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1.
Rev Environ Contam Toxicol ; 252: 97-129, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31346776

RESUMEN

Human milk may sometimes contain chemical contaminants, which could have adverse effects on neonates or nursing infants. Lead (Pb) is of considerable interest due to its toxicity and occurrence. Furthermore, it has been suggested that human milk is a significant potential source of lead exposure to nursing infants. A systematic literature search in PubMed, Science Direct, and Google Scholar databases was performed to identify relevant studies, published in English until 2017, that investigated and explored common factors affecting the level of lead in human milk among lactating women around the world. Forty-nine papers were rated and explored the effect of one or several factors on the level of lead in human milk from 28 countries and carried out over a wide time frame from 1983 to 2017 and through Europe, Asia, America, and Africa, reviewing more than 5,000 subjects. Place of residence, maternal age, stage of lactation, smoking habits, maternal dietary intakes, and parity were the mostly assessed factors among the studies and considered as the main factors affecting Pb levels in BM. Other factors were not studied well enough and considered minor because few surveys evaluated their impacts. However, the literature findings are very controversial.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes Ambientales/metabolismo , Lactancia , Plomo/metabolismo , Leche Humana/metabolismo , Femenino , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Embarazo
2.
; IBFAN.
Recurso de Internet en Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-46900

RESUMEN

Durante o XV Encontro Nacional de Aleitamento Materno (ENAM), especialistas alertam da importância de combater a obesidade infantil e adulta através da amamentação exclusiva até os seis meses. Um estudo realizado pela Organização Mundial da Saúde revelou que crianças alimentadas exclusivamente com leite materno no primeiro semestre de vida tinham risco 25% menor de obesidade. Além disso, o estudo cita uma pesquisa que revela que cada mês adicional de amamentação estava associado a uma redução de 4% na prevalência de sobrepeso.


Asunto(s)
Lactancia Materna , Sobrepeso , Obesidad Pediátrica , Obesidad/prevención & control , Salud del Niño , Promoción de la Salud
3.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud; 5 ed; 20191100. 32 p. ilus.
Monografía en Español | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-1026279

RESUMEN

El presente manual consta de tres disposiciones legales y/o reglamentos referentes a: 1. La alimentación de la niña y niño de cero (0) a veinticuatro (24) meses de edad, con énfasis en la promoción, protección y apoyo a la lactancia materna., 2. La responsabilidad del sistema de atención de salud, farmacias y otros puntos de venta, fabricantes y personal de comercialización de los productos a que se refiere el presente reglamento., y 3. Los procedimientos de comercialización de los sucedáneos de la leche materna para lactantes, niñas y niños hasta los veinticuatro (24) meses de edad


Asunto(s)
Programas y Políticas de Nutrición y Alimentación , Lactancia Materna , Agentes Comunitarios de Salud , Sustitutos de la Leche Humana , Nutrición del Lactante , Promoción de la Salud , Fenómenos Fisiológicos Nutricionales del Lactante
4.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud; 1 ed., 4 reimp; 20191100. 35 p. ilus.
Monografía en Español | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-1026346

RESUMEN

La presente publicación describe las pautas y disposiciones técnico normativas para que el personal de salud fomente la implementación de los grupos de apoyo comunal que promuevan y protejan la lactancia materna exitosa. Asimismo, las acciones necesarias para apoyar la lactancia materna en establecimientos de salud que brinden atención materno infantil


Asunto(s)
Lactancia Materna , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Salud Materno-Infantil , Personal de Salud , Agentes Comunitarios de Salud , Participación de la Comunidad , Prioridades en Salud , Promoción de la Salud
5.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud; 3 ed; 20191100. 52 p. ilus.
Monografía en Español | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-1026361

RESUMEN

La presente publicación describe los criterios conceptuales, metodológicos e instrumentales para desarrollar la consejería en lactancia materna que apoye y facilite el ejercicio del derecho de las madres a amamantar a sus niñas y niños hasta los dos años o más, con la finalidad de contribuir con la reducción de la morbi-mortalidad infantil, el desarrollo integral de la niña, el niño y la madre, y la mejora de su calidad de vida


