was used. Results: 286 children were evaluated, of which 40.2% received four or more ultra-processed and 48.9% EBF for less than 120 days. EBF for less than 120 days (RR=2.94 ­ 95%CI 1.51;5.71) and for 120-179 days (RR=2.17 ­ 95%CI 1.09;4.30) were associated outcome after adjustment by socioeconomic, maternal, paternal and child variables. Conclusion: EBF for less than 180 days increased the risk of introducing four or more ultra-processed in the first year of life. Keywords: Breast Feeding; Infant Nutrition; Industrialized Foods; Longitudinal Studies.


Objetivo: Analisar a associação entre aleitamento materno exclusivo (AME) na introdução de alimentos ultraprocessados em crianças menores de 12 meses. Métodos: Estudo de coorte, realizado com crianças de Vitória da Conquista, Bahia, Brasil. A exposição principal foi o AME (em dias: <120; 120-179; ≥180). A variável-desfecho do estudo foi a introdução de quatro ou mais tipos de ultraprocessados no primeiro ano de vida. Utilizou-se análise de regressão de Poisson. Resultados: Foram avaliadas 286 crianças, das quais 40,2% receberam quatro ou mais ultraprocessados e 48,9% receberam AME por menos de 120 dias. O AME por menos de 120 dias (RR=2,94 ­ IC95% 1,51;5,71) e por 120-179 dias (RR=2,17 ­ IC95% 1,09;4,30) associou-se ao desfecho após ajuste pelas variáveis socioeconômicas, maternas, paternas e da criança. Conclusão: O AME por menos de 180 dias aumentou o risco de introdução de quatro ou mais alimentos ultraprocessados no primeiro ano de vida.

3.
BMJ ; 372: n11, 2021 01 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33402385
4.
BMJ ; 372: n8, 2021 01 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33402391
5.
Arch Argent Pediatr ; 119(1): 56-61, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Español, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33458982

RESUMEN

Breast milk provides microorganisms that colonize the gut and program the immune system to develop oral tolerance. Between the 6 months of exclusive breastfeeding and the recommended 2 years of prolonged breastfeeding, complementary feeding leads to a progressive reduction in the entry of live microorganisms into the gut ecosystem. This is because foods in general ­unlike breast milk­ are devoid of microorganisms or, if present, they are often inactivated during cooking. Fermented foods and probiotics could be a valuable nutritional strategy, as they would ensure the supply of live microorganisms in the face of a reduction or early cessation of breastfeeding. The terms "fermented foods" and "probiotics" are not synonymous. Microbiological identity, safety, and the existence of clinical efficacy studies supporting both are key to understand their differences and decide on an eventual dietary recommendation.

6.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 25(2): e20200116, 2021. tab
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1142950

RESUMEN

RESUMO Objetivo Estimar a ocorrência do contato pele a pele imediato e sua associação aos fatores sociodemográficos, obstétricos, assistenciais e de nascimento em uma maternidade da Zona da Mata Mineira. Método Estudo transversal realizado com 222 primíparas por meio de entrevista e dados do prontuário. Os dados foram codificados, categorizados, digitados e analisados pelo programa Epi info 7.0. Utilizou-se a regressão logística múltipla. Resultados A ocorrência do contato pele a pele imediato foi de 30% e foi associado ao: profissional do parto não ser o mesmo do pré-natal (OR 3,17; IC 95% 1,52 -6,62), presença de acompanhante (OR 3,35; IC 95% 1,67-6,73) e realização de parto normal (OR 15,59; IC 95% 7,50-32,41). Conclusão e implicações para a prática É primordial incentivar o parto normal, sensibilizar profissionais e empoderar as mulheres sobre o direito do acompanhante e contato pele a pele, pois este minimiza as intervenções na primeira hora, estimula o vínculo e promove a amamentação.


