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1.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(7): e17274, 2020 Jul 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32735231

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Knowledge translation (KT) aims to facilitate the use of research evidence in decision making. Changes in technology have provided considerable opportunities for KT strategies to improve access and use of evidence in decision making by public health policy makers and practitioners. Despite this opportunity, there have been no reviews that have assessed the effects of digital technology-enabled KT (TEKT) in the field of public health. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to examine the effectiveness of digital TEKT strategies in (1) improving the capacity for evidence-based decision making by public health policy makers and practitioners, (2) changing public health policy or practice, and (3) changes in individual or population health outcomes. METHODS: A search strategy was developed to identify randomized trials assessing the effectiveness of digital TEKT strategies in public health. Any primary research study with a randomized trial design was eligible. Searches for eligible studies were undertaken in multiple electronic bibliographic databases (Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online [MEDLINE], Excerpta Medica dataBASE [EMBASE], PsycINFO, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature [CINAHL], and Scopus) and the reference lists of included studies. A hand search of 2 journals (Implementation Science and Journal of Medical Internet Research) and a gray literature search were also conducted. Pairs of independent review authors screened studies, assessed the risk of bias, and extracted data from relevant studies. RESULTS: Of the 6819 citations screened, 8 eligible randomized trials were included in the review. The studies examined the impact of digital TEKT strategies on health professionals, including nurses, child care health consultants, physiotherapists, primary health care workers, and public health practitioners. Overall, 5 of the interventions were web-training programs. The remaining 3 interventions included simulation games, access to digital resource materials and the use of tailored messaging, and a web-based registry. The findings suggest that digital TEKT interventions may be effective in improving the knowledge of public health professionals, relative to control, and may be as effective as a face-to-face KT approach. The effectiveness of digital TEKT strategies relative to a control or other digital KT interventions on measures of health professional self-efficacy to use evidence to enhance practice behavior or behavioral intention outcomes was mixed. The evidence regarding the effects on changes to health policy or practice following exposure to digital TEKT was mixed. No trials assessed the effects on individual or population-level health outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: This review is the first to synthesize the effectiveness of digital TEKT interventions in a public health setting. Despite its potential, relatively few trials have been undertaken to investigate the impacts of digital TEKT interventions. The findings suggest that although a digital TEKT intervention may improve knowledge, the effects of such interventions on other outcomes are equivocal.

2.
Radiography (Lond) ; 2020 Jul 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32680707

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: This narrative review examines the current status of evidence-based practice and knowledge translation in diagnostic radiography. It explores knowledge translation efforts in the allied health professions aimed at systematically implementing evidence-based practice and suggests ways that these may be applied within diagnostic radiography. KEY FINDINGS: Knowledge translation in diagnostic radiography is in its infancy with numerous examples of key findings of rigorous studies not implemented in practice. Utilising frameworks, models and theories to systematically translate knowledge into evidence-based practice has been shown to be effective in other allied health professions. Whilst few studies in diagnostic radiography report utilising these systematic approaches to implementing evidence-based practice, those that do, show promising results. Attitudes towards evidence-based practice within diagnostic radiography are becoming more positive and it is important to use this positive shift in attitudes to create real evidence-based change in the profession. CONCLUSION: The potential benefits of systematically translating knowledge into evidence-based practice in diagnostic radiography are wide reaching with positive implications for our patients, the profession and wider community. Leaders at all levels of radiography must work towards implementing evidence-based practice in their daily work. IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTICE: Systematic approaches to knowledge translation should be adopted and reported in diagnostic radiography in order to more effectively translate knowledge into evidence-based practice.

