Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 27.133
Filtrar
1.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238953, 2022. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153478

RESUMEN

Abstract Infection caused by geo-helminth parasites are called geohelminthiasis are one of the global health problems. Vegetables eaten raw is the principal source of transmission of geo-helminth parasites. Pakistani people believe that eating raw vegetables are a significant source to get important vitamins and minerals. Based on the high incidence of pathogenic parasites and cultivating different vegetable types in the study areas, we conducted this study to evaluate the geo-helminth contamination of raw vegetables in northwest Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. This is a descriptive study comprised, 1942 samples of 25 various types of vegetables. The samples were examined in physiological saline solution using sedimentation and centrifugation methods. The findings were analyzed by Graph-Pad version 5. P value less than 0.05 (95% CI) was considered significant. Results showed that 16.5% (n=322) of all vegetables were contaminated with one or more type of geo-helminth parasites. Garlic was the highest (35%) and cauliflower the lowest (4%) contaminated samples respectively. Ascaris lumbricoides was the most common geo-helminth found followed by hook worm species while Trichuris trichura was the least in all the vegetable samples. Leafy vegetables were highly contaminated 25.3% than vegetables with root parts 21.2% and fruity 9.09%. More than half of the contaminated vegetables were contaminated with single species of geo-helminth (P<0.05) while less than half with multiple types of geo-helminth contamination. Ninety two vegetables samples were contaminated with 2 species of parasites (P<0.05) and 45 with 3 (P>0.05) species of geo-helminth parasites. Education level of vendors and means of display were not significantly associated while types of vegetable used were significantly associated with the prevalence of parasites. The findings of this study provide evidence that consumption of raw vegetable has a high risk of acquiring geo-helminth infections. The authors believe that preventing the human to enter to the vegetable farmland for defecation, avoiding the irrigation of agricultural fields via night soil, and educating the people on proper washing and cooking of vegetables may be useful in reducing parasitic infections.


Resumo As infecções causadas por parasitas geo-helmínticos são chamados de geohelmintíases e são um dos problemas de saúde globais. Os vegetais comidos crus são a principal fonte de transmissão dos parasitas geo-helmínticos. O povo paquistanês acredita que comer vegetais crus é uma fonte significativa para obter vitaminas e minerais importantes. Com base na alta incidência de parasitas patogênicos e no cultivo de diferentes tipos de vegetais nas áreas de estudo, conduzimos este estudo para avaliar a contaminação por geo-helmintos de vegetais crus no noroeste de Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Paquistão. Trata-se de um estudo descritivo composto por 1942 amostras de 25 tipos diversos de vegetais. As amostras foram examinadas em solução salina fisiológica utilizando métodos de sedimentação e centrifugação. Os achados foram analisados ​​pelo Graph-Pad versão 5. O valor de P menor que 0,05 (IC 95%) foi considerado significativo. Os resultados mostraram que 16,5% (n = 322) de todas as hortaliças estavam contaminadas com um ou mais tipos de parasitas geo-helmínticos. O alho foi a amostra mais contaminada (35%) e a couve-flor a menos (4%), respectivamente. Ascaris lumbricoides foi o geo-helmíntico mais comum encontrado, seguido por espécies de verme-anzol, enquanto Trichuris trichura foi o menos encontrado em todas as amostras de vegetais. Os vegetais folhosos foram altamente contaminados 25,3% do que os vegetais com partes de raiz 21,2% e frutados 9,09%. Mais da metade dos vegetais contaminados estavam contaminados com uma única espécie de geo-helmintos (P <0,05), enquanto menos da metade com vários tipos de contaminação com geo-helmintos. Noventa e duas amostras de vegetais estavam contaminadas com 2 espécies de parasitas (P <0,05) e 45 com 3 (P> 0,05) espécies de parasitas geo-helmínticos. O nível de escolaridade dos vendedores e os meios de exibição não foram significativamente associados, enquanto os tipos de vegetais usados ​​foram significativamente associados à prevalência de parasitas. Os resultados deste estudo fornecem evidências de que o consumo de vegetais crus tem um alto risco de adquirir infecções por geo-helmintos. Os autores acreditam que impedir que o ser humano entre na terra de hortaliças para defecação, evitar a irrigação de campos agrícolas via solo noturno e educar as pessoas sobre a lavagem e cozimento adequados de vegetais pode ser útil na redução de infecções parasitárias.