RESUMEN Objetivo Estimar la prevalencia del contacto inmediato piel a piel y su asociación con factores sociodemográficos, obstétricos, asistenciales y de nacimiento en una sala de maternidad en la Zona de la Mata Minera (Brasil). Método Estudio transversal realizado con 222 mujeres primíparas, a través de entrevistas y datos de registros médicos. Los datos fueron codificados, categorizados, tipificados y analizados por el programa Epi info 7.0. Se utilizó la regresión logística múltiple. Resultados La incidencia del contacto inmediato piel a piel fue del 30% y se asoció con: profesional del parto que no es lo mismo que de la asistencia prenatal (OR 3.17; IC del 95% 1.52 -6.62), presencia de acompañante (OR 3.35; IC 95% 1.67-6.73) y parto normal (OR 15.59; IC 95% 7.50-32.41). Conclusión e implicaciones para la práctica Es esencial fomentar el parto normal, sensibilizar a los profesionales y empoderar a las mujeres sobre el derecho del acompañante y el contacto piel a piel, ya que esto minimiza las intervenciones en la primera hora, estimula el vínculo y promueve la lactancia materna.


ABSTRACT Objective To estimate the prevalence of early skin-to-skin contact and its association with sociodemographic, obstetric, assistance and birth factors in a maternity located in the Forest Zone of Minas Gerais (southeast Brazil). Method A cross-sectional study was carried out with 222 primiparous women, by means of interview and data from the medical records. The data were coded, categorized, typed and analyzed using the Epi info 7.0 software. Multiple logistic regression was used. Results The occurrence of skin-to-skin contact was 30% and was associated with: professional delivery not being the same as prenatal care (OR 3.17; 95% CI 1.52 -6.62), presence of companion (OR 3.35; 95% CI 1.67-6.73) and normal delivery (OR 15.59; 95% CI 7.50-32.41). Conclusion and implications for practice It is essential to encourage normal childbirth, sensitize professionals and empower women about the right of the companion and skin-to-skin contact, as this minimizes interventions in the first hour, stimulates mother-baby bond and promotes breastfeeding.

7.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 25(2): e20200163, 2021. tab
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1142954

RESUMEN

RESUMO Objetivos Identificar a pessoa próxima à gestante, que atua como sua fonte de apoio primária, bem como avaliar a qualidade dessa relação por meio do instrumento qualidade da relação com as pessoas próximas e sua influência no aleitamento materno. Método Estudo quantitativo, descritivo e exploratório realizado com uma amostra não probabilística consecutiva de 152 gestantes, em Unidades de Saúde de município de médio porte na região Oeste do Paraná, durante o ano de 2019, para responder à pergunta de pesquisa "a qualidade da relação da mulher na gestação com a sua fonte de apoio primária tem implicações na amamentação? Utilizou-se, para obtenção dos dados, a escala "Qualidade da relação com as pessoas próximas-ARI", que classifica o vínculo por meio de pontos que podem variar de 40 a 128, sendo que quanto maior, também maior será a qualidade do vínculo com aquela pessoa. Os dados foram analisados por estatística descritiva. Resultados As mulheres identificaram o companheiro/esposo (58,6%) e outros membros da família (40,1%) como as pessoas mais importantes e atuantes como sua fonte de apoio primária. A média do escore foi de 103,5, apontando que o relacionamento é saudável e predominam aspectos positivos. Conclusão Quanto mais positivos os resultados, maior é o suporte recebido pela gestante e, consequentemente, maior a influência para que a mulher inicie e mantenha o aleitamento materno exclusivo. Implicações para a prática clínica A escala utilizada pode ser aplicada com regularidade na atenção primária para o enfermeiro identificar vínculos frágeis que influenciariam a amamentação.


RESUMEN Objetivos Identificar a la persona cercana a la mujer embarazada, que actúa como su principal fuente de apoyo, así como evaluar la calidad de esta relación por medio del instrumento cualidad de la relación con las personas cercanas a ella y su influencia en la lactancia materna. Método Estudio cuantitativo, descriptivo y exploratorio, realizado con una muestra consecutiva no probabilística de 152 gestantes, en Unidades de Salud de un municipio mediano de la región oeste de Paraná, durante el año 2019, para responder a la pregunta de investigación "¿la calidad de la relación de las mujeres en gestación con su fuente de apoyo principal tiene implicaciones para la lactancia materna? La escala "Calidad de la relación con personas cercanas - ARI" se utilizó para obtener los datos, que clasifican el vínculo mediante puntos que pueden variar de 40 a 128, cuanto mayor sea la calidad, mayor el vínculo con esa persona. Los datos se analizaron mediante estadística descriptiva. Resultados Las mujeres identificaron a la pareja / esposo (58.6%) y otros miembros de la familia (40.1%) como las personas más importantes y activas como su principal fuente de apoyo. El puntaje promedio fue de 103.5, lo que indica que la relación es saludable y predominan los aspectos positivos. Conclusión Cuanto más positivos sean los resultados, mayor será el apoyo recibido por la mujer embarazada y, en consecuencia, mayor será la influencia para que la mujer inicie y mantenga la lactancia materna exclusiva. Implicaciones para la práctica clínica La escala utilizada puede aplicarse regularmente en la atención primaria para que las enfermeras identifiquen los vínculos frágiles que influirían en la lactancia materna.


