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1.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 32: e72201, jan. -dez. 2024.
Artículo en Inglés, Español, Portugués | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1554065

RESUMEN

Objetivo: estimar a prevalência de Aleitamento Materno Exclusivo (AME) entre gemelares pré-termos e investigar o efeito de nascer gemelar e pré-termo no AME na alta hospitalar. Método: coorte prospectiva de recém-nascidos em uma instituição localizada no Rio de Janeiro, no período de 13 de março de 2017 a 12 de outubro de 2018. Dados coletados em questionário e prontuário médico. Foi utilizado DAG para construção do modelo conceitual, análise exploratória dos dados e regressão logística múltipla. Resultados: a prevalência de AME na alta hospitalar de gemelares pré-termos foi de 47,8%. Pré-termos apresentaram maior chance de não estarem em AME na alta hospitalar. Não gemelares apresentaram maior chance de não estarem em AME na alta hospitalar. Conclusão: pouco mais da metade dos gemelares pré-termo não estavam em AME na alta hospitalar. Prematuros tiveram maior chance de não estarem em AME. Não gemelares pré-termo apresentaram maior chance de não estarem em AME.


Objective: to estimate the prevalence of Exclusive Breastfeeding (EBF) in preterm twins and to investigate the effect of twin and preterm birth on EBF at hospital discharge. Method: prospective cohort of newborns in an institution located in Rio de Janeiro, from March 13, 2017, to October 12, 2018. Data collected through a questionnaire and medical records. A DAG was used to build the conceptual model, exploratory data analysis and multiple logistic regression. Results: prevalence of EBF at hospital discharge of preterm twins of 47.8%. Preterm infants were more likely to not be on EBF at hospital discharge. Non-twins were more likely to not be on EBF at hospital discharge. Conclusion: just over half of preterm twins were not on EBF at hospital discharge. Preterm infants had a greater chance of not being on EBF. Preterm non-twins were more likely to not be on EBF.


Objetivo: estimar la prevalencia de Lactancia Materna Exclusiva (LME) entre gemelos prematuros y investigar el efecto de nacer gemelo y prematuro en la LME al momento del alta hospitalaria. Método: cohorte prospectiva de recién nacidos en una institución ubicada en Rio de Janeiro, entre 13//marzo/2017 y 12/octubre/2018. Los datos se recolectaron mediante cuestionario y expediente médico. Se utilizó DAG para la construcción del modelo conceptual, análisis exploratorio de los datos y regresión logística múltiple. Resultados: la prevalencia de LME en el alta hospitalaria de gemelos prematuros fue del 47,8%. Los prematuros tuvieron mayor probabilidad de no estar en LME en el alta hospitalaria. Los no gemelares tuvieron mayor probabilidad de no estar en LME en el alta hospitalaria. Conclusión: poco más de la mitad de los gemelos prematuros no estaban en LME en el alta hospitalaria. Los prematuros tuvieron mayor probabilidad de no estar en LME. Los no gemelos prematuros presentaron mayor probabilidad de no estar en LME.

2.
Recurso de Internet en Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-49622

RESUMEN

Ministério da Saúde brasileiro lidera iniciativa de regulamentar a comercialização digital dos produtos, buscando incorporação internacional. Durante a programação da 77ª Assembleia Mundial da Saúde, o Brasil fez uma declaração conjunta em nome de 27 países, defendendo uma resolução para regulamentar a comercialização digital de substitutivos do leite materno e sua incorporação no Código Internacional. “É poderosa a influência da comercialização de substitutivos do leite materno como uma barreira à amamentação. Estamos enfrentando um desafio emergente”, disse o secretário Carlos Gadelha, representante brasileiro no evento da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS).


Asunto(s)
Sustitutos de la Leche Humana , Leche Humana , Comercialización de Productos , Lactancia Materna , Promoción de la Salud , Organización Mundial de la Salud , Brasil
3.
Recurso de Internet en Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-49625

RESUMEN

Em 2023, o Ministério da Saúde registrou a doação de 253 mil litros de leite humano a partir da ação de 198 mil mulheres. Com isso, 225.762 recém-nascidos foram diretamente beneficiados. O número é 8% maior do que o registrado em 2022 e representa 55% da real necessidade por leite humano no Brasil. Com o objetivo de ampliar ainda mais esse quantitativo, a pasta lançou, nesta segunda-feira (6), a campanha ‘Doe leite materno: vida em cada gota recebida’. A meta para 2024 é ampliar mais 5% a oferta de leite materno a recém-nascidos internados nas unidades neonatais do país.