2.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(2): 398-405, Jan.-May 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153348

RESUMEN

Abstract Continuous occurrence of heavy metals is a major cause of environmental pollution due to its toxic effects. At minimum concentrations, these metals are highly reactive and can gather in the food chains and food web, causing major dangers to public health concerns. Soil samples were collected from Paharang drain, Faisalabad. Cadmium tolerant bacteria were isolated and evaluated for their MIC against Cd. The isolated bacterial strain GCFSD01 showed MIC value upto 30 mM/L. The bacterial strain with the highest resistance against Cd was selected for further study. Molecular characterization of bacterial isolate GCFSD01 was performed by 16S rRNA which confirmed it as Bacillus cereus. Optimum growth conditions of bacterial strain were also evaluated. Strain GCFSD01 showed optimum growth at pH 7 and 37 °C temperature. Our result revealed that B. cereus strain GCFSD01 reduced 61.3% Cd after 48 hrs. Multiple metal tolerance and Cd reduction by B. cereus indicate its potential for further use for decontamination of polluted soil.


Resumo A ocorrência contínua de metais pesados é uma das principais causas de poluição ambiental devido aos seus efeitos tóxicos. A contaminação por metais pesados representa um grande risco para todas as formas de vida encontradas no meio ambiente. Em concentrações mínimas, esses metais são altamente reativos e podem se acumular nas cadeias alimentares e na cadeia alimentar, causando grandes perigos às preocupações com a saúde pública. Amostras de solo foram coletadas no esgoto de Paharang, Faisalabad. Bactérias tolerantes ao cádmio foram isoladas da amostra coletada pelo método da placa de ágar. As colônias separadas individuais selecionadas foram avaliadas quanto às suas concentrações inibitórias mínimas contra Cd. A cepa bacteriana isolada GCFSD01 apresentou valores de CIM de 30 mM/L. A colônia bacteriana que apresentou maior resistência contra o Cd foi selecionada para identificação. Após seleção da maior colônia bacteriana resistente ao Cd, coloração de Gram e diferentes testes bioquímicos foram realizados para a caracterização da bactéria isolada. A caracterização molecular do isolado bacteriano GCFSD01 foi realizada por PCR 16S rRNA confirmando a presença de Bacillus cereus. Após a identificação molecular, as condições ótimas de crescimento da cepa bacteriana também foram verificadas. A cepa GCFSD01 apresentou crescimento ótimo em pH 7 e temperatura de 37 °C. Nosso resultado revelou que a cepa de B. cereus GCFSD01 reduziu 61,3% de Cd após 48 horas. A tolerância a múltiplos metais e a redução de Cd por B. cereus indicam seu potencial para uso posterior na descontaminação do solo poluído.

3.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(2): 499-507, Jan.-May 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153369

RESUMEN

Abstract Increased agricultural production has been increased use of pesticides worldwide, which poses a threat to both human and environmental health. Recent studies suggest that several non-target organisms, from bees to mammals, show a wide variety of toxic effects of pesticides exposure, including impaired behavior, development and reproduction. Among mammals, bats are usually a neglected taxon among ecotoxicological studies, although they play important ecological and economical roles in forest ecosystems and agriculture through to seed dispersal and insect population control. Considering their wide variety of food habits, bats are exposed to environmental pollutants through food or water contamination, or through direct skin contact in their roosting areas. In order to better understand the risk posed by pesticides to bats populations, we compiled studies that investigated the main toxicological effects of pesticides in bats, aiming at contributing to discussion about the environmental risks associated with the use of pesticides.


Resumo O aumento da produção agrícola tem levado ao aumento do uso de pesticidas em todo o mundo, o que representa uma ameaça para a saúde humana e ambiental. Estudos recentes sugerem que vários organismos não-alvo, de abelhas a mamíferos, apresentam uma grande variedade de efeitos tóxicos após a exposição aos pesticidas a pesticidas, incluindo alterações de comportamento, no desenvolvimento e na reprodução. Entre os mamíferos, os morcegos geralmente são negligenciados entre os estudos ecotoxicológicos, embora desempenhem importantes papéis ecológicos e econômicos nos ecossistemas florestais e na agricultura por meio do controle de dispersão de sementes e de populações de insetos. Considerando sua ampla variedade de hábitos alimentares, eles estão expostos a poluentes ambientais através da contaminação de alimentos ou água, ou através do contato direto com a pele em suas áreas de descanso. Para entender melhor o risco que os agrotóxicos representam para as populações de morcegos, compilamos estudos que investigaram os principais efeitos toxicológicos de agrotóxicos em morcegos, visando à discussão sobre os riscos ambientais associados ao uso de agrotóxicos.