Asunto(s)
Conducta en la Lactancia , Lactancia Materna , Sustitutos de la Leche Humana , Nutrición Materna , Promoción de la Salud
6.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud; 2 ed; 20191100. 50 p. ilus.
Monografía en Español | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: biblio-1026367

RESUMEN

La presente publicación describe las pautas y disposiciones técnico normativas para que el personal de salud fomente la implementación de los grupos de apoyo comunal que promuevan y protejan la lactancia materna. La estructura del rotafolio está compuesta de secciones: a. Lactancia materna y embarazo; b. Lactancia materna en el parto y puerperio; c. Lactancia materna en la atención infantil. Cada sección, su uso será de acuerdo a las necesidades de la familia


Asunto(s)
Lactancia Materna , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Salud Materno-Infantil , Personal de Salud , Participación de la Comunidad , Promoción de la Salud
7.
Cad Saude Publica ; 35(11): e00005419, 2019.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721899

RESUMEN

HTLV is a virus that affects human T-cells. Brazil is the country of the world with the largest absolute number of HTLV cases. Estimates by the Ministry of Health point to 700,000 to 2 million infected Brazilians. The majority are asymptomatic carriers, but some persons may develop degenerative neurological conditions such as tropical spastic paraparesis, in addition to leukemia and lymphoma. The forms of transmission and clinical manifestations such as progressive motor incapacity, genitourinary disorders, in addition to restriction of maternal breastfeeding, impact daily life and can lead to social discrimination and stigma. The stigma denotes violation of social norms and reinforces prejudice and inequalities. This article aims to discuss the concept of stigma and its repercussions on persons living with HTLV. The discussion is based on a literature review on the theme and the authors' experience with care for persons affected by the infection and illness. The study found that both HTLV carrier status and HTLV-related illness can be stigmatizing for individuals, who feel inferior for being infected with a potentially serious and even fatal disease, although incompletely understood and loaded with derogatory stereotypes. This situation can have negative repercussions on access to health services, treatment adherence, and pursuit of rights. Public policies should help mitigate such stigmatization, ensuring the rights of individuals in a situation of vulnerability due to HTLV in order from them to live as protagonists in the exercise of their civil rights.

8.
Rev Esp Salud Publica ; 932019 Nov 06.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31690715

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Protection, promotion and support to the breastfeeding is considered as an area of priority in public health care and as a determining factor of child and maternal health. The use of good practice guides improves health outcomes and patients safety. The aim of study was to assess the impact on breastfeeding of a Guide of Good Clinic Practices about breastfeeding in the Mother and Child Center of the Virgen de las Nieves University Hospital in Granada. METHODS: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Mothers and newborns attended from 2015 to 2018 were studied. Process and outcome variables were considered to perform a descriptive and bivariate analysis for the comparison between years. RESULTS: The rate of exclusive breastfeeding at discharge went from 58.3% to 72.2%. Significant differences were found for the first intake of exclusive breastfeeding in eutocic births and in C-sections, from 90.8% to 93.2% in the first and from 21.7% to 60% in the second. Improvements were detected in the assessment of intake, postnatal education and onset and duration of skin-to-skin contact. CONCLUSIONS: Postnatal protocolized actions carried out by health professionals, such as the assessment of the intake of breastfeeding and postnatal education, were effective for the establishment of breastfeeding. The first moment of skin-to-skin contact and its duration are aspects to be reinforced for effective support.

9.
11.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 53(11): 1170-1173, 2019 Nov 06.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31683408

RESUMEN

From August 1(st) to 7(th), 2017, the breastfeeding knowledge of medical staff were collected from 52 medical health institutions in 29 provinces through a network system. A total of 35 243 questionnaires were included in the study to analyze the current status of breastfeeding knowledge and related factors. The qualified rate of breastfeeding knowledge questionnaires for medical staff in this study was 75.3% (26 546/35 243). Compared with those in the eastern region and those who were mothers, the qualified rate of breastfeeding knowledge of medical staff in the central region or the western region and medical staff who were fathers or expectant parents was lower, with OR (95%CI) values about 0.71 (0.67-0.75), 0.66 (0.61-0.72), 0.63 (0.55-0.72) and 0.87 (0.80-0.95), respectively. Compared with those attaining high school education or below and those with children aged<1 month, the qualified rate of breastfeeding knowledge was higher in medical staff with bachelor's degree, graduate degree or above, and with children aged 1-5, 6-23 and ≥24 months, with OR (95%CI) values about 1.92 (1.80-2.05), 2.16 (1.94-2.42), 2.28 (1.93-2.70), 2.41 (2.06-2.83) and 1.99 (1.72-2.32), respectively.