Asunto(s)
Promoción de la Salud , Leche Humana , Bancos de Leche Humana , Lactancia Materna , Nutrición del Lactante , Brasil
4.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 122(3): e202310217, jun. 2024. tab
Artículo en Inglés, Español | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1554942

RESUMEN

Los problemas de salud mental materna durante el embarazo, parto y puerperio son un desafío para la salud pública. Su falta de reconocimiento atenta contra el diagnóstico y tratamientos oportunos, e impacta en la madre y el establecimiento del vínculo fundamental del binomio. Debemos reconocer los factores de riesgo (edad, situación socioeconómica, antecedentes psicopatológicos, disfunción familiar, entorno desfavorable), las manifestaciones clínicas y las herramientas de detección. Existen evidencias de que el efecto del estrés, la ansiedad y la depresión durante el embarazo afectan negativamente el neurodesarrollo fetal y condicionan los resultados del desarrollo infantil. Describimos el impacto negativo de la depresión puerperal durante los primeros meses de vida, que afecta el vínculo madre-hija/o, el desarrollo posnatal (emocional, conductual, cognitivo, lenguaje) y el mantenimiento de la lactancia materna. También reconocemos factores protectores que atemperan sus efectos. Es fundamental establecer estrategias preventivas y abordajes diagnósticos y terapéuticos interdisciplinarios para minimizar los riesgos sobre la madre y sus hijas/os.


Maternal mental health problems during pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period are a challenge for public health. Not recognizing them hinders a timely diagnosis and treatment and has an impact on the mother and the establishment of the fundamental bond of the mother-child dyad. We must recognize the risk factors (age, socioeconomic status, mental health history, family dysfunction, unfavorable environment), clinical manifestations, and screening tools. There is evidence that the effect of stress, anxiety, and depression during pregnancy negatively affect fetal neurodevelopment and condition child developmental outcomes. Here we describe the negative impact of postpartum depression during the first months of life, which affects mother-child bonding, postnatal development (emotional, behavioral, cognitive, language), and the maintenance of breastfeeding. We also recognize protective factors that mitigate its effects. It is essential to establish preventive strategies and interdisciplinary diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to minimize the risks to the mother and her children.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Embarazo , Lactante , Depresión Posparto/diagnóstico , Depresión Posparto/etiología , Cognición , Parto , Mujeres Embarazadas/psicología , Relaciones Madre-Hijo/psicología , Madres/psicología
5.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0303749, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38870174

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Poor attachment, suckling, and positioning contribute to ineffective breastfeeding techniques. Poor weight gain, stunting, and decreased immunity are caused by insufficient breast milk intake owing to ineffective breastfeeding techniques. Numerous primary studies conducted in Ethiopia have revealed negative effects of ineffective breastfeeding techniques. However, inconsistencies have been observed among these studies, and no review has been conducted to report the amalgamated magnitude and associated factors. Therefore, this review aimed to estimate the national prevalence and factors associated with ineffective breastfeeding techniques in Ethiopia. METHODS: Using PRISMA standards, we systematically reviewed and meta-analyzed articles from PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Google Scholar to investigate the prevalence and associated factors of ineffective breastfeeding techniques. Q and I2 tests were used to assess heterogeneity across studies. To evaluate the national prevalence and effect size of the linked covariates, a weighted inverse variance random-effects model was used. Subgroup analysis was performed based on the region, sample size, and year of publication. Funnel plots and Egger's regression tests were used to examine publication bias. A sensitivity analysis was also performed to determine the impact of the studies. RESULTS: The analysis included a total of eleven studies with 4,470 participants used in the analysis. The pooled prevalence of ineffective breastfeeding techniques in Ethiopia was 53.13% (45.49, 60.78) no formal education (AOR = 3.42; 95% CI:1.67-5.18; I2 = 72.2%; P = 0.0132), primipara (AOR = 2.72;95% CI:1.81-3.64; I2 = 46.7%; P = 0.131), postnatal care (PNC) (AOR = 1.84; 95% CI:1.35-2.32; I2 = 0%; P = 0.53), breastfeeding counseling (AOR = 1.93; 95% CI:1.23-2.63; I2 = 0%;P = 0.35), home delivery and having breast problem (AOR = 3.11; 95% CI:1.09-5.16; I2 = 0%;P = 0.877) and (AOR = 2.22; 95% CI:1.28-3.16; I2 = 0%;P = 0.80) respectively were significantly associated with ineffective breastfeeding techniques. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of ineffective breastfeeding techniques in Ethiopia remains high. Policymakers and program officials should focus on empowering women, increasing institutional delivery, and providing counseling on breastfeeding throughout the maternal continuum of care. These measures will improve breastfeeding techniques and lead to better health of both infants and women.