4.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(5): 263, 2021 Apr 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33847840

RESUMEN

Rainfall is a climatic variable that dictates the daily rhythm of urban areas in Northeastern Brazil (NEB) and, therefore, understanding its dynamics is fundamental. The objectives of the study were (i) to validate the CHELSA product with data in situ, (ii) assess the spatial-temporality of the rains, and (iii) assess the trends and socio-environmental implications in the Metropolitan Region of Maceió (MRM). The monthly rainfall data observed between 1960 and 2016 were flawed and were filled with the imputation of data. These series were subjected to descriptive and exploratory statistics, statistical indicators, and the Mann-Kendall (MK) and Pettitt tests. CHELSA product was validated for MRM, and all stations obtained satisfactory determination coefficients (R2) and Pearson correlation (r). The standard error of the estimate (SEE), root mean square error (RMSE), and mean absolute error (MAE) were satisfactory. The highest annual rainfall accumulated occurred near the Mundaú and Manguaba lagoons. The Pettitt test identified that abrupt changes occur in El Niño and La Niña years (strong and weak). The monthly rain boxplots showed high variability in the rainy season (April-July). Outliers have been associated with extreme rainfall at MRM. The drought period was 5 months in all MRM seasons, except in Satuba and Pilar. The Mann-Kendall test and the Sen method showed a tendency for a significant increase in rainfall in Satuba and not significant in the Pilar, while in the others, there was a tendency for a decrease in rainfall. The MRM rainfall depends on physiographic factors, multiscale meteorological systems, and the coastal environment. These results will assist in planning conservationist practices, especially in areas of socio-environmental vulnerability.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente , Lluvia , Brasil , El Niño Oscilación del Sur , Estaciones del Año
5.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 627, 2021 Mar 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33789623

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This study aims to assess the interactive effects of Brazilian public interventions, environmental health programs (access to water, sanitation and solid waste collection) and a Conditional Cash Transfer Program (PBF), on the mortality reduction due to diarrhea and malnutrition among children under 5 years old. METHODS: The study design is ecological, with longitudinal analysis in a balanced panel. The period covered is 2006 to 2016, including 3467 municipalities from all regions of the country, which resulted in 38,137 observations. The generalized linear models were adjusted considering the Negative Binomial (NB) distribution for the number of deaths due to malnutrition and diarrhea, with fixed effects. NB models with and without zero-inflation were assessed. Subsequent interaction models were applied to assess the combined effects of the two public policies. RESULTS: In relation to the decline of mortality rates due to diarrhea in the municipalities, positive effect modification were observed in the presence of: high coverage of the target population by the PBF and access to water, 0.54 (0.28-1.04) / 0.55 (0.29-1.04); high coverage by the total population by the PBF and access to water, 0.97 (0.95-1.00) and high coverage by the total population by the PBF and access to sanitation, 0.98 (0.97-1.00). Decline on diarrhea mortality was also observed in the joint presence of high coverage of solid waste collection and access to water, categories 1 (> 60% ≤85%): 0.98 (0.96-1.00), 0.98 (0.97-1, 00) and 2 (> 85% ≤ 100%): 0.97 (0.95-0.98), 0.97 (0.95-0.99). Negative effect modification were observed for mortality due to malnutrition in the presence of simultaneous high coverage of the total population by the PBF and access to sanitation categories 1 (≥ 20 < 50%): 1.0061 (0.9991-1.0132) and 2 (≥ 50 < 100%): 1.0073 (1.0002-1.0145) and high coverage of the total population by the PBF and solid waste collection, 1.0004 (1.0002-1.0005), resulting in malnutrition mortality rates increase. CONCLUSION: Implementation of environmental health services and the coverage expansion by the PBF may enhance the prevention of early deaths in children under 5 years old due to diarrhea, a poverty related disease.