3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32649396

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The current project generally aims to assess compliance with evidence-based criteria regarding postnatal care among women in a national hospital in Kazakhstan. INTRODUCTION: Improvements in reducing maternal and infant mortality in Kazakhstan have been noted over the past 2 decades. However, recent studies have indicated that care given to women during the perinatal period, which includes the postnatal period, is unsatisfactory. In addition, service delivery remains unstandardized, while outdated and inconsistent application of practice guidelines are observed in the clinical setting. METHODS: Following the Joanna Briggs Institute Practical Application of Clinical Evidence System and Getting Research into Practice audit and feedback tool with three phases of activities, this project utilizes an implementation framework that incorporates quality improvement. Also, the audit tool consists of seven criteria to assess compliance with evidence-based postnatal care. RESULTS: Results indicate varying levels of compliance with the seven criteria used in this project. Criteria 1 and 7, which document postnatal plan and psychological assessment, garner the highest compliance at 100% in baseline and follow-up data collection. The compliance rate on criterion 4, which discusses the prevention of sudden infant death syndrome, decreases from 64% on the baseline to 29% on the follow-up. Similarly, criterion 6, which provides information about bottle feeding, exhibits further decrease with compliance from 43 to 40%. Importantly, increased compliance was noted on criterion 5, which is about breastfeeding, from 58 to 95% from the baseline and follow-up audit. CONCLUSION: The current study successfully implements evidence-based inpatient postnatal care in Kazakhstan and reveals varying results on compliance and the increasing knowledge of nurses and midwives on evidence-based postnatal care.

4.
Forensic Sci Int ; 314: 110388, 2020 Jun 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663721

RESUMEN

In their paper "The evaluation of evidence for microspectrophotometry data using functional data analysis", in FSI 305, Aitken et al. present a likelihood-ratio (LR) system for their data. We show the values generated by this system cannot be interpreted as LRs: they are ill-calibrated and should be interpreted as discriminating scores. We demonstrate how to transform the scores to well-calibrated LRs using a post-hoc calibrating step. Also, we address criticisms of calibration posited by Aitken et al. We conclude by noting that ill-calibrated LR-values are misleadingly small or large. Therefore calibration should be measured and, if necessary, corrected for. The corrected LR-values (instead of the discriminating scores) can be used to update the prior odds in Bayes rule.

5.
Radiography (Lond) ; 2020 Jun 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620353

RESUMEN

Evidence-based healthcare is an approach to practice whereby decision making and service delivery considers the best available evidence, patient choice, local resources and clinical expertise. Although sound in theory, compliance with evidence-based practice is often far from optimal. To address this, related fields such as knowledge translation and implementation science have emerged, which largely focus on methods and techniques to facilitate the transfer of evidence into practice. This introductory article explains the key concepts of evidence-based healthcare by using the JBI Model as a framework to highlight the lifecycle of evidence-based information. Throughout the article we refer to exemplars from medical radiation to highlight these concepts.

7.
Pediatr Phys Ther ; 32(3): 211-217, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32604362

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Goal setting is an important component of school-based physical therapy; however, evidence suggests that therapists may not consistently write goals that are relevant, context specific, and measurable. The aims of this knowledge translation study were to evaluate implementation of a goal-setting method for school-based therapists. METHOD: This study was created to align with the Knowledge to Action framework and included 1-day training and follow-up mentorship. Goals were assessed pre- and posttraining, and questionnaires assessed barriers and facilitators. RESULTS: Twenty-two physical therapists participated. Nineteen participants (90%) strongly agreed/agreed that the training helped change their perspectives about goal setting in the school environment. There was a statistically significant difference in goal quality pre- and posttraining. Therapists identified barriers and facilitators to implementation of effective goal setting in practice. DISCUSSION: Results indicate that this method may be effective at improving goal writing that is relevant, context specific, and measurable in school settings.