Asunto(s)
Lactancia Materna , Madres , Lactancia Materna/estadística & datos numéricos , Etiopía/epidemiología , Humanos , Femenino , Prevalencia
6.
PLoS One ; 19(6): e0305421, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38870243

RESUMEN

Human milk is optimal for infant nutrition. However, many mothers cease breastfeeding because of low milk supply (LMS). It is difficult to identify mothers at risk for LMS because its biologic underpinnings are not fully understood. Previously, we demonstrated that milk micro-ribonucleic acids (miRNAs) may be related to LMS. Transforming growth factor beta (TGFß) also plays an important role in mammary involution and may contribute to LMS. We performed a longitudinal cohort study of 139 breastfeeding mothers to test the hypothesis that milk levels of TGFß would identify mothers with LMS. We explored whether TGFß impacts the expression of LMS-related miRNAs in cultured human mammary epithelial cells (HMECs). LMS was defined by maternal report of inadequate milk production, and confirmed by age of formula introduction and infant weight trajectory. Levels of TGF-ß1 and TGF-ß2 were measured one month after delivery. There was a significant relationship between levels of TGF-ß1 and LMS (X2 = 8.92, p = 0.003) on logistic regression analysis, while controlling for lactation stage (X2 = 1.28, p = 0.25), maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (X2 = 0.038, p = 0.84), and previous breastfeeding experience (X2 = 7.43, p = 0.006). The model accounted for 16.8% of variance in the data (p = 0.005) and correctly predicted LMS for 84.6% of mothers (22/26; AUC = 0.72). Interactions between TGF-ß1 and miR-22-3p displayed significant effect on LMS status (Z = 2.67, p = 0.008). Further, incubation of HMECs with TGF-ß1 significantly reduced mammary cell number (t = -4.23, p = 0.003) and increased levels of miR-22-3p (t = 3.861, p = 0.008). Interactions between TGF-ß1 and miR-22-3p may impact mammary function and milk levels of TGF-ß1 could have clinical utility for identifying mothers with LMS. Such information could be used to provide early, targeted lactation support.


Asunto(s)
Lactancia Materna , MicroARNs , Leche Humana , Factor de Crecimiento Transformador beta1 , Humanos , Femenino , Leche Humana/metabolismo , Factor de Crecimiento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , MicroARNs/metabolismo , MicroARNs/genética , Adulto , Lactancia , Factor de Crecimiento Transformador beta2/metabolismo , Estudios Longitudinales , Células Epiteliales/metabolismo , Lactante , Madres , Recién Nacido , Glándulas Mamarias Humanas/metabolismo , Glándulas Mamarias Humanas/citología
7.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 62: 144-156, 2024 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38901936

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Human milk (HM) is a complete food that meets the nutritional and energy demands of the newborns. It contains numerous bioactive components, including functional proteins. Variations in HM energy and lipid content have already been reported related to the newborn's sex, but differences between protein profiles are still scarce. This work aimed to identify differences between HM proteins produced by mothers of female and male newborns, in the lactation stages of colostrum and mature milk, and the metabolic pathways involved. METHODS: A total of 98 HM samples were collected from 39 lactating women and classified according to the newborn's sex, stages of lactation, and three mothers' age groups, and evaluated about protein concentration and one-dimensional electrophoretic profile. Next, to assess samples with the greatest differences, the HM proteins regarding the newborn's sex and the stages of lactation were compared using nano-LC-MS/MS, in 24 HM samples randomly rearranged into four groups: female and male infants, and colostrum and mature milk. Functional classification, metabolic pathways, and protein interaction networks were analyzed by Gene Ontology, KEGG, and STRING, respectively. RESULTS: The soluble protein content of HM decreased throughout lactation, with differences regarding isolated factors, such as mothers' age group, child's sex and stages of lactation, and also in terms of their interactions. A total of 146 proteins were identified, 42 of which showed different abundances over the sexes of newborns and 53 between the stages of lactation. In general, proteins related to metabolic processes were up-regulated for mothers of male infants and in the mature stage of lactation, while proteins related to defense were up-regulated in mothers of female infants and in the colostrum phase. CONCLUSION: This study indicated that there are differentiated and specific nutritional and defense needs of newborns, by sex and by lactation phase, which is highly relevant for a more appropriate supply of food to infants receiving HM from donor mothers.


Asunto(s)
Calostro , Lactancia , Proteínas de la Leche , Leche Humana , Humanos , Femenino , Leche Humana/química , Leche Humana/metabolismo , Lactancia/fisiología , Masculino , Recién Nacido , Proteínas de la Leche/análisis , Adulto , Calostro/química , Factores Sexuales , Lactancia Materna , Adulto Joven , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem
8.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 62: 22-27, 2024 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38901945