6.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(5): 262, 2021 Apr 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33846871

RESUMEN

Emerging contaminants is a topic that has been in evidence, especially in the last decades. These compounds are pesticides, pharmaceuticals, and personal care products that are present in several locations, mainly in large urban centers. The aim of this work was to investigate the fate of seven compounds (atrazine, simazine, ametrine, tebuthiuron, 2,4-D, fipronil, and diclofenac) using leaching column experiments to evaluate accumulation and transfer in 5 different types of urban soils from Porto Alegre, Southern Brazil. Chemical analyses were carried out through liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The results showed that the soil derived from quaternary sediments, with well-sorted sandy sediments, was the one in which the contaminants had higher mobility. This soil also has a pH above the average of the others in the city, a factor that may also be responsible for less retention of substances. Tebuthiuron is the substance with the greatest leaching potential overall. Column experiments are a relevant tool to understand the behavior of emerging contaminants in soils and implications on the population health.


Asunto(s)
Contaminantes del Suelo , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Brasil , Cromatografía Liquida , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Cromatografía de Gases y Espectrometría de Masas , Suelo , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis , Espectrometría de Masas en Tándem , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33797721

RESUMEN

Shallow urban polluted reservoirs at tropical regions can be hotspots for CO2 and CH4 emissions. In this study, we investigated the relationships between eutrophication and GHG emissions in a highly urbanized tropical reservoir in São Paulo Metropolitan Area (Brazil). CO2 and CH4 fluxes and limnological variables (water and sediment) were collected at three sampling stations classified as hypereutrophic and eutrophic. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the principal component analysis (PCA) determined the most significant parameters to CO2 and CH4 fluxes. ANOVA showed significant differences of CO2 and CH4 fluxes between sampling stations with different trophic state. The hypereutrophic station showed higher mean fluxes for both CO2 and CH4 (5.43 ± 1.04 and 0.325 ± 0.167 g m-2 d-1, respectively) than the eutrophic stations (3.36 ± 0.54 and 0.060 ± 0.005 g m-2 d-1). The PCA showed a strong relationship between nutrients in the water column (surface and bottom) and GHG fluxes. We concluded that GHG fluxes were higher whenever the trophic state increases as observed previously in temperate and tropical reservoirs. High concentrations of nutrients in the water column in the studied area support the high production of autotrophic biomass that, when sedimented, ends up serving as organic matter for CH4 producers. These outcomes reinforce the necessity of water quality improvement and eutrophication mitigation in highly urbanized reservoirs in tropical regions.

8.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(5): 277, 2021 Apr 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33861359

RESUMEN

The moisture content of the municipal solid waste (MSW) is a physical characteristic that plays a fundamental role in the stability and settlement of landfills. However, this physical index is difficult to monitor within the mass of landfilled MSW because it undergoes great variation due, mainly, to the heterogeneity and biodegradation of the waste. Brazilian MSW generally has a large amount of organic matter, that when biodegraded, generates a considerable volume of gases and fluids, aggravated by climatic conditions, such as high rainfall and temperatures. Hence, the importance of obtaining and evaluating the distribution of moisture content in the MSW mass over time. Currently, the electrical resistivity properties have been presented as an interesting approach to obtain the moisture content in landfills indirectly. This study aimed to apply geoelectrical methods as a tool to obtain and evaluate the moisture content distribution in an experimental cell of a sanitary landfill using Archie's law, which correlates the volumetric moisture content and electrical resistivity. Moisture content values were obtained in laboratory tests with MSW samples collected in two vertical holes and electrical resistivity measurements by means of vertical electrical sounding. The moisture content and the resistivity values of the samples were used to calculate the parameters a and m of Archie's law. This allowed to convert the resistivity tomography to moisture content tomography. The good correlation achieved between the moisture content calculated by Archie's law and that obtained from samples indicates that the use of electrical resistivity methods is useful to assess and monitor quantitatively the moisture content in landfills using Archie's law.