ABSTRACT Objectives To identify the closest person to the pregnant woman, who acts as her primary support source, and evaluate the relationship quality through the instrument quality with the persons close to her and their influence on breastfeeding. Method Quantitative, descriptive, and exploratory study with a consecutive non-probabilistic sample of 152 pregnant women, in Health Units in a medium-sized municipality in the western region of Paraná, during the year 2019, to answer the research question "does the quality of the relationship between women in pregnancy and their primary source of support have implications for breastfeeding?. The "Quality of the relationship with the closest people scale - ARI" was used to obtain the data, which classifies the bond using points that can vary from 40 to 128, and the higher, the higher will be the quality of the bond with that person. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results Women identified the partner/husband (58.6%) and other family members (40.1%) as the most important and active people as their primary support source. The average score was 103.5, indicating that the relationship is healthy and positive aspects predominate. Conclusion The more positive the results, the greater the support received by the pregnant woman and, consequently, the greater the influence for the woman to initiate and maintain exclusive breastfeeding. Implications for the clinical practice The scale used can be applied regularly in primary care for nurses to identify fragile bonds that would influence breastfeeding.

8.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 25(2): e20200235, 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1133835

RESUMEN

Resumo Objetivo Este estudo teve como objetivos construir e validar um pacote de mensagens de texto e figuras para promoção do aleitamento materno no período neonatal. Métodos tratou-se de um estudo metodológico, realizado em quatro etapas: revisão integrativa da literatura, construção de pacote de mensagens e figuras, análise de legibilidade e validação de conteúdo e aparência. Para validação, participaram 11 juízes com expertise em aleitamento materno. O critério para validação foi concordância superior a 80%, analisada por meio dos índices de validação de conteúdo e aparência. Resultados a versão final do pacote de mensagens e figuras apresentou índice de validade de conteúdo de 0,86, índice de validade de aparência de 0,85 e validade convergente com correlação de 0,73 entre o conteúdo e a aparência (p<0,01). Conclusões e implicações para a prática o pacote de mensagens de texto e figuras foi considerado válido em conteúdo, aparência e convergência para promoção do aleitamento materno, no período neonatal, constituindo tecnologia educacional adequada para ser compartilhada via mensagens telefônicas, com intuito de se aproximar das nutrizes, ajudando-as a reagir frente aos problemas comuns no período neonatal.


Resumen Objetivo Este estudio tuvo como objetivos construir y validar un paquete de mensajes de texto e imágenes para promover la lactancia materna en el período neonatal. Métodos fue un estudio estudio metodológico, llevado a cabo en cuatro etapas: revisión integradora de la literatura, construcción de un paquete de mensajes e imágenes, análisis de legibilidad y validación de contenido y la apariencia. El criterio de validación fue un acuerdo superior al 80%, analizado por medio de los índices de validación de contenido y apariencia. Resultados la versión final del paquete de mensajes y grabados presentó un índice de validez de contenido de 0,86, un índice de validez de apariencia de 0,85 y una validez de correlación convergente de 0,73 entre contenido y apariencia (p <0,01). Conclusiones e implicaciones para la práctica el paquete de mensajes de texto y imágenes se consideró válido para el contenido, la apariencia y la convergencia para la promoción de la lactancia materna en el período neonatal, constituyendo una tecnología educativa adecuada para ser compartida a través de mensajes telefónicos, con el fin de acercarse a las madres lactantes, ayudándolas a reaccionar ante problemas comunes en el período neonatal.