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Maternal gluten intake in relation to child's risk of type 1 diabetes has been studied in few prospective studies considering the diet during pregnancy but none during lactation. Our aim was to study whether gluten, cereals, or dietary fiber in maternal diet during pregnancy and lactation is associated with the risk of islet autoimmunity or type 1 diabetes in the offspring. METHODS: We included 4943 children with genetic susceptibility to type 1 diabetes from the Finnish Type 1 Diabetes Prediction and Prevention (DIPP) Study, born between 1996 and 2004. Maternal intake of gluten, different types of cereals, and dietary fiber were derived from a semi-quantitative validated food frequency questionnaire covering the eighth month of pregnancy and the third month of lactation. Children were monitored for islet autoantibodies up to age of 15 years and type 1 diabetes until year 2017. Risk of islet autoimmunity and clinical type 1 diabetes were estimated using Cox regression model, adjusted for energy intake, child's sex, HLA genotype, and familial diabetes. RESULTS: Altogether 312 children (6.4%) developed islet autoimmunity at median age of 3.5 (IQR 1.7, 6.6) years and 178 children (3.6%) developed type 1 diabetes at median age of 7.1 (IQR 4.3, 10.6) years. Gluten intake during pregnancy was not associated with islet autoimmunity (HR 0.96; 95% CI 0.68, 1.35), per 1 g/MJ increase in intake nor type 1 diabetes (HR 0.96; 95% CI 0.62, 1.50) in the offspring. Higher barley consumption during lactation was associated with increased risk of type 1 diabetes (HR 3.25; 95% CI 1.21, 8.70) per 1 g/MJ increase in intake. Maternal intake of other cereals or dietary fiber was not associated with the offspring outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: We observed no association between maternal intake of gluten, most consumed cereals, or dietary fiber during pregnancy or lactation and the risk of islet autoimmunity or type 1 diabetes in children from a high-risk population.


Asunto(s)
Autoinmunidad , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1 , Fibras de la Dieta , Grano Comestible , Glútenes , Lactancia , Humanos , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 1/inmunología , Femenino , Embarazo , Glútenes/efectos adversos , Niño , Preescolar , Masculino , Finlandia , Lactante , Factores de Riesgo , Dieta , Adolescente , Fenómenos Fisiologicos Nutricionales Maternos , Estudios Prospectivos , Islotes Pancreáticos/inmunología , Efectos Tardíos de la Exposición Prenatal , Adulto
9.
Int Breastfeed J ; 19(1): 43, 2024 Jun 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38902831

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Many individuals who experience preterm birth struggle with early breast milk supply, which can translate into suboptimal longer-term breastfeeding outcomes. Further investigations into the potential role of early non-pharmacological and pharmacological interventions in improving breast milk production soon after birth is growing. While natural galactagogues, such as brewer's yeast, are widely perceived by women to be safer than pharmaceutical galactagogues and are taken by many women, evidence to support their efficacy is largely absent. The BLOOM study has been designed to determine the efficacy and safety of brewer's yeast and beta-glucans, derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, when administered soon after birth for increasing early breast milk supply in mothers who have delivered preterm. METHODS: The BLOOM study is a multicentre, double-blinded, randomised controlled trial that will assess if brewer's yeast or beta-glucan can increase early breast milk production following preterm birth. Target population are mothers of preterm infants born at less than 34 weeks' gestation who intend to provide breast milk for their infant, are less than 72 h following birth and able to give informed consent. Participants will be randomly allocated into three parallel groups at 1:1:1 ratio (n = 33 per group) to receive either brewer's yeast, beta-glucan or placebo capsules for seven days. The primary outcome is total expressed breast milk volume over a 24-hour period on day 7 of intervention. Participants and their infants will be followed until the infant reaches term corrected age or is discharged home from the neonatal unit (whichever occurs first). DISCUSSION: The use of brewer's yeast as a galactagogue to enhance milk production is extremely common amongst breastfeeding mothers, however, there are no trials evaluating its efficacy and safety. This will be the first randomised controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of two commonly used galactagogues, brewer's yeast and beta-glucan, compared with placebo in improving maternal breast milk supply following preterm birth. The trial will also evaluate whether early intervention with galactagogues soon after a preterm birth improves longer-term breastfeeding outcomes. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian and New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12622000968774 (registered on 8 July 2022) and UTN U1111-1278-8827.


Asunto(s)
Lactancia Materna , Leche Humana , Nacimiento Prematuro , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , beta-Glucanos , Humanos , beta-Glucanos/análisis , Femenino , Leche Humana/química , Recién Nacido , Método Doble Ciego , Nacimiento Prematuro/prevención & control , Recien Nacido Prematuro , Adulto , Embarazo , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Estudios Multicéntricos como Asunto
10.
Nutrients ; 16(11)2024 May 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38892501

RESUMEN

During lactation, heavy metals and trace elements can be mobilised from the maternal body stores and excreted via human milk. A total of 66 mature human milk samples were collected from lactating women in Latvia between 2016 and 2017 to analyse the content of As, Cd, Pb, Al, Sn, and Ni. Additionally, 50 mature human milk samples were collected between 2022 and 2023 to analyse the content of Cd and Pb. The content of heavy metals and trace elements in human milk was determined using ICP-MS. Only two individual human milk samples contained heavy metals above the method's detection limit-one with an arsenic content of 0.009 mg kg-1 and one with a lead content of 0.047 mg kg-1. The preliminary data show that human milk among lactating women in Latvia contains only insignificant amounts of heavy metals and trace elements. Concern over such content should not be a reason to choose formula feeding over breastfeeding. Nevertheless, heavy metals, trace elements and other pollutants in human milk should be continuously monitored.