Asunto(s)
Eliminación de Residuos , Brasil , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Residuos Sólidos/análisis , Instalaciones de Eliminación de Residuos
9.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33917465

RESUMEN

SARS-CoV-2 environmental monitoring can track the rate of viral contamination and can be used to establish preventive measures. This study aimed to detect by RT-PCR the presence of SARS-CoV-2 from inert surface samples in public health settings with a literature review about surface contamination and its burden on spread virus. Samples were collected from health settings in Curitiba, Brazil, between July and December 2020. A literature review was conducted using PRISMA. A total of 711 environmental surface samples were collected from outpatient areas, dental units, doctors' offices, COVID-19 evaluation areas, and hospital units, of which 35 (4.9%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2 RNA. The frequency of environmental contamination was higher in primary care units than in hospital settings. The virus was detected on doctors' personal items. Remarkably, the previously disinfected dental chair samples tested positive. These findings agree with those of other studies in which SARS-CoV-2 was found on inanimate surfaces. Detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA on surfaces in public health settings, including those not meant to treat COVID-19, indicates widespread environmental contamination. Therefore, the intensification of disinfection measures for external hospital areas may be important for controlling community COVID-19 dissemination.


Asunto(s)
Brasil , Desinfección , Humanos , ARN Viral
10.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 166: 112231, 2021 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33798816

RESUMEN

Long-term assessments are needed to identify water quality trends and their socio-environmental drivers for coastal management and watershed restoration. This study provides the first long-term assessment of fecal bacterial pollution in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico using enterococci data spanning the Texas coast from 2009 to 2020. The data were representative of 66 beaches, 169 stations, and over 75,000 samples. Findings demonstrate that 22 beaches are 'hotspots' of pollution and experienced enterococci levels that frequently exceeded the USEPA beach action value. Further, enterococci were correlated with time, population size, and sea level. Weak correlations detected in some counties highlight the multifactorial nature of water quality; additional factors are likely influencing enterococci levels. The correlation with sea level is concerning, as counties vulnerable to sea level rise frequently reported enterococci concentrations exceeding the beach action value. In consideration of sea level rise predictions, targeted studies are needed to pinpoint drivers of fecal pollution.


Asunto(s)
Playas , Calidad del Agua , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Heces , Golfo de México , Elevación del Nivel del Mar , Texas , Microbiología del Agua , Contaminación del Agua/análisis
11.
J Environ Manage ; 289: 112495, 2021 Jul 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33831761

RESUMEN

This study quantifies the degree of pollution and assess the ecological risk of As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, V and Zn in sediments and soils of the Limoncocha Biological Reserve (Ecuador), identified as a Ramsar site with high ecological and socioeconomic value. The hydrologic system of the Reserve is mainly formed by two rivers that drain into the Limoncocha lagoon, which occupies only five percent of the protected area but support a high anthropic influence. Local statistical baseline of studied potentially toxic elements is established using cumulative frequency method, and Al is selected as reference element due to the good correlation with the studied elements. The grade of pollution and the potential ecological risk are evaluated applying three individual (Contamination Factor, Geo-accumulation Index and Enrichment Factor) and six integrated (Degree and modified degree of contamination, Pollution Load Index, Nemerow and modified Nemerow pollution indexes and potential ecological risk index) indices. Results analysis are based on the combined application of traditional statistics, multivariate data analysis and self organizing maps. Outcomes suggest to classify sediments and soils as "moderate contamination and enrichment" due mainly to the concentrations of Cu (66.4-110 mg/kg) and Cd (0.0262-0.808 mg/kg), derived from domestic wastewaters and agricultural activities, and in a lesser extent due to Mo (0.822-4.37 mg/kg), Ni (10.3-25.8 mg/kg), Co (7.27-24.8 mg/kg) and V (60.3-178 mg/kg), derived from oil field drilling activities. The distributions of As (0.328-8.83 mg/kg), Ba (143-1100 mg/kg), Pb (7.20-26.5 mg/kg), Zn (60.1-276 mg/kg) and Cr (10.1-48.6 mg/kg) are heterogeneous in the studied sampling sites. Sediments located next to the pier and at the central area of the Limoncocha lagoon, show moderate potential risk and according to sediment quality guidelines, the calculated mean Effect Range Median quotient (mERMq) classify the sites as medium-low priority risk level. A three-level classification of a mean quotient based on soil quality and soil potential uses is proposed. Soil sites with high anthropogenic activities show low to moderate potential ecological risk being classified as poor soil quality sites but with all potential soil uses allowed according to the legal limits for land uses in Ecuador.