10.
J Med Internet Res ; 22(7): e15121, 2020 Jul 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32706653

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Despite extensive literature describing the use of social media in health research, a gap exists around best practices in establishing, implementing, and evaluating an effective social media knowledge translation (KT) and exchange strategies. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to examine successes, challenges, and lessons learned from using social media within health research and to create practical considerations to guide other researchers. METHODS: The Knowledge Translation Platform of the Alberta Strategy for Patient-Oriented Research SUPPORT Unit formed a national working group involving platform staff, academics, and a parent representative with experience using social media for health research. We collected and analyzed 4 case studies that used a variety of social media platforms and evaluation methods. The case studies covered a spectrum of initiatives from participant recruitment and data collection to dissemination, engagement, and evaluation. Methods and findings from each case study as well as barriers and facilitators encountered were summarized. Through iterative discussions, we converged on recommendations and considerations for health researchers planning to use social media for KT. RESULTS: We provide recommendations for elements to consider when developing a social media KT strategy: (1) set a clear goal and identify a theory, framework, or model that aligns with the project goals and objectives; (2) understand the intended audience (use social network mapping to learn what platforms and social influences are available); (3) choose a platform or platforms that meet the needs of the intended audience and align well with the research team's capabilities (can you tap into an existing network, and what mode of communication does it support?); (4) tailor messages to meet user needs and platform requirements (eg, plain language and word restrictions); (5) consider timing, frequency, and duration of messaging as well as the nature of interactions (ie, social filtering and negotiated awareness); (6) ensure adequate resources and personnel are available (eg, content creators, project coordinators, communications experts, and audience stakeholder or patient advocate); (7) develop an evaluation plan a priori driven by goals and types of data available (ie, quantitative and qualitative); and (8) consider ethical approvals needed (driven by evaluation and type of data collection). CONCLUSIONS: In the absence of a comprehensive framework to guide health researchers using social media for KT, we provide several key considerations. Future research will help validate the proposed components and create a body of evidence around best practices for using and evaluating social media as part of a KT strategy.

11.
Rev Saude Publica ; 54: 72, 2020.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32725095

RESUMEN

The term knowledge translation has been used to describe the process of applying research results to the real world, in order to enhance the quality and effectiveness of health care and services. The aim of this article is to discuss the incorporation of knowledge translation in the Brazilian public health. The article addresses the basic activities of knowledge translation and lists challenges and perspectives in Brazilian scenario. Brazil began to move towards understanding the process of translating scientific knowledge into practice. Investing in pilot studies to adapt the so-called effective interventions to the Brazilian scenario may be an alternative. Increasing the qualification of Brazilian researchers in the design and evaluation of implementation studies is relevant to improve this field in the country.

12.
West J Emerg Med ; 21(4): 985-998, 2020 Jul 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726274

RESUMEN

Clinical teaching is the primary educational tool use to train learners from day one of medical school all the way to the completion of fellowship. However, concerns over time constraints and patient census have led to a decline in bedside teaching. This paper provides a critical review of the literature on clinical teaching with a focus on instructor teaching strategies, clinical teaching models, and suggestions for incorporating technology. Recommendations for instructor-related teaching factors include adequate preparation, awareness of effective teacher attributes, using evidence-based-knowledge dissemination strategies, ensuring good communication, and consideration of environmental factors. Proposed recommendations for potential teaching strategies include the Socratic method, the One-Minute Preceptor model, SNAPPS, ED STAT, teaching scripts, and bedside presentation rounds. Additionally, this article will suggest approaches to incorporating technology into clinical teaching, including just-in-time training, simulation, and telemedical teaching. This paper provides readers with strategies and techniques for improving clinical teaching effectiveness.

13.
West J Emerg Med ; 21(4): 999-1007, 2020 Jul 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32726275

RESUMEN

Emergency medicine residency programs around the country develop didactic conferences to prepare residents for board exams and independent practice. To our knowledge, there is not currently an evidence-based set of guidelines for programs to follow to ensure maximal benefit of didactics for learners. This paper offers expert guidelines for didactic instruction from members of the Council of Emergency Medicine Residency Directors Best Practices Subcommittee, based on best available evidence. Programs can use these recommendations to further optimize their resident conference structure and content. Recommendations in this manuscript include best practices in formatting didactics, selection of facilitators and instructors, and duration of individual sessions. Authors also recommend following the Model of Clinical Practice of Emergency Medicine when developing content, while incorporating sessions dedicated to morbidity and mortality, research methodology, journal article review, administration, wellness, and professionalism.