Abstract Objective to build and validate a text messages and pictures package to promote breastfeeding in the neonatal period. Methods It was a methodological study carried out in four stages: integrative literature review, construction of message and picture package, readability analysis and content and appearance validation. For validation, 11 judges with experience in breastfeeding participated. The criterion for validation was agreement of more than 80%, analysed by means of content and appearance validation indexes. Results the final version of the message and picture package presented a content validity index of 0.86, appearance validity index of 0.85 and a convergent correlation validity of 0.73 between content and appearance (p <0.01). Conclusions and implications for practice the package of text messages and figures was considered valid in content, appearance and convergence for the promotion of breastfeeding in the neonatal period, constituting appropriate educational technology suitable to be shared via phone messages, in order to approach the nursing mothers, helping them to react to common problems in the neonatal period.

9.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 25(1): e20200098, 2021. tab
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1124783

RESUMEN

RESUMO Objetivo Analisar a associação entre a adequação das orientações recebidas durante o pré-natal e o profissional que atendeu a gestante na maioria das consultas na Atenção Primária à Saúde. Método Participaram 3.111 puérperas que realizaram pré-natal pelo Sistema Único de Saúde no Estado de Santa Catarina em 2019, através de questionário aplicado em ambiente hospitalar até 48 horas pós-parto. Analisou-se associação entre a variável de exposição principal e covariáveis, e o desfecho segundo profissional que atendeu no pré-natal. Resultados As orientações mais frequentes foram os sinais de riscos na gestação (80,3%) e riscos de automedicação (76,9%). Observaram-se prevalências abaixo de 50% nas orientações sobre manejo adequado da amamentação (45,9%) e possibilidade de visitar a maternidade antes do parto (38,2%); ter recebido todas as orientações ao menos uma vez durante o pré-natal foi de 18,4%. Gestantes atendidas na maioria das consultas pelos profissionais médico e enfermeiro apresentaram chance 41,0% maior de adequação às orientações, em comparação com aquelas atendidas exclusivamente por médicos. Conclusões e implicações para a prática A prevalência de orientações dadas pelos profissionais de saúde às gestantes foi mais elevada quando o pré-natal foi mais compartilhado entre enfermeiros e médicos, em comparação ao atendimento majoritário por profissional de apenas uma profissão.


RESUMEN Objetivo analizar la asociación entre la adecuación de las directrices recibidas durante la atención prenatal y el profesional que atendió a la mujer embarazada en la mayoría de las consultas en la Atención Primaria de Salud. Método participaron 3.111 mujeres puérperas que recibieron la atención prenatal a través del Sistema Único de Salud en el Estado de Santa Catarina en 2019, a través de un cuestionario aplicado en un entorno hospitalario hasta 48 horas después del parto. Se analizó la asociación entre la variable de exposición principal y las covariables, y el resultado según el profesional que asistió en la atención prenatal. Resultados las directrices más frecuentes fueron los signos de riesgos en el embarazo (80,3%) y los riesgos de automedicación (76,9%). Se observaron prevalencias inferiores al 50% en las directrices sobre el manejo adecuado de la lactancia materna (45,9%) y la posibilidad de visitar la sala de maternidad antes del parto (38,2%); han recibido todas las directrices al menos una vez durante la atención prenatal fue del 18.4%. Las mujeres embarazadas atendidas en la mayoría de las consultas por profesionales médicos y enfermeras tuvieron un 41% más de posibilidades de adecuarse a las directrices en comparación con las que fueron atendidas exclusivamente por médicos. Conclusiones e implicaciones para la práctica la prevalencia de las directrices otorgadas por los profesionales de la salud a las mujeres embarazadas fue mayor cuando la atención prenatal fue más compartida entre las enfermeras y los médicos en comparación con la mayoría de la atención prestada por profesionales de una sola profesión.