Asunto(s)
Metales Pesados , Contaminantes del Suelo , China , Ecuador , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Sedimentos Geológicos , Metales Pesados/análisis , Medición de Riesgo , Suelo , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis , Humedales
12.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 2138, 2021 04 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33837222

RESUMEN

It is largely unknown how South America's Andean forests affect the global carbon cycle, and thus regulate climate change. Here, we measure aboveground carbon dynamics over the past two decades in 119 monitoring plots spanning a range of >3000 m elevation across the subtropical and tropical Andes. Our results show that Andean forests act as strong sinks for aboveground carbon (0.67 ± 0.08 Mg C ha-1 y-1) and have a high potential to serve as future carbon refuges. Aboveground carbon dynamics of Andean forests are driven by abiotic and biotic factors, such as climate and size-dependent mortality of trees. The increasing aboveground carbon stocks offset the estimated C emissions due to deforestation between 2003 and 2014, resulting in a net total uptake of 0.027 Pg C y-1. Reducing deforestation will increase Andean aboveground carbon stocks, facilitate upward species migrations, and allow for recovery of biomass losses due to climate change.


Asunto(s)
Secuestro de Carbono/fisiología , Carbono/metabolismo , Cambio Climático , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Árboles/metabolismo , Biomasa , Bosques , América del Sur , Clima Tropical
13.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(5): 247, 2021 Apr 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822279

RESUMEN

The study presents the characterization of the water quality of the Corumbá IV reservoir in the State of Goiás, in the Brazilian Cerrado biome, based on data from the operation period between 2007 and 2017. Few are known about the temporal and spatial variations in the water quality of the reservoir. Up to now, the water quality has been analyzed only from the point of view of compliance with the limits required by Brazilian environmental legislation. Therefore, the integrated analysis of water quality parameters and water body dynamics may bring important information to support decision-making in reservoir management. An exploratory analysis of the limnological data series provided by the company in charge of the hydroelectric plant was then carried out. Univariate and multivariate statistical techniques were applied to analyze the data period from 2007 to 2017. The results identify four distinct limnological phases representing the transition of the environment. The first phase (2007 to 2009) characterized by the decomposition of the flooded vegetal organic matter and subsequent phases, after 8 years (2010 to 2017), have featured the transition process from the lotic condition to the consolidation of the lentic environment. The spatial analysis of the results demonstrates that tributaries influence the water quality of the reservoir differently, probably due to the different impacts suffered in the sub-basins (e.g., sewage discharges; runoff). Although it is possible to evidence the impact of anthropic activities on water quality, the reservoir still presents characteristics of an environment with low trophic status.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente , Calidad del Agua , Brasil , Ecosistema , Ríos , Análisis Espacio-Temporal
14.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(5): 246, 2021 Apr 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33821337

RESUMEN

This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of drugs and endocrine disrupters in water supplies and in water for human consumption. Twelve sampling campaigns were carried out during the rainy and dry season at four sampling points in the Bolonha Complex, in the city of Belém, northern region of Brazil: Bolonha reservoir (catchment) and Water Treatment Plant (WTP) Bolonha (filtered water chamber, treated water tank, and washing water from the filters). The determination of the compounds was performed by solid phase extraction followed by gas and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The results confirmed the anthropic influence that the reservoir and WTP-Bolonha have been suffering, as consequence of the discharge of domestic sewage in natura. Among 25 microcontaminants analyzed, 12 were quantified in raw water and 10 in treated water. The antiallergic Loratadine (LRT) was the contaminant that occurred most frequently in all sample points, having been poorly removed (median 12%) in the conventional treatment used. Losartana (LST), 4-octylphenol (4-OP), and Bisphenol A (BPA) also occurred very frequently in raw water with concentrations ranging from 3.7 to 194 ng L-1. Although such contaminants occurred in treated water in concentrations varying from 4.0 to 135 ng L-1, the estimated margin of exposure ranged from 55 to 3333 times which indicates low risk of human exposure to such contaminants through ingestion of treated water.