Asunto(s)
Lactancia Materna , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Cuerpo Médico/psicología , Madres/psicología , Adulto , China , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores Socioeconómicos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
12.
Bol Med Hosp Infant Mex ; 76(6): 265-272, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31769439

RESUMEN

Background: The foundations for the growth and optimal development of every human being are laid in the first 2 years of life. Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) up to 6 months of age and the introduction of complementary feeding (CF) from this age are considered the preventive interventions with the most significant impact on a child's life. The objective of this study was to determine if pediatricians base their recommendations by following the Guidelines for CF in Healthy Infants (GCFHI) and if mothers have any awareness and knowledge of these recommendations. Methods: Surveys based on the GCFHI were conducted in a group of mothers (n = 377) and pediatricians (n = 104) living in Mexico. Results: Not all pediatricians recommended the EBF, and 76% recommended infant formula before 6 months of age. Regarding mothers, 76.9% practiced the EBF for the first 6 months. Vegetables were the leading starting food of CF suggested by pediatricians and mothers (87% and 91%, respectively), contrasting with food sources of iron (44%), which are the foods of choice according to the GCFHI. The practices performed by the mothers were statistically different from the recommendations of the pediatricians. Conclusions: The results reflect a lack of updating regarding CF. It is imperative to reinforce efforts to maintain the EBF for 6 months and to continue it together with the CF, as well as to promote the beginning of CF based on macro- and micro-nutrients.

13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(44): e17737, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31689820

RESUMEN

The World Health Organization and United Nations Children's Fund's Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative is aimed at the global promotion, protection and support of breastfeeding. In this study, we compared breastfeeding-related information received, knowledge and behaviours among postpartum women in Baby-Friendly Hospital Initiative accredited and non-accredited hospitals. We selected 10 hospitals: 9 non-accredited hospitals in the Campania region in southern Italy and one accredited hospital in the Piedmont region in northern Italy. In total, 786 women (580 (73.8%) in Campania and 206 (26.2%) in Piedmont) in the hospitals' maternity wards completed a questionnaire comprising 5 sections within 24 to 72hours after giving birth. The questionnaire investigated breastfeeding activities in the days immediately following childbirth, as well as the information provided by health personnel, knowledge about breastfeeding before and during hospitalisation, and participation in antenatal classes. To evaluate the comparison between the 2 regions, we performed at first a bivariate analysis and then a multinomial and a multivariate logistic regression. Compared with Piedmont, in Campania hospitals there was a rate of breastfeeding of 44.3% vs 89.3%, a skin-to-skin contact between mother and child of 74.5% vs 90.7% and first milk feed within 2hours of 15.0% vs 87.2%. The Campania group had fewer problems with child latching. The Campania group reported receiving less information about breastfeeding in general compared with the Piedmont group. In general, both groups showed good basic knowledge about different aspects of breastfeeding. In both regions, about 90% reported that the information received during the antenatal classes simplified the breastfeeding experience. Our study confirms the importance of systematic promotion of breastfeeding and subsequent delivery of adequate support to maternity departments, in accordance with international guidelines.


