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1.
Univ. salud ; 26(2): A10-A18, mayo-agosto 2024. tab, ilus
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1554429

RESUMEN

Introducción: El suicidio es la tercera causa de muerte de jóvenes entre 15 y 19 años. Ante esto, los ambientes escolares pueden favorecer el fomento de la salud mental de los adolescentes, permitir la identificación temprana de factores de riesgo y aportar en la prevención de conductas suicidas. Una de las estrategias de prevención es el entrenamiento de "gatekeepers". Objetivo: Determinar el efecto del programa "Abriendo Puertas para la Vida" sobre conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas en prevención de conductas suicidas en un grupo de profesores de secundaria de una institución educativa de San Juan de Pasto, Colombia. Materiales y métodos: Estudio preexperimental, con un grupo de intervención y medidas pre y pos-seguimiento. Participaron nueve docentes voluntarios durante dos jornadas de formación. Resultados: Se identificaron cambios positivos en conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas de los participantes entre pretest y postest, en la mayoría de las subdimensiones evaluadas; sin embargo, tres años después, estos cambios se mantuvieron tan solo en conocimientos sobre las conductas suicidas y en actitudes hacia la prevención. Conclusión: El programa "Abriendo Puertas para la Vida" evidenció efectividad y pertinencia, sin embargo, el mantenimiento de sus efectos requiere de acciones de seguimiento y acompañamiento a los docentes formados.


Introduction: Suicide is the third cause of death in young people aged between 15 to 19 years. Thus, school environments can promote mental health of adolescents through early identification of risk factors and prevention of suicidal behaviors. One prevention strategy is the training of "gatekeepers". Objective: To determine the impact of the "Opening Doors to Life" program on the knowledge, attitudes, and practices regarding prevention of suicidal behavior in a set of high school teachers from an educational institution in San Juan de Pasto, Colombia. Materials and methods: A pre-experimental study with an intervention group and pre- and post-follow-up measurements. Nine volunteer teachers participated during two training sessions. Results: Positive changes regarding knowledge, attitudes, and practices of the participants during pretest and posttest were observed for the majority of evaluated sub-dimensions. However, after three years, the positive measures prevailed only for knowledge about suicidal behavior and attitudes toward prevention. Conclusion: The "Opening Doors to Life" program showed effectiveness and relevance. However, maintaining its impact requires follow-up actions and support of trained teachers.


Introdução: O suicídio é a terceira causa de morte de jovens entre 15 e 19 anos. Diante disso, os ambientes escolares podem promover a promoção da saúde mental em adolescentes, permitir a identificação precoce de fatores de risco e contribuir para a prevenção do comportamento suicida. Uma das estratégias de prevenção é a formação de "gatekeepers". Objetivo: Determinar o efeito do programa "Abrindo Portas para a Vida" nos conhecimentos, atitudes e práticas na prevenção do comportamento suicida em um grupo de professores do ensino médio de uma instituição educacional em San Juan de Pasto, Colômbia. Materiais e métodos: Estudo pré-experimental, com grupo de intervenção e medidas pré e pós-acompanhamento. Nove professores voluntários participaram durante dois dias de treinamento. Resultados: Foram identificadas mudanças positivas nos conhecimentos, atitudes e práticas dos participantes entre o pré-teste e o pós-teste, na maioria das subdimensões avaliadas; porém, três anos depois, essas mudanças se mantiveram apenas no conhecimento sobre comportamentos suicidas e atitudes frente à prevenção. Conclusão: O programa "Abrindo Portas para a Vida" mostrou efetividade e relevância, porém, a manutenção de seus efeitos requer ações de acompanhamento e apoio a professores capacitados.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Suicidio , Psicología
2.
Trials ; 25(1): 466, 2024 Jul 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38982443