ABSTRACT Objective To analyze the association between the adequacy of the guidelines received during prenatal care and the professional who assisted the pregnant woman in most consultations in Primary Health Care. Method 3,111 puerperal women who underwent prenatal care by the Unified Health System in the State of Santa Catarina in 2019 participated, through a questionnaire applied in a hospital environment up to 48 hours postpartum. Association between the main exposure variable and covariates with the outcome according to the professional who carried out the prenatal care was analyzed. Results The most frequent guidelines were the signs of risks during pregnancy (80.3%) and risks of self-medication (76.9%). Prevalences below 50% were observed in the guidelines on adequate breastfeeding management (45.9%) and the possibility of visiting the maternity ward before delivery (38.2%); having received all guidelines at least once during prenatal care was 18.4%. Pregnant women assisted in most consultations by physicians and nurses had a 41,0% greater chance of adequacy in the guidelines compared to those assisted exclusively by physicians. Conclusions and implications for practice The prevalence of guidelines given by health professionals for pregnant women was higher when prenatal care was more shared between nurses and physicians in comparison to the majority of care provided by professionals from only one profession.

10.
Esc. Anna Nery Rev. Enferm ; 25(1): e20200054, 2021. graf
Artículo en Español | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1114765

RESUMEN

RESUMEN OBJETIVO Analizar la influencia de cambios socio-políticos, educativos y feministas de España en el mantenimiento de lactancia materna. MÉTODO Revisión histórico-descriptiva de documentación en bases de datos, Boletines Oficiales del Estado, del Ministerio de Sanidad y Consumo y Bienestar Social. RESULTADOS La lactancia materna es un fenómeno complejo influenciado por factores demográficos, biológicos, sociales y psicológicos. Ha cambiado a lo largo de la historia y, evolucionado con los movimientos feministas. La incorporación de la mujer al mercado laboral (s.XIX), produjo una modificación en el rol familiar y pareja. La sociedad del siglo XXI reclama a los poderes públicos la conciliación personal y laboral para la crianza de sus hijos. CONCLUSIONES E IMPLICACIÓN PARA LA PRÁCTICA Han sido múltiples los factores y procesos evolutivos para la situación socio-cultural de la mujer en la lactancia materna. Actualmente sigue siendo complicado compaginar gestación y crianza con el empleo, las redes formales e informales permiten avances en políticas sanitarias.


RESUMO OBJETIVO Analisar a influência das mudanças sócio-políticas, educativas e feministas em Espanha na manutenção do aleitamento materno. MÉTODO Revisão histórico-descritiva da documentação em bases de dados, Boletins Oficiais do Estado, do Ministério da Saúde e do Consumo e da Previdência Social. RESULTADOS O aleitamento materno é um fenómeno complexo influenciado por factores demográficos, biológicos, sociais e psicológicos. Ela mudou ao longo da história e evoluiu com os movimentos feministas. A incorporação das mulheres ao mercado de trabalho (século XIX), produziu uma modificação no papel da família e do casal. A sociedade do século XXI exige do poder público a conciliação pessoal e laboral para a educação dos seus filhos. CONCLUSÕES E IMPLICAÇÕES PARA A PRÁTICA Tem havido múltiplos factores e processos evolutivos para a situação sociocultural das mulheres em aleitamento materno. Hoje em dia, ainda é complicado combinar gravidez e educação com emprego, e as redes formais e informais permitem avanços nas políticas de saúde.


ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To analyze the influence of socio-political, educational and feminist changes in Spain on the maintenance of breastfeeding. METHOD Historical-descriptive review of documentation in databases, Official State Bulletins, of the Ministry of Health and Consumer Affairs and Social Welfare. RESULTS Breastfeeding is a complex phenomenon influenced by demographic, biological, social and psychological factors. It has changed throughout history and evolved with the feminist movements. The incorporation of women to the labor market (19th century), produced a modification in the family and couple role. The society of the 21st century demands from the public authorities the personal and labor conciliation for the upbringing of their children. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATION FOR PRACTICE There have been multiple factors and evolutionary processes for the socio-cultural situation of women in breastfeeding. Nowadays, it is still complicated to combine pregnancy and upbringing with employment, and formal and informal networks allow advances in health policies.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Lactancia Materna , Feminismo/historia , España/etnología , Mujeres Trabajadoras/legislación & jurisprudencia , Derechos de la Mujer/historia , Responsabilidad Parental , Igualdad de Género
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 752: 141784, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32889265