14.
Implement Sci ; 15(1): 54, 2020 07 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32620129

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Enacting knowledge translation (KT) in healthcare settings is a complex process that requires organizational facilitation. In addition to addressing organizational-level barriers, targeting individual-level factors such as KT competencies are a necessary component of this aim. While literature on KT competency training is rapidly growing, there has been little exploration of the potential benefits of training initiatives delivered from an intra-organizational perspective. Addressing this gap, we developed the Knowledge Translation Facilitator Network (KTFN) to meet the KT needs of individuals expected to use and produce knowledge (e.g., healthcare providers, research staff, managers, family advisors) within an academic health sciences center. The aim of this study is to describe the development, implementation, and evaluation of the KTFN curriculum. METHODS: An educational framework was used to guide creation of the KTFN curriculum. Stakeholder interviews, a literature review of KT competency, and environmental scan of capacity building initiatives plus adult learning principles were combined with in-house experience of KT practitioners to inform content and delivery. An evaluation strategy consisting of pre/post-test curriculum and post-session satisfaction surveys, as well as post-curriculum interviews assessed impact on participant knowledge and skills and captured perceived value of KFTN. RESULTS: The curriculum has been delivered three times over 3 years, with 30 individuals trained, representing healthcare providers, graduate level research trainees, managers, and family advisors. Using the New World Kirkpatrick Model as an analysis framework, we found that the KTFN curriculum was highly valued and shifted learners' perceptions of KT. Participants identified enhanced knowledge and skills that could be applied to different facets of their work; increased confidence in their ability to execute KT tasks; and intention to use the content in future projects. Barriers to future use included time to plan and conduct KT activities. CONCLUSION: KTFN was developed to enhance KT competency among organizational members. This initiative shows promise as a highly valued training program that meets both individual and organizational KT needs and speaks to the importance of investing in tailored KT competency initiatives as an essential building block to support moving evidence into practice.

15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32614128

RESUMEN

There is growing recognition of the links between knowledge translation, policy and practice, particularly in the domestic violence research area. A literature review applying a systematic approach with a realist lens was the preferred methodology. The review answered the following question: What are the mechanisms of change in research networks which 'work' to support knowledge translation? A search of eight electronic databases for articles published between 1960 and 2018 was completed, with 2,999 records retrieved, 2,869 records excluded and 130 full-text articles screened for final inclusion in the review. The inclusion criteria were purposefully broad, including any study design or data source (including grey literature) with a focus on domestic violence knowledge translation. The analysis of included studies using a realist lens identified the mechanisms of change to support knowledge translation. A disaggregation of the included studies identified five theories focused on the following outcomes: (1) develop key messages, (2) flexible evidence use, (3) strengthen partnerships, (4) capacity building and (5) research utilisation. This review adds to our understanding of knowledge translation of domestic violence research. The mechanisms of change identified may support knowledge translation of research networks. Further research will focus on exploring the potential application of these program theories with a research network.

16.
Chest ; 2020 Jul 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673622

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Chronic wet cough in children is the hallmark symptom of protracted bacterial bronchitis (PBB) and if left untreated can lead to bronchiectasis, which is prevalent in Indigenous populations. Under-recognition of chronic wet cough by parents and clinicians and under-diagnosis of PBB by clinicians are known. RESEARCH QUESTION: We aimed to improve recognition and management of chronic wet cough in Aboriginal children using knowledge translation (KT), a methodological approach that can be adapted for use in Indigenous contexts to facilitate effective and sustained translation of research into practice. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: A mixed-methods KT study undertaken at a remote-based Aboriginal primary medical service (February-2017 to December-2019). Our KT strategy included: (i) culturally secure (i.e. ensuring Aboriginal people are treated with regard to their unique cultural needs and differences) knowledge dissemination to facilitate family health seeking for chronic wet cough in children and (ii) an implementation strategy to facilitate correct diagnosis and management of chronic wet cough and PBB by clinicians. RESULTS: Post KT, health seeking for chronic wet cough increased by 184% (pre=8/630 (1.3%), post=23/636 children (3.6%), p=0.007, 95%CI 0.7%, 4.0%). Clinician proficiency in management of chronic wet cough improved significantly as reflected by (i) improved chronic cough related quality of life (p<0.001, 95%CI 0·8, 3·0) and (ii) improved clinician assessment of cough quality (p<0.001, 95%CI10.4%, 23.0%), duration (p<0.001, 95%CI 11.1%, 24.1%) and appropriate antibiotic prescription (p=0.010, 95%CI 6.6%, 55.7%). INTERPRETATION: Health seeking for children with chronic wet cough can be facilitated through provision of culturally secure health information. Clinician proficiency in the management of PBB can be improved with KT strategies which include training in culturally informed management, leading to better health outcomes. Comprehensive strategies that include both families and health systems are required to ensure that chronic wet cough in children is detected and optimally managed.