Asunto(s)
Disruptores Endocrinos , Preparaciones Farmacéuticas , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua , Purificación del Agua , Brasil , Disruptores Endocrinos/análisis , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Contaminantes Químicos del Agua/análisis
15.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(5): 243, 2021 Apr 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33821353

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to assess the genotoxic effects of sediment elutriates of an aquatic ecosystem. Sediment samples were taken from Limache stream, located in central Chile. The tests were carried out on sediment elutriates. Genotoxicity was determined by bioassay with Allium cepa. The percentage of germination, root growth, mitotic index, and frequency of chromosome aberrations were determined. The results show a significant increase in chromosome aberrations and decrease of the mitotic index in Allium cepa in all the sediment elutriates compared to the control. No significant differences were observed in the percentages of germination or root growth among the sediment elutriates. A negative correlation was found between the mitotic index and chromosomal aberrations. In conclusion, genotoxic variables are more sensitive than growth variables. The sediments contain chemical agents in bioavailable concentrations that produce genotoxic effects. Allium cepa test proved to be a sensitive indicator of genotoxic contaminants in sediment elutriates of the Limache stream in central Chile.


Asunto(s)
Allium , Cebollas , Chile , Aberraciones Cromosómicas , Daño del ADN , Ecosistema , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Humanos , Índice Mitótico , Raíces de Plantas , Ríos
16.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(5): 245, 2021 Apr 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33821384

RESUMEN

Studies to assess variability factors of heavy metals in soils are essential to understand their behavior in the environment and for the assessment of contaminated areas. In this context, this research aimed to study the factors that influence the variability of heavy metal levels and their bioavailability in pasture areas in the Alturas de Nazareno region, Mayabeque, Cuba, as well as the transfer to plants. Forty-five points were distributed in a natural pasture and at two depths (0-20 and 20-40 cm) as a function of relief and soil type. Pseudo-total heavy metal contents were determined according to method 3051A of USEPA, geochemical fractionation according to the Community Bureau of Reference method, and plant digestion according to method 3052 of USEPA. Soil samples were separated into two groups, according to cluster analysis. The type of soil associated with the pH and Ca attributes were the factors that most influenced the variability of the total and bioavailable levels of metals in natural pasture soils in the region of Alturas de Nazareno. Group 1 showed the lowest heavy metal contents and the highest pH and calcium values, which were predominantly associated with carbonate soils. Group 2 had the highest contents of heavy metals and Fe, corresponding mainly to the soil Ferralítico Rojo. The concentration of metals in plants was directly related to their bioavailable content in the soil, where G2 represents the group with the highest risk of transferring metals to the food chain.


Asunto(s)
Metales Pesados , Contaminantes del Suelo , Cuba , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Metales Pesados/análisis , Suelo , Contaminantes del Suelo/análisis
17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33799750

RESUMEN

The inadequate management of municipal solid waste (MSW) in fast-developing nations is a major public health problem. Trash collection is often inconsistent, leaving residents to use unsafe disposal methods such as incineration or unregulated dumping. The issue is especially pronounced in marginalized communities, where public service provision is scarce. Past research has identified factors that perpetuate harmful disposal practices. The current study expanded on previous work by exploring how individuals' perceptions of political, spatial, and economic marginalization affected their agency with regards to waste management. Researchers focused on a marginalized community in the Dominican Republic known as Esfuerzo de Paraíso. There, they conducted semi-structured interviews to explore residents' perceptions of marginalization at the individual, interpersonal, community, and institutional levels, and its effects on their agency. A qualitative coding process revealed that most community members were discontent with their trash disposal practices, but that long-standing marginalization left them feeling ill equipped to generate change at the individual level. Interviewees believed that change should be initiated at the community level and implemented with the support of institutional-level actors, namely the municipal government. Residents did not identify any non-governmental organizations as possible sources of help, which may suggest a limited view of institutional support networks.


Asunto(s)
Eliminación de Residuos , Actitud , República Dominicana , Humanos , Incineración , Residuos Sólidos
18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33801864