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: More than 50% of people who die by suicide have not been in contact with formal mental health services. The rate of people who fly 'under the radar' of mental health services is higher among men than women, indicating a need to improve engagement strategies targeted towards men who experience suicidal thoughts and/or behaviours. In Australia, a range of mental health support services exist, designed specifically for men, yet, a substantial proportion of men do not use these services. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether a brief online video-based messaging intervention is an effective approach for encouraging men with suicidal thoughts and/or behaviours to engage with existing support services. METHODS: Informed by a literature review, surveys, and consultation with men with a lived experience of suicidal thoughts and/or behaviours, we designed five video-based messages that will be used in this five-arm randomised controlled trial. A total of 380 (76 per arm) men aged 18 years or older with suicidal thoughts who are not currently accessing formal mental health services will be recruited online and randomly assigned to watch one of the five web-based video messages. After viewing the video, men will be presented with information about four existing Australian support services, along with links to these services. The primary outcome will be help-seeking, operationalised as a click on any one of the four support service links, immediately after viewing the video. Secondary outcomes include immediate self-reported help-seeking intentions in addition to self-reported use of the support services during a 1-week follow-up period. We will also use the Discrete Choice Experiment methodology to determine what aspects of support services (e.g. low cost, short appointment wait times) are most valued by this group of men. DISCUSSION: This study is the first to evaluate the effectiveness of a brief web-based video messaging intervention for promoting engagement with existing support services among men with suicidal thoughts who are not currently receiving formal help. If found to be effective, this would represent a scalable, cost-effective approach to promote help-seeking for this at-risk population. Limitations and strengths of this study design are discussed.


Asunto(s)
Ideación Suicida , Prevención del Suicidio , Humanos , Masculino , Intervención basada en la Internet , Grabación en Video , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Suicidio/psicología , Internet , Resultado del Tratamiento , Factores de Tiempo , Salud Mental , Servicios de Salud Mental , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud , Factores Sexuales , Australia
3.
Trials ; 25(1): 460, 2024 Jul 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38971788

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: People with serious mental health problems (SMHP) are more likely to be admitted to psychiatric hospital following contact with crisis services. Admissions can have significant personal costs, be traumatic and are the most expensive form of mental health care. There is an urgent need for treatments to reduce suicidal thoughts and behaviours and reduce avoidable psychiatric admissions. METHODS: A multi-stage, multi-arm (MAMS) randomised controlled trial (RCT) with four arms conducted over two stages to determine the clinical and cost effectiveness of three psychosocial treatments, compared to treatment as usual (TAU), for people with SMHP who have had recent suicidal crisis. Primary outcome is any psychiatric hospital admissions over a 6-month period. We will assess the impact on suicidal thoughts and behaviour, hope, recovery, anxiety and depression. The remote treatments delivered over 3 months are structured peer support (PREVAIL); a safety planning approach (SAFETEL) delivered by assistant psychologists; and a CBT-based suicide prevention app accessed via a smartphone (BrighterSide). Recruitment is at five UK sites. Stage 1 includes an internal pilot with a priori progression criteria. In stage 1, the randomisation ratio was 1:1:1:2 in favour of TAU. This has been amended to 2:2:3 in favour of TAU following an unplanned change to remove the BrighterSide arm following the release of efficacy data from an independent RCT. Randomisation is via an independent remote web-based randomisation system using randomly permuted blocks, stratified by site. An interim analysis will be performed using data from the first 385 participants from PREVAIL, SAFETEL and TAU with outcome data at 6 months. If one arm is dropped for lack of benefit in stage 2, the allocation ratio of future participants will be 1:1. The expected total sample size is 1064 participants (1118 inclusive of BrighterSide participants). DISCUSSION: There is a need for evidence-based interventions to reduce psychiatric admissions, via reduction of suicidality. Our focus on remote delivery of established brief psychosocial interventions, utilisation of different modalities of delivery that can provide sustainable and scalable solutions, which are also suitable for a pandemic or national crisis context, will significantly advance treatment options. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN33079589. Registered on June 20, 2022.