17.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 2020 Jun 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663147

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Over the past ten years, there have been increasing calls for patient and public involvement in health-related research. The impetus for this shift is twofold; an ideological shift towards more equitable and less hierarchical methods of knowledge development, and an effort to increase the usability and relevance of knowledge as evidenced by improved outcomes in clinical practice. Patient engagement includes a spectrum ranging from informing patients to giving complete decision-making autonomy; wherein, patient is an umbrella term that includes individuals, groups, communities, caregivers, friends, and families who have personal experience and knowledge of a health issue. Despite increased use of patient engagement methods in health research, evaluation has lagged, resulting in a meagre evidence base for the processes and outcomes of patient engagement in research. The current knowledge gap makes it difficult to foster capacity and sustainability for patients and researchers alike since little is known about how effective patient collaborations in research are built, maintained, or improved upon. The context of this study centers on pediatric functional constipation; a very common condition worldwide, which causes significant problems for children and families. Since parents play a pivotal role in the effective treatment of pediatric functional constipation, they are an optimal group to engage with to collaboratively improve the resources and support available for them. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to: 1) use patient-engagement methods to establish a research collaboration with parents to co-create a digital Knowledge Translation (KT) tool for parents caring for a child with functional constipation (FC), 2) formally evaluate the patient engagement processes within this project to build the science of patient engagement in research. METHODS: Members of the Parent Collaborator Group (PCG) will be recruited from previous participants who expressed interest in digital Knowledge Translation (KT) tool development. Target size of the PCG is between four and twelve members. The PCG will collaborate with the research team to co-create a digital KT tool to address patients' support and information needs when caring for a child with functional constipation. Upon tool completion, evaluation of the PCG will use a multi-method design with both quantitative and qualitative components. Data will be digitally and anonymously collected from all members of the PCG, using the validated Public and Patient Engagement Evaluation Tool (PPEET) - patient questionnaire. Descriptive statistics will be used to report group characteristics and question responses. Qualitative analysis will be used to understand open-ended question responses. Specifically, directed content analysis will be used in relation to the themes of the Patient Engagement in Research (PEIR) Framework with a combination of deductive and inductive analyses. Findings from the quantitative and qualitative data will be integrated in the discussion if there are sufficient commonalities and inter-relationships. The final manuscript will include reporting each element described by the Good Reporting of A Mixed Methods Study (GRAMMS) criteria. RESULTS: Recruitment for the PCG is planned for June 2020. Data collection for the evaluation of patient engagement processes will occur upon completion of the digital KT tool. Results of this study are expected to be published by the end of 2020. CONCLUSIONS: This study will provide valuable information about parents' experiences participating in child-health research and is a fundamental step in building the science of patient engagement in research.