Asunto(s)
Lactancia Materna/estadística & datos numéricos , Adhesión a Directriz/estadística & datos numéricos , Promoción de la Salud/normas , Madres/estadística & datos numéricos , Servicio de Ginecología y Obstetricia en Hospital/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Lactancia Materna/psicología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Italia , Modelos Logísticos , Madres/psicología , Análisis Multivariante , Servicio de Ginecología y Obstetricia en Hospital/normas , Embarazo , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Naciones Unidas , Organización Mundial de la Salud
14.
Lupus ; 28(14): 1737-1738, 2019 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718450
15.
Rev. Pesqui. (Univ. Fed. Estado Rio J., Online) ; 11(5): 1278-1285, out.-dez. 2019. ilus, graf
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1022714

RESUMEN

Objective: The study's purpose has been to analyze the factors that influence the breastfeeding process of children followed-up in a referral ambulatory according to the woman-mother's viewpoint. Methods: It is a descriptive study with a qualitative approach, which was approved by the Research Ethics Committee under the Legal Opinion No. 1370267. This research was carried out in a University Hospital from the Rio de Janeiro State, having as participants 30 women whose children had up to 24 months of life and were breastfed. Data collection took place from March to April 2016, through form-guided semi-structured interviews. Results: According to the women-mothers' viewpoint, the following was perceived as positive factors: affective bond and breastfeeding knowledge; and as negative factors: having issues to breastfeed, socio-affective problems and pathology of the child. Conclusions: Therefore, it was verified that all women-mothers have received orientation at some point, furthermore, regarding those who reported negative factors, not all of them have interrupted the breastfeeding process, and some even have overcome difficulties and kept breastfeeding their children


Objetivo: Analisar os fatores que influenciaram o processo de aleitamento materno de crianças acompanhadas em ambulatório de referência na visão da mulher-mãe. Método: Estudo descritivo com abordagem qualitativa, aprovada pelo Comitê de Ética em Pesquisa, parecer nº 1370267. Realizado em um Hospital Universitário do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, com 30 mulheres mães de crianças que vivenciaram o processo de amamentação, cujos filhos tinham até 24 meses. Os dados foram coletados de março a abril de 2016, por entrevista semiestruturada guiada por formulário. Resultados: Nos relatos das mulheres-mães apreendeu-se como fatores positivos: vínculo afetivo e conhecimentos sobre amamentação, e como negativos: problemas com a amamentação, problemas socioafetivos e patologia da criança. Conclusões: Foi constatado que todas as mulheres-mães foram orientadas em algum momento, e as que relataram fatores negativos, nem todas interromperam o processo de aleitamento, algumas superaram as dificuldades e deram continuidade


Objetivo: Analizar los factores que influenciaron el proceso de lactancia materna de niños acompañados en ambulatorio de referencia en la visión de la mujer madre. Método: Estudio descriptivo con abordaje cualitativo, aprobada por el Comité de Ética en Investigación, opinión nº 1370267. Realizado en un Hospital Universitario del Estado de Río de Janeiro, con 30 mujeres madres de niños que vivenciaron el proceso de lactancia, cuyos hijos tenían hasta 24 meses. Los datos fueron recolectados de marzo a abril de 2016, por entrevista semiestructurada guiada por formulario. Resultados: En los relatos de las mujeres madres se aprehendió como factores positivos: vínculo afectivo y conocimientos sobre lactancia, y como negativos: problemas con la lactancia, problemas socio-patológicos y patología del niño. Conclusión: Se constató que todas las mujeres madres fueron orientadas en algún momento, y las que relataron factores negativos, no todas interrumpieron el proceso de lactancia, algunas superaron las dificultades y dieron continuidad


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Recién Nacido , Lactante , Lactancia Materna , Salud del Niño , Relaciones Madre-Hijo , Enfermería Pediátrica
16.
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban ; 50(4): 609-614, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642244

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of individualized intervention on postpartum breast-feeding behavior and satisfaction after cesarean section (CS). METHODS: 341 pregnant women who had cesarean section in West China Second Hospital of Sichuan University from 1st July to 30th August in 2018 were randomly divided into intervention group (171 cases) and control group (170 cases). The participants in experimental group received individualized intervention through the combination of prenatal and postnatal. The participants in control group received routine nursing care. The basic clinical data and breastfeeding information at discharge and day 42 postpartum were compared between the two groups. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in age, ethnicity, anesthesia type, preoperative feeding time between the two groups (P>0.05). At the time of discharge and day 42 postpartum, the rate of exclusive breastfeeding, breastfeeding satisfaction and planned breastfeeding duration in the intervention group were higher than those in the control group (P < 0.05). The incidence and degree of breast distending pain, the incidence of cracked nipples, the times of adding formula milk in 24 h, the rate of using feeding bottle and the incidence of feeding problems were all higher in the control group than those in the intervention group (P < 0.05). The knowledge scores of breastfeeding in both groups were higher at discharge than at admission, and the score was higher in the intervention group than that in the control group at the time of discharge. CONCLUSION: The combination of prenatal and postnatal individualized intervention can significantly improve the knowledge, behavior and satisfaction of breastfeeding.