Asunto(s)
Metales Pesados , Leche Humana , Oligoelementos , Humanos , Leche Humana/química , Metales Pesados/análisis , Letonia , Femenino , Oligoelementos/análisis , Adulto , Lactancia , Arsénico/análisis , Lactancia Materna , Adulto Joven , Contaminantes Ambientales/análisis
11.
Nutrients ; 16(11)2024 May 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38892499

RESUMEN

The Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) is a nutrition assistance program in the U.S. WIC served 2.5 million eligible Hispanic women, infants, and children under the age of five in 2021, which is WIC's largest racial/ethnic group. However, limited research has been conducted to understand Hispanic WIC participants' perceptions of WIC breastfeeding recommendations and their breastfeeding decisions. For this qualitative study, we interviewed 18 of these pregnant and postpartum WIC participants on their experiences and decision-making processes related to breastfeeding. Hispanic cultures and home country norms were identified as prominent influences on breastfeeding decisions, along with perceptions of WIC's breastfeeding support. These results can help the WIC program to refine its breastfeeding education to better meet the needs of Hispanic participants.


Asunto(s)
Lactancia Materna , Asistencia Alimentaria , Hispánicos o Latinos , Investigación Cualitativa , Humanos , Hispánicos o Latinos/psicología , Lactancia Materna/psicología , Lactancia Materna/etnología , Femenino , Adulto , Lactante , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Toma de Decisiones , Estados Unidos , Embarazo , Adulto Joven , Preescolar , Recién Nacido
12.
Nutrients ; 16(11)2024 May 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38892611

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding is the optimal nourishment for infants and it is recommended that children commence breastfeeding within the first hour of birth and be exclusively breastfed for the initial 6 months of life. Our objective was to determine which factors related to mothers could influence the degree of exclusive breastfeeding during hospitalization, as well as to assess breastfeeding mothers' attitudes towards breastfeeding. METHODS: A multicenter cross-sectional study was undertaken in the healthcare area of Santiago de Compostela, Spain. The necessary variables were collected using a specially designed ad hoc questionnaire. The researcher responsible for recruitment conducted the interviews with the participants. The reduced Iowa Infant Feeding Attitude Scale (IIFAS-s) was employed to gauge maternal attitudes toward feeding their baby. RESULTS: In total, 64 women were studied. The overall score of IIFAS-s (mean ± standard deviation) was 36.95 ± 5.17. A positive attitude towards breastfeeding was therefore observed in our sample. No use of a pacifier by the newborn was associated with a positive attitude for breastfeeding. Having previous children (Ora = 6.40; IC95% 1.26-32.51) and previous experience with breastfeeding (Ora = 6.70; IC95% 1.31-34.27) increased the likelihood of exclusive breastfeeding during admission. CONCLUSIONS: In our study, exclusive breastfeeding during hospitalization is associated with having previous children and prior breastfeeding experience.


Asunto(s)
Lactancia Materna , Madres , Humanos , Lactancia Materna/psicología , Lactancia Materna/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudios Transversales , España , Femenino , Adulto , Recién Nacido , Madres/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Lactante , Hospitalización , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Masculino , Adulto Joven , Hospitales , Chupetes/estadística & datos numéricos
13.
Nutrients ; 16(11)2024 May 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38892610

RESUMEN

Milk bioactivity refers to the specific health effects of milk components beyond nutrition. The science of milk bioactivity involves the systematic study of these components and their health effects, as verified by empirical data, controlled experiments, and logical arguments. Conversely, 'faith in milk bioactivity' can be defined as personal opinion, meaning, value, trust, and hope for health effects that are beyond investigation by natural, social, or human sciences. Faith can be strictly secular, but also influenced by spirituality or religion. The aim of this paper is to show that scientific knowledge is frequently supplemented with faith convictions to establish personal and public understanding of milk bioactivity. Mammalian milk is an immensely complex fluid containing myriad proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and micronutrients with multiple functions across species, genetics, ages, environments, and cultures. Human health includes not only physical health, but also social, mental, and spiritual health, requiring widely different fields of science to prove the relevance, safety, and efficacy of milk interventions. These complex relationships between milk feeding and health outcomes prevent firm conclusions based on science and logic alone. Current beliefs in and understanding of the value of breast milk, colostrum, infant formula, or isolated milk proteins (e.g., immunoglobulins, α-lactalbumin, lactoferrin, and growth factors) show that both science and faith contribute to understand, stimulate, or restrict the use of milk bioactivity. The benefits of breastfeeding for infants are beyond doubt, but the strong beliefs in its health effects rely not only on science, and mechanisms are unclear. Likewise, fear of, or trust in, infant formula may rely on both science and faith. Knowledge from science safeguards individuals and society against 'milk bioactivity superstition'. Conversely, wisdom from faith-based convictions may protect science from unrealistic 'milk bioactivity scientism'. Honesty and transparency about the potentials and limitations of both scientific knowledge and faith convictions are important when informing individuals and society about the nutritious and bioactive qualities of milk.