RESUMEN

Emerging evidence suggests that perinatal dioxin exposure affects neurodevelopment and impairs multiple brain functions, including cognitive, language, learning and emotion, in the offspring. However, the impacts of gestational and lactational exposure to dioxin on behavior and related molecular events are still not fully understood. In this study, female C57BL/6J mice were orally administered three doses of 2, 3, 7, 8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) (0.1 or 10 µg/kg body weight (bw)) during the pregnancy and lactation periods. The locomotion, exploration and anxiety-related behaviors were examined by an open field test of the young adult female offspring at postnatal day 68. We found that the maternal TCDD exposure, particularly at a low dose, increased movement ability, novelty-exploration and certain anxiety-related behaviors in the offspring. Such hyperactivity-like behaviors were accompanied by the upregulation of certain genes associated with cholinergic neurotransmission or synaptogenesis in the offspring brain. In accordance with the potential enhancement of cholinergic neurotransmission due to the gene upregulations, the enzymatic activity of acetylcholinesterase was decreased, which might lead to excess acetylcholine and consequent hyper-excitation at the synapses. Thus, we found that gestational and lactational TCDD exposure at low dose caused hyperactivity-like behaviors in young adult female offspring and speculated the enhancement of cholinergic neurotransmission and synaptogenesis as potential molecular events underlying the neurobehavioral effects.


Asunto(s)
Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas , Efectos Tardíos de la Exposición Prenatal , Animales , Femenino , Humanos , Lactancia , Exposición Materna/efectos adversos , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Dibenzodioxinas Policloradas/toxicidad , Embarazo , Efectos Tardíos de la Exposición Prenatal/inducido químicamente
13.
MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs ; 46(1): 21-29, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33009009

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: The aim of this study is to describe how the COVID-19 (coronavirus) pandemic has affected pregnancy, prenatal maternity care practices, and infant feeding plans among pregnant persons in the United States. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional descriptive study using an app-based survey. METHODS: A link to the survey was sent via email to users of the Ovia Pregnancy app on May 20, 2020 and was open for 1 week. Participants were asked to complete the survey as it applied to their pregnancy, breastfeeding, and maternity care received during the COVID-19 pandemic, beginning approximately February 2020 through the time of the survey. There were 258 respondents who completed the survey. RESULTS: The majority (96.4%; n = 251) of pregnant women felt they received safe prenatal care during this time period. Slightly less 86.3% (n = 215) felt they received adequate prenatal care during this time period. 14.2% (n = 33) reported changing or considering changing the location where they planned to give birth due to COVID-19. Of those who reported they had begun purchasing items for their baby, 52.7% reported that the COVID-19 pandemic has affected their ability to get items they need for their baby. CLINICAL IMPLICATIONS: Although it is imperative to implement policies that reduce risk of transmission of COVID-19 to pregnant women and health care providers, it is necessary for health care providers and policy makers to listen to the collective voices of women during pregnancy about how COVID-19 has affected their birth and infant feeding plans and their perception of changes in prenatal care.


Asunto(s)
Lactancia Materna/psicología , Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa/prevención & control , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/psicología , Atención Prenatal/psicología , Adulto , Lactancia Materna/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Servicios de Salud Materna/estadística & datos numéricos , Educación del Paciente como Asunto , Embarazo , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/prevención & control , Atención Prenatal/estadística & datos numéricos
14.
MCN Am J Matern Child Nurs ; 46(1): 30-35, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33048860

RESUMEN

For new families giving birth in a hospital setting, the COVID-19 pandemic has presented numerous challenges to their birth, breastfeeding, and postpartum experiences. We present experiences of three first-time, healthy mothers and their babies, as they gave birth in the hospital and were breastfeeding during the start of the pandemic in Philadelphia, PA. Each case is framed in the mother's prenatal goals, infant feeding intentions, birth, breastfeeding, and postpartum experiences. Shared concerns and experiences among the three participants are described in five key areas: 1) Recommendations changing every day, 2) Guilt, concern, and stress, 3) In-person versus telehealth visits, 4) Missing time with family and friends, and 5) Silver linings. Through these mothers' experiences, nurses and other health care providers can learn from their perceptions and events and proactively work to ensure we provide sound anticipatory guidance, enhance our communication, and improve provision of evidence-based lactation care and support.