Asunto(s)
Lactancia Materna , Cesárea , Atención Posnatal , Atención Prenatal , China , Femenino , Humanos , Satisfacción del Paciente , Periodo Posparto , Embarazo
17.
Rev Colomb Obstet Ginecol ; 70(2): 83-93, 2019 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31613073

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To understand the social representations regarding breastfeeding among women in ru- ral and urban settings in Jalisco (Mexico), between 2016 and 2017. METHODS: Qualitative phenomenological study. Women living in rural and urban communities in the XIIth Health Jurisdiction, Tlaquepaque Center, Jalisco (Mexico), identified through key informants, were interviewed in focus groups, audio-recorded and semiotically analyzed until the technical saturation was reached in the following categories: meaning, meaning-generating players, and wishes pertaining to breastfeeding. RESULTS: Six focus groups of 14 women living in rural areas, aged 29.4 ± 7.8 years, and 9 women living in urban areas, aged 27.3 ± 7.1 years. Qualitatively, meanings were identified in the two set- tings and were categorized as myths, breastfeeding techniques, and infant growth and development. The following meaning-generating players were found: healthcare and hospital staff, social network, family, God, and community. In terms of wishes, women described the benefits of breastfeeding for themselves and their infants. CONCLUSIONS: There are differences and similarities in social representations regarding breastfeeding depending on the geographic context where they are developed; the elements and players that make them up determine the initiation, maintenance or termination of breastfeeding, and must be considered as part of health promotion and education targeted to women and their environment.

18.
Cad Saude Publica ; 35(10): e00111218, 2019.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618382

RESUMEN

PRENACEL is a study that incorporates two innovative approaches to maternal and perinatal health: the need to improve women's level of satisfaction with the birthing experience and an assessment of the impacts of information and communication technologies in health. The approaches involve a communication program via short cellphone text messages, developed for Brazilian pregnant women in prenatal care in the Brazilian Unified National Health System. The analysis aims to determine whether the program contributes positively to women's perceived preparedness for childbirth. A randomized cluster trial was performed in 20 primary care units in Ribeirão Preto, São Paulo State, in 2015 and 2016. Data were collected for 1,210 women from interviews and patient charts. The data were submitted to two analytical models, per protocol and intention-to-treat. Women that had received information from the PRENACEL program during pregnancy were more likely to feel prepared for labor and delivery and to feel that prenatal care had helped them feel more prepared. There were also positive impacts on bonding with the newborn and breastfeeding in the delivery room and on knowledge of obstetric interventions. No differences were seen in the other maternal and perinatal outcomes, including women's satisfaction with the birthing care. PRENACEL can help expand women's access to strategic information for them to feel better prepared for the birthing experience.

20.
Rev Gaucha Enferm ; 40: e20180406, 2019.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596342

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding premature infants at hospital discharge, and after 15 and 30 days, and to identify the mothers' claims for discontinuation. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with 108 premature infants born in two Baby-Friendly Hospitals between April and July 2014. A survey was conducted on medical records and through telephone interviews. A descriptive analysis, Pearson's chi-square test, and Fisher's exact test were used, with a 95% confidence interval. RESULTS: The prevalence of exclusive breastfeeding at discharge was 85.2%, 75% after 15 days, and 46.3% after 30 days. The main claim for the introduction of other foods and/or liquids was insufficient milk. CONCLUSIONS: There was a significant reduction in the rates of exclusive breastfeeding after discharge, pointing out the importance of continuity of patient care to reduce early weaning, especially with educational actions that help prevent real and perceived deficits in milk supply.

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