18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663366

RESUMEN

AIM: Bronchiolitis is the commonest cause of hospitalisation for infants. Evidence-based Australasian bronchiolitis guideline was developed and introduced in 2017. This audit was to determine if the knowledge translation process of the updated local tertiary hospital bronchiolitis guideline (based on the Australasian guideline) reduced unnecessary interventions. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of infants with bronchiolitis diagnosis during the pre-guideline (1 July to 31 August 2015) and post-guideline (1 July to 31 August 2017) period, with the primary outcome of the number/proportion of unnecessary interventions. RESULTS: Presentations between 1 July to 31 August 2015 (n = 465) were compared with 2017 (n = 343). There was no difference in undertaking chest X-ray (24 (5.2%) vs. 17 (5.0%), odds ratio (OR) 0.98 (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.71-1.35), P = 0.911), salbutamol (23 (4.9%) vs. 10 (2.9%), OR 0.86 (95% CI 0.65-1.13), P = 0.279), glucocorticoids (2 (0.4%) vs. 5 (1.5%), OR 1.89 (95% CI 0.83-4.31), p = 0.129), antibiotics (11 (2.4%) vs. 5 (1.5%), OR 0.86 (95% CI 0.65-1.15), P = 0.307) or nasopharyngeal aspirate (172 (37%) vs. 124 (36.2%), OR 1.00 (95% CI 0.87-1.67), P = 0.937) in hospital. Adrenaline was not administered in both years. There was reduced hospital admissions (303 (65.2%) vs. 192 (56.0%), OR 0.82 (95% CI 0.71-0.95), P = 0.008) with no difference in paediatric intensive care unit admissions (10 (2.2%) vs. 8 (2.3%), OR 1.04 (95% CI 0.65-1.67), P = 0.863). CONCLUSION: The dissemination process of the updated local hospital bronchiolitis guideline did not show any statistically significant reduction of unnecessary interventions in the hospital. Further studies are required to determine the effective process to instigate changes in health services.

19.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 20(1): 506, 2020 Jun 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32503592

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Across Ontario, since the year 2006 various knowledge translation (KT) interventions designed to improve the quality of rectal cancer surgery have been implemented by the provincial cancer agency or by individual researchers. Ontario is divided administratively into 14 health regions. We piloted a method to audit and score for each region of the province the KT interventions implemented to improve the quality of rectal cancer surgery. METHODS: We interviewed stakeholders to audit KT interventions used in respective regions over years 2006 to 2014. Results were summarized into narrative and visual forms. Using a modified Delphi approach, KT experts reviewed these data and then, for each region, scored implementation of KT interventions using a 20-item KT Signature Assessment Tool. Scores could range from 20 to 100 with higher scores commensurate with greater KT intervention implementation. RESULTS: There were thirty interviews. KT experts produced scores for each region that were bimodally distributed, with an average score for 2 regions of 78 (range 73-83) and for 12 regions of 30.5 (range 22-38). CONCLUSION: Our methods efficiently identified two groups with similar KT Signature scores. Two regions had relatively high scores reflecting numerous KT interventions and the use of sustained iterative approaches in addition to those encouraged by the provincial cancer agency, while 12 regions had relatively low scores reflecting minimal activities outside of those encouraged by the provincial cancer agency. These groupings will be used for future comparative quantitative analyses to help determine if higher KT signature scores correlate with improved measures for quality of rectal cancer surgery.

20.
Crit Care ; 24(1): 281, 2020 06 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32487263

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The rational use of antibiotics is one of the main strategies to limit the development of bacterial resistance. We therefore sought to evaluate the effectiveness of a C-reactive protein-based protocol in reducing antibiotic treatment time in critically ill patients. METHODS: A randomized, open-label, controlled clinical trial conducted in two intensive care units of a university hospital in Brazil. Critically ill infected adult patients were randomly allocated to (i) intervention to receive antibiotics guided by daily monitoring of CRP levels and (ii) control to receive antibiotics according to the best practices for rational use of antibiotics. RESULTS: One hundred thirty patients were included in the CRP (n = 64) and control (n = 66) groups. In the intention-to-treat analysis, the median duration of antibiotic therapy for the index infectious episode was 7.0 (5.0-8.8) days in the CRP and 7.0 (7.0-11.3) days in the control (p = 0.011) groups. A significant difference in the treatment time between the two groups was identified in the curve of cumulative suspension of antibiotics, with less exposure in the CRP group only for the index infection episode (p = 0.007). In the per protocol analysis, involving 59 patients in each group, the median duration of antibiotic treatment was 6.0 (5.0-8.0) days for the CRP and 7.0 (7.0-10.0) days for the control (p = 0.011) groups. There was no between-group difference regarding the total days of antibiotic exposure and antibiotic-free days. CONCLUSIONS: Daily monitoring of CRP levels may allow early interruption of antibiotic therapy in a higher proportion of patients, without an effect on total antibiotic consumption. The clinical and microbiological relevance of this finding remains to be demonstrated. TRIAL REGISTRY: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02987790. Registered 09 December 2016.

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