Asunto(s)
Leche Humana , Humanos , Leche Humana/química , Lactante , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales del Lactante , Lactancia Materna , Fórmulas Infantiles/química , Recién Nacido , Femenino , Calostro/química , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Animales , Proteínas de la Leche , Religión
14.
Nutrients ; 16(11)2024 May 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38892618

RESUMEN

It is crucial to provide adequate iodine nutrition to infants and toddlers for proper thyroid function and subsequent brain development. Infants are particularly vulnerable to iodine deficiency during the transition from a milk-based diet (breast milk and/or infant formula) to solid food. This study examines the current iodine levels of children during their first two years of life and investigates the association between these levels and feeding behaviors and the iodine status of their mothers in Shanghai, a city located in eastern China. A hospital-based cohort study was conducted to enroll mother-child pairs, where the child is aged 6-23 months, who visited community health service centers in the 16 districts of Shanghai, China. Data on socio-demographic factors and feeding behavior data were collected from the participants. The urinary iodine concentration (UIC) in both the young children and their mothers were analyzed. A total of 2282 mother-child pairs were included in this analysis. The median (p25-p75) UIC for lactating women, weaning women, and children were 121.3 µg/L (68.1-206.4 µg/L), 123.4 µg/L (58.4-227.2 µg/L), and 152.1 µg/L (75.8-268.3 µg/L), respectively. The UIC in children was found to be higher than that in their mothers (p < 0.001). Children who consumed less than 500 mL per day of formula milk in the last week had lower UICs compared with those who consumed 500 mL per day or more (p = 0.026). Furthermore, the children's UIC was positively correlated with the maternal UIC (rs = 0.285, p < 0.001). Multiple quantile regression analysis revealed a statistically significant positive association between maternal UIC and children's UIC between the 0.1 and 0.9 quantiles (all p < 0.001). We found that the iodine status of infants and toddlers, as well as of mothers, was sufficient. However, a large minority of children and mothers may be at risk of iodine deficiency. Furthermore, no associations between children's UIC and feeding behaviors were observed. Moreover, there was a positive correlation between the UIC of young children and their mothers.


Asunto(s)
Conducta Alimentaria , Yodo , Estado Nutricional , Humanos , Yodo/deficiencia , Yodo/orina , Yodo/administración & dosificación , Lactante , Femenino , China/epidemiología , Masculino , Madres , Adulto , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales del Lactante , Análisis de Regresión , Estudios de Cohortes , Lactancia Materna/estadística & datos numéricos
15.
Nutrients ; 16(11)2024 May 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38892622

RESUMEN

Breast milk (BM) plays a crucial role in providing essential fatty acids (FA) and energy for the growing infant. When the mother's own BM is not available, nutritional recommendations suggest donor milk (DM) in clinical and home practices. BM was collected from a variety of donor mothers in different lactation stages. Holder pasteurization (HoP) eliminates potential contaminants to ensure safety. FA content of BM samples from the Breast Milk Collection Center of Pécs, Hungary, were analyzed before and after HoP. HoP decreases the level of C6:0, C8:0, C14:1n-5c, C18:1n-9c, C18:3n-6c, C18:3n-3c, and C20:4n-6c in BM, while C14:0, C16:0, C18:1n-9t, C22:0, C22:1n-9c, C24:0, C24:1n-9c, and C22:6n-3c were found in elevated concentration after HoP. We did not detect time-dependent concentration changes in FAs in the first year of lactation. BM produced for girl infants contains higher C20:2n-6c levels. In the BM of mothers who delivered via cesarean section, C12:0, C15:0, C16:0, C17:0, C18:0, C18:1n-9t, C22:1n-9c levels were higher, while C18:2n-6c, C22:0, C24:0, and C22:6n-3c concentrations were lower compared to mothers who gave birth spontaneously. FAs in BM are constant during the first year of lactation. Although HoP modifies the concentration of different FAs, pasteurized DM provides essential FAs to the developing infant. Current data providing information about the FA profile of BM gives origination to supplementation guidelines.


Asunto(s)
Ácidos Grasos , Leche Humana , Pasteurización , Humanos , Leche Humana/química , Femenino , Pasteurización/métodos , Ácidos Grasos/análisis , Masculino , Lactante , Adulto , Recién Nacido , Factores Sexuales , Embarazo , Lactancia , Parto Obstétrico/métodos , Hungría , Bancos de Leche Humana
16.
Nutrients ; 16(11)2024 May 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38892644

RESUMEN

This scoping review aims to investigate longitudinal changes in minerals and vitamins concentrations in human milk among the Chinese population. Following the PRISMA-ScR guidelines, a comprehensive and systematic literature search was conducted using both English and Chinese databases. Data were extracted and categorized into six defined lactation stages. We found that the concentration of most minerals decreased throughout the lactation period, although calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) fluctuated slightly across lactation periods. Fat-soluble vitamins also showed a decline throughout the lactation period, while water-soluble vitamins exhibited an increasing trend. However, folic acid, biotin, and pantothenic acid demonstrated a downward trend. Overall, this review has identified the longitudinal changes in minerals and vitamins concentrations in human milk among the Chinese population. In order to conduct a more in-depth examination of maternal characteristics and nutritional factors of the composition of human milk, it is recommended to utilize standardized protocols for the collection and analysis of human milk samples.