Asunto(s)
Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Trastornos Mentales , Intervención Psicosocial , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Ideación Suicida , Prevención del Suicidio , Humanos , Intervención Psicosocial/métodos , Trastornos Mentales/terapia , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Resultado del Tratamiento , Estudios Multicéntricos como Asunto , Factores de Tiempo , Salud Mental , Telemedicina , Terapia Cognitivo-Conductual/métodos , Aplicaciones Móviles , Intervención en la Crisis (Psiquiatría)/métodos
4.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak ; 34(7): 854-856, 2024 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38978256

RESUMEN

Suicide is a global health concern, with profound social, emotional, and economic repercussions for individuals, families, and communities. Suicidal behaviour among adolescents, encompassing ideation, self-harm, and suicide attempts poses a significant global public health challenge. The cultural, social, and economic factors that contribute to suicide in Pakistan are complex and multifaceted, making it imperative to develop tailored interventions, necessitating collaborative efforts involving researchers, educators, clinicians, practitioners, and policymakers. The purpose of this study is to emphasise the risk factors contributing to adolescent suicidal behaviour and to delve into the strategies and interventions that can help prevent suicide in Pakistan, considering the unique challenges and opportunities within the country. This study highlights the relevance of the WHO (2023) Thinking Healthy Programme and stress management measures tailored to the needs of low- and middle-income nations like Pakistan. These resources empower healthcare workers to enhance mental health screening and identification of adolescents within their communities. In conclusion, dispelling the myths, reducing the societal stigma associated with mental health, and enhancing the accessibility of mental health services is an imperative mission that demands concerted efforts from all sectors of the society. Key Words: Suicide, Adolescent, Mental health, WHO (2023) Thinking Healthy Programme.


Asunto(s)
Ideación Suicida , Prevención del Suicidio , Humanos , Adolescente , Pakistán , Factores de Riesgo , Intento de Suicidio , Conducta del Adolescente/psicología , Suicidio/psicología , Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Servicios de Salud Mental , Salud Mental , Masculino , Femenino
5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 7(6): e2417786, 2024 Jun 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38916891

RESUMEN

Importance: The ELEKT-D: Electroconvulsive Therapy (ECT) vs Ketamine in Patients With Treatment Resistant Depression (TRD) (ELEKT-D) trial demonstrated noninferiority of intravenous ketamine vs ECT for nonpsychotic TRD. Clinical features that can guide selection of ketamine vs ECT may inform shared decision-making for patients with TRD. Objective: To evaluate whether selected clinical features were associated with differential improvement with ketamine vs ECT. Design, Setting, and Participants: This secondary analysis of an open-label noninferiority randomized clinical trial was a multicenter study conducted at 5 US academic medical centers from April 7, 2017, to November 11, 2022. Analyses for this study, which were not prespecified in the trial protocol, were conducted from May 10 to Oct 31, 2023. The study cohort included patients with TRD, aged 21 to 75 years, who were in a current nonpsychotic depressive episode of at least moderate severity and were referred for ECT by their clinicians. Exposures: Eligible participants were randomized 1:1 to receive either 6 infusions of ketamine or 9 treatments with ECT over 3 weeks. Main Outcomes and Measures: Association between baseline factors (including 16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology Self-Report [QIDS-SR16], Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale [MADRS], premorbid intelligence, cognitive function, history of attempted suicide, and inpatient vs outpatient status) and treatment response were assessed with repeated measures mixed-effects model analyses. Results: Among the 365 participants included in this study (mean [SD] age, 46.0 [14.5] years; 191 [52.3%] female), 195 were randomized to the ketamine group and 170 to the ECT group. In repeated measures mixed-effects models using depression levels over 3 weeks and after false discovery rate adjustment, participants with a baseline QIDS-SR16 score of 20 or less (-7.7 vs -5.6 points) and those starting treatment as outpatients (-8.4 vs -6.2 points) reported greater reduction in the QIDS-SR16 with ketamine vs ECT. Conversely, those with a baseline QIDS-SR16 score of more than 20 (ie, very severe depression) and starting treatment as inpatients reported greater reduction in the QIDS-SR16 earlier in course of treatment (-8