RESUMEN

Mining and petroleum production are the source of many elements and base materials fundamental for our modern way of life. The flip side of these keystone industries is the environmental degradation they can cause if not properly managed. Metallic mining and petroleum production can contaminate the local ecosystem with sediments, chemicals used in the industrial processes and heavy metals, part of the metallic ore or oil reservoir. The objective of this project was to analyze the spatial distribution of the presence of different potentially hazardous elements that make up the metallic deposits and oil reservoirs in Ecuador, focused mainly on artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) districts. Additionally, we were interested in analyzing this information under the local political and administrative contexts which are key to determining how likely it is that mismanagement of the local mineral deposits and petroleum exploitation projects will end up causing environmental degradation. An extensive and intensive literature search was conducted for information on the presence and concentration of 19 potentially harmful elements. We analyzed data on 11 metallic deposits throughout Ecuador and a major oilfield in the Ecuadorian Amazon basin. We used geographic information systems to analyze the spatial distribution of these reservoirs and their mineral compositions. The results indicated a widespread distribution and high concentration of elements potentially harmful for human health, such as mercury, cadmium and arsenic, throughout the metallic deposits in Ecuador. This is particularly true for long-exploited ASGM districts, such as Ponce-Enríquez, Portovelo-Zaruma and Nambija. This study highlights the importance of understanding geological diversity and its potential risks to better protect the biological diversity and public health of its inhabitants. Furthermore, we consider our work not as a call to stop ASGM mining nor petroleum production, but on the contrary as a strong call to plan every mining and petroleum production project considering these risks. Moreover, our work is a call to action by the local government and authorities to stop corruption and fulfill their duties overseeing the activities of mining and petroleum companies, stopping illegal mining, helping ASGM communities to improve their environmental standards, finding alternative income sources and protecting the local environment.


Asunto(s)
Mercurio , Metales Pesados , Petróleo , Ecosistema , Ecuador , Monitoreo del Ambiente , Oro , Humanos , Mercurio/análisis , Metales Pesados/análisis , Minería
19.
Prehosp Disaster Med ; 36(3): 260-264, 2021 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33853696

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: On September 20, 2017, Hurricane Maria, a Category 4 hurricane, swept across Puerto Rico (PR), wreaking devastation to PR's power, water, and health care infrastructure. To address the imminent humanitarian crisis, the US government mobilized Federal Medical Shelters (FMS) to serve the needs of hurricane victims. This study's objective was to provide a description of the patients seeking emergency care at FMS and the changes in their needs over time. METHODS: This retrospective, cross-sectional study included all patients presenting to the FMS Manatí from October 6, two weeks after Hurricane Maria's landfall, to November 2, 2017. Categories were created to catalogue the nature of new acute medical issues by patients presenting to the Shelter. Descriptive, graphical analyses were performed to assess changes to presenting complaints over time, and by age groups defined as infant (age ≤1 years), child (1 year < age ≤10 years), adolescent (10 years < age ≤ 25 years), and adult (age > 25 years). RESULTS: Over the 30-day period, 5,268 patients were seen in the FMS seeking medical care (average 188.1 patients per day), spending less than five hours in the facility. The distribution of patients' age was bimodal: the first peak at one year and the second at age 50. The most common patient complaint was infection (38.8%), then musculoskeletal (MSK) complaints (11.8%) and management of chronic medical conditions (11.8%). The proportion of patients presenting with chronic disease complaints declined over the course of the period of observation (21.4% on Day 4 to 8.0% on Day 30) while the proportion of patients presenting with infection increased (31.0% on Day 4 to 48.6% on Day 30). Infection complaints were highest in all age groups, but most in infxants (80.2%), while MSK and chronic disease complaints were highest in adults (14.9% and 14.9%, respectively). CONCLUSION: Infection treatment and chronic disease management were important medical needs facing patients seeking care at FMS Manatí after Hurricane Maria. These findings suggest that basic needs related to sanitation and shelter remained important weeks after the hurricane, and a focus on access to medications, infection control, and injury prevention/management after a disaster needs to be prioritized during disaster response.

20.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(5): 288, 2021 Apr 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33886016

RESUMEN

In Santo Domingo de los Tsa'chilas province, Ecuador, the population grows proportionally to the territorial extension in urban and rural parishes; therefore, the conception of domestic solid waste has increased exponentially. In this context, in recent years, the distribution of routes for waste collection has not been dealt with or technically explored. The research objective is to apply the theory of graphs to the sector and use the exact method of the Travel Agent Problem (TSP) in dynamic programming to generate optimal routes by sectors. In addition to measuring the variables longitudinally, we test the researcher's hypothesis using parametric techniques for independent samples in the variable's travel time and distance between the usual route and the new route in the Río Verde parish of Santo Domingo Canton.


Asunto(s)
Monitoreo del Ambiente , Residuos Sólidos , Algoritmos , Ecuador , Viaje
SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA
...