Asunto(s)
Lactancia , Leche Humana , Minerales , Vitaminas , Humanos , Leche Humana/química , Femenino , Minerales/análisis , Vitaminas/análisis , China , Estudios Longitudinales , Pueblo Asiatico , Adulto , Pueblos del Este de Asia
17.
Nutrients ; 16(11)2024 Jun 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38892676

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Breastfeeding could improve a child's health early on, but its long-term effects on childhood behavioral and emotional development remain inconclusive. We aimed to estimate the associations of feeding practice with childhood behavioral and emotional development. METHODS: In this population-based birth cohort study, data on feeding patterns for the first 6 mo of life, the duration of breastfeeding, and children's emotional and behavioral outcomes were prospectively collected from 2489 mother-child dyads. Feeding patterns for the first 6 mo included exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) and non-exclusive breastfeeding (non-EBF, including mixed feeding or formula feeding), and the duration of breastfeeding (EBF or mixed feeding) was categorized into ≤6 mo, 7-12 mo, 13-18 mo, and >18 mo. Externalizing problems and internalizing problems were assessed with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) and operationalized according to recommended clinical cutoffs, corresponding to T scores ≥64. Multivariable linear regression and logistic regression were used to evaluate the association of feeding practice with CBCL outcomes. RESULTS: The median (interquartile range) age of children at the outcome measurement was 32.0 (17.0) mo. Compared with non-EBF for the first 6 mo, EBF was associated with a lower T score of internalizing problems [adjusted mean difference (aMD): -1.31; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): -2.53, -0.10], and it was marginally associated with T scores of externalizing problems (aMD: -0.88; 95% CI: -1.92, 0.15). When dichotomized, EBF versus non-EBF was associated with a lower risk of externalizing problems (aOR: 0.54, 95% CI: 0.34, 0.87), and it was marginally associated with internalizing problems (aOR: 0.75, 95% CI: 0.54, 1.06). Regarding the duration of breastfeeding, breastfeeding for 13-18 mo versus ≤6 mo was associated with lower T scores of internalizing problems (aMD: -2.50; 95% CI: -4.43, -0.56) and externalizing problems (aMD: -2.75; 95% CI: -4.40, -1.10), and breastfeeding for >18 mo versus ≤6 mo was associated with lower T scores of externalizing problems (aMD: -1.88; 95% CI: -3.68, -0.08). When dichotomized, breastfeeding for periods of 7-12 mo, 13-18 mo, and >18 mo was associated with lower risks of externalizing problems [aOR (95% CI): 0.96 (0.92, 0.99), 0.94 (0.91, 0.98), 0.96 (0.92, 0.99), respectively]. CONCLUSIONS: Exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 mo and a longer duration of breastfeeding, exclusively or partially, are beneficial for childhood behavioral and emotional development.


Asunto(s)
Lactancia Materna , Conducta Infantil , Desarrollo Infantil , Emociones , Humanos , Lactancia Materna/psicología , Femenino , China/epidemiología , Estudios Prospectivos , Masculino , Lactante , Preescolar , Conducta Infantil/psicología , Recién Nacido , Adulto , Cohorte de Nacimiento
18.
Nutrients ; 16(11)2024 Jun 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38892716

RESUMEN

Maternal breast milk plays a key role in providing newborns with passive immunity and stimulating the maturation of an infant's immune system, protecting them from many diseases. It is known that diet can influence the immune system of lactating mothers and the composition of their breast milk. The aim of this study was to establish if a supplementation during the gestation and lactation of Lewis rats with extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), due to the high proportion of antioxidant components in its composition, has an impact on the mother's immune system and on the breast milk's immune composition. For this, 10 mL/kg of either EVOO, refined oil (control oil) or water (REF group) were orally administered once a day to rats during gestation and lactation periods. Immunoglobulin (Ig) concentrations and gene expressions of immune molecules were quantified in several compartments of the mothers. The EVOO group showed higher IgA levels in both the breast milk and the mammary glands than the REF group. In addition, the gene expression of IgA in mammary glands was also boosted by EVOO consumption. Overall, EVOO supplementation during gestation and lactation is safe and does not negatively affect the mother's immune system while improving breast milk immune composition by increasing the presence of IgA, which could be critical for an offspring's immune health.