Asunto(s)
Lactancia Materna/psicología , Atención Posnatal/psicología , Periodo Posparto/psicología , Adulto , Ansiedad/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Trabajo de Parto , Embarazo , Autoimagen
15.
Food Chem ; 339: 127866, 2021 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32858386

RESUMEN

Sialylated N-glycans are an integral component of whey proteins in human milk and play an irreplaceable role in infant growth and development. Currently, there are few studies on quantitative comparison of sialylated N-glycans in milk obtained at different lactation stages. Here, a preliminary isomer-specific quantification of whey sialylated N-glycans of human colostrum milk (CM) and mature milk (MM) was performed by using our recently developed glycoqueuing strategy. Such a preliminary comparison revealed that the whey sialylated N-glycan content was 86.4% lower in MM than in CM. Twenty-three α2,6-linked sialylated N-glycan isomers were detected with no α2,3-linked isomer observed. For the first time, three mono-sialylated and four bi-sialylated glycan isomers were reported. With the prolongation of lactation, the relative abundance of mono-sialylated glycans increased, whilst the relative abundance of bi-sialylated glycans decreased significantly. These findings contribute to the understanding of the structure-function relationship of sialylated N-glycans in the human whey fraction.


Asunto(s)
Calostro/química , Glicoproteínas/química , Leche Humana/química , Ácido N-Acetilneuramínico/química , Polisacáridos/química , Análisis de Secuencia , Proteína de Suero de Leche/química , Animales , Femenino , Humanos , Isomerismo , Lactancia , Embarazo
16.
Matern Child Nutr ; 17(1): e13088, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969184

RESUMEN

The COVID-19 pandemic and subsequent lockdown and social distancing led to changes to breastfeeding support available to women in the United Kingdom. Face-to-face professional support was reduced, and face-to-face peer support was cancelled. Anecdotal media accounts highlighted practices separating some mothers and babies in hospitals, alongside inaccurate stories of the safety of breastfeeding circulating. Meanwhile, new families were confined to their homes, separated from families and support networks. Given that we know breastfeeding is best supported by practices that keep mother and baby together, high-quality professional and peer-to-peer support, and positive maternal well-being, it is important to understand the impact of the pandemic upon the ability to breastfeed. To explore this, we conducted an online survey with 1219 breastfeeding mothers in the United Kingdom with a baby 0-12 months old to understand the impact of the pandemic upon breastfeeding duration, experiences and support. The results highlighted two very different experiences: 41.8% of mothers felt that breastfeeding was protected due to lockdown, but 27.0% of mothers struggled to get support and had numerous barriers stemming from lockdown with some stopped breastfeeding before they were ready. Mothers with a lower education, with more challenging living circumstances and from Black and minority ethnic backgrounds were more likely to find the impact of lockdown challenging and stop breastfeeding. The findings are vital in understanding how we now support those women who may be grieving their loss of breastfeeding and are affected by their negative experiences and how we can learn from those with a positive experience to make sure all breastfeeding women are better supported if similar future events arise.


Asunto(s)
Lactancia Materna/psicología , Madres/psicología , Apoyo Social , Adolescente , Adulto , Alimentación Artificial , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Aislamiento Social/psicología , Reino Unido , Adulto Joven
17.
Appetite ; 156: 104985, 2021 01 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33038477

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 New Mum Study is recording maternal experiences and infant feeding during the UK lockdown. This report from week 1 of the survey describes and compares the delivery and post-natal experiences of women who delivered before (BL) versus during (DL) the lockdown. METHODS: Women living in the UK aged ≥18 years with an infant ≤12 months of age completed an anonymous online survey (https://is.gd/covid19newmumstudy). Information/links are shared via websites, social media and existing contacts. RESULTS: From 27.5.20-3.6.20, 1365 women provided data (94% white, 95% married/with partner, 66% degree/higher qualification, 86% living in house; 1049 (77%) delivered BL and 316 (23%) DL. Delivery mode, skin-to-skin contact and breastfeeding initiation did not differ between groups. DL women had shorter hospital stays (p < 0.001). 39% reported changes to their birth plan. Reflecting younger infant age, 59% of DL infants were exclusively breast-fed/mixed fed versus 39% of BL (p < 0.05). 13% reported a change in feeding; often related to lack of breastfeeding support, especially with practical problems. Important sources of feeding support were the partner (60%), health professional (50%) and online groups (47%). 45% of DL women reported insufficient feeding support. Among BL women, 57% and 69% reported decreased feeding support and childcare, respectively. 40% BL/45% DL women reported insufficient support with their own health, 8%/9% contacted a mental health professional; 11% reported their mental health was affected. 9% highlighted lack of contact/support from family and distress that they had missed seeing the baby. CONCLUSION: Lockdown has impacted maternal experiences, resulting in distress for many women. Our findings suggest the need for better infant feeding support, especially 'face-to-face' support for practical issues; and recognising and supporting mothers who are struggling with mental health challenges or other aspects of their health. The effectiveness of online versus face-to-face contact is currently uncertain, and requires further evaluation.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Alimentaria , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Madres , Pandemias , Estrés Psicológico , Adulto , Lactancia Materna , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Tiempo de Internación , Masculino , Salud Mental , Madres/psicología , Datos Preliminares , Aislamiento Social , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Reino Unido
18.
Nutr Hosp ; 37(Spec No2): 38-42, 2021 Jan 13.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32993313