Asunto(s)
Lactancia , Aceite de Oliva , Ratas Endogámicas Lew , Animales , Femenino , Embarazo , Ratas , Fenómenos Fisiologicos Nutricionales Maternos , Inmunoglobulina A/metabolismo , Inmunoglobulina A/análisis , Sistema Inmunológico/efectos de los fármacos , Suplementos Dietéticos , Glándulas Mamarias Animales/inmunología , Glándulas Mamarias Animales/metabolismo , Leche/química , Leche/inmunología , Leche Humana/química , Leche Humana/inmunología
19.
Int Breastfeed J ; 19(1): 42, 2024 Jun 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38890634

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Early initiation of breastfeeding is the initiation of breastfeeding within one hour of birth, which plays a significant role in a born baby's growth and survival, however its prevalence and predictors among urban full-time readymade garments (RMG) working mothers are not investigated. The purpose of this study is to determine the prevalence and factors affecting early initiation of breastfeeding among urban RMG working mothers. METHODS: A sequential explanatory mixed-methods study was conducted between March 2023 and December 2023 in Dhaka, Bangladesh. A total of 452 full-time female RMG workers were included for the quantitative study. Qualitative study was carried out among 30 full-time female RMG workers, four female physicians who were employed in the RMGs, four RMG factory managers, and four local pediatricians. RESULTS: The prevalence of early initiation of breastfeeding was 40% among the women. It was significantly associated with various factors, including socio-cultural barriers, the advanced age of the mother (AOR 3.93, 95%CI 1.18, 13.04), lack of education (AOR 6.86, 95%CI 1.11, 42.49), lack of awareness, and cultural practices such as initiating goat milk and honey instead of breast milk. The absence of colostrum feeding (AOR 8.96, 95%CI 4.30, 18.70) and pre-lacteal feeding (AOR 0.06, 95%CI 0.03, 0.11) were significant baby feeding practice-related barriers to early initiation of breastfeeding. Maternal health factors, notably post-delivery sickness, cesarean delivery, and lack of breastmilk production, were revealed as a significant hindrance to the early initiation of breastfeeding explored from qualitative analysis. In addition, RMG factory-related factors that significantly affect early initiation of breastfeeding include a strong focus on production, a busy schedule, and a lack of initiative regarding the early initiation of breastfeeding. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of early initiation of breastfeeding among RMG working women is poor. This study emphasizes the need for interventions that address specific challenges of early initiation of breastfeeding faced by working mothers in RMG sectors, including improved lactation education, increased awareness to mitigate cultural barriers, RMG factory-based initiatives to empower female workers early initiation of breastfeeding, and preparing early initiation of breastfeeding -friendly post-cesarean unit at the health care facility.


Asunto(s)
Lactancia Materna , Madres , Población Urbana , Humanos , Lactancia Materna/estadística & datos numéricos , Lactancia Materna/psicología , Bangladesh/epidemiología , Femenino , Adulto , Madres/psicología , Madres/estadística & datos numéricos , Prevalencia , Población Urbana/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto Joven , Mujeres Trabajadoras/psicología , Vestuario , Recién Nacido , Pobreza
20.
Salud Colect ; 20: e4776, 2024 Apr 23.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38896420

RESUMEN

Although evidence of the benefits of breastfeeding is widespread, there are several challenges to initiate and sustain it. Infant formula companies use marketing strategies that violate existing regulations, contributing to its early abandonment. We explore the digital marketing exposure of infant formulas in Argentina by analyzing people's interactions with brands and the traces of these interactions in conversations engaged in Facebook groups during 2022, from a qualitative approach based on digital ethnography. Results show that companies deploy regulatory avoidance tactics and seek contact with mothers. Users do not interact with the accounts but are exposed to their strategies given the correlation between product attributes present in advertising with their motivations and aspirations. The mediators between marketing and mothers are medical professionals, used as marketing resources. We conclude that authorities should promote new agreements on the practices of medical professionals and develop regulations taking into account digital environments.


Si bien es extendida la evidencia de los beneficios de la lactancia materna, diversos son los desafíos para iniciarla y sostenerla. Las empresas productoras de fórmulas infantiles utilizan estrategias de marketing violatorias de las regulaciones existentes, contribuyendo a su temprano abandono. Exploramos la exposición al marketing digital de las fórmulas infantiles en Argentina mediante el análisis de las interacciones de la población con las marcas y las huellas de dichas interacciones en conversaciones entabladas en grupos de Facebook durante 2022, desde un enfoque cualitativo basado en la etnografía digital. Los resultados muestran que las empresas despliegan tácticas elusivas de las regulaciones y buscan el contacto con las madres. Las usuarias no interactúan con las cuentas, pero están expuestas a sus estrategias dado el correlato entre los atributos del producto presentes en la publicidad con sus motivaciones y aspiraciones. Los mediadores entre el marketing y las madres son los profesionales médicos, utilizados como recursos del marketing. Concluimos que las autoridades deben promover nuevos acuerdos sobre las prácticas de los profesionales médicos y desarrollar regulaciones teniendo en cuenta los entornos digitales.


Asunto(s)
Antropología Cultural , Fórmulas Infantiles , Mercadotecnía , Argentina , Humanos , Mercadotecnía/métodos , Lactante , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Femenino , Madres/psicología , Tecnología Digital , Investigación Cualitativa , Publicidad/métodos , Lactancia Materna/psicología , Recién Nacido
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