RESUMEN

Introduction: The consumption of a healthy diet is essential during the preconception period, pregnancy and lactation to guarantee maternal-fetal and newborn health. It is important to take into account when configuring the maternal diet that inadequate intakes of vitamins and minerals, as well as a high consumption of foods or beverages with refined sugar increase the incidence of low birth weight infants, while the adequate consumption of micronutrients and carbohydrates (mainly integral) can decrease it. Prenatal consumption of fish is also associated with less intrauterine growth retardation. Maternal nutritional deficits that lead to intrauterine growth retardation can alter the expression of some genes, causing abnormal programming in organ and tissue development. In response, the fetus adapts to this situation of scarcity and may have difficulties adapting to an abundant consumption of food after birth, increasing its propensity to suffer from cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in adult life. After delivery, the nutrition of the infant must be guaranteed through breast milk. There is a relationship between the nutritional status of the mother and the composition of the mother's milk and, therefore, in the supply of nutrients to the infant, which may condition their health. Despite the great importance of an adequate maternal nutritional state, serum deficiencies in vitamins A, E, C, B2, B1, calcium and zinc are observed in pregnant mothers and breast milk, being important to identify and prevent these imbalances before conception and during pregnancy and lactation.

19.
Early Hum Dev ; 152: 105286, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33276222

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Limited information is available regarding barriers to breastfeeding during the COVID-19 lockdown. STUDY DESIGN: This study was designed as a non-concurrent case-control study on breastfeeding initiation practices, defined according to WHO, in women giving birth during lockdown, between March 8 and May 18, 2020, in the COVID-19 'hotspot' in Northeastern Italy (study group), with an antecedent puerperae-matched group (control group). Exclusive, complementary, and formula feeding practices were collected from maternal charts at hospital discharge, on the second day post-partum, when puerperae filled out the Edinburg Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). RESULTS: The COVID-19 study group presented significantly lower exclusive breastfeeding rates than the control group who members gave birth the previous year (-15%, p = 0.003), as a consequence of the significantly higher prevalence of complementary feeding practices in the former (+20%, p = 0.002). Conversely, the COVID-19 study group showed significantly higher EPDS scores (8.03 ± 4.88 vs. 8.03 ± 4.88, p < 0.005) and higher anhedonia (0.56 ± 0.65 vs. 0.18 ± 0.38, p < 0.001) and depression (0.62 ± 0.60 vs. 0.39 ± 0.44, <0.001) subscale scores. In the general linear model analysis, women practicing exclusive breastfeeding showed significantly lower EPDS scores in comparison with those practicing complementary (p = 0.003) and formula feedings (p = 0.001). Furthermore, the highest EPDS scores were observed in women adopting formula feeding, mainly during the COVID-19 quarantine (p = 0.019). CONCLUSION: This study indicates that hospital containment measures adopted during lockdown in the 'hotspot' COVID-19 epidemic area of Northeastern Italy have a detrimental effect on maternal emotions and on breastfeeding exclusivity practices.


Asunto(s)
Lactancia Materna/psicología , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Adulto , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Depresión Posparto/epidemiología , Conducta Alimentaria , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Madres/psicología , Prevalencia
20.
Anaesthesia ; 76(2): 289, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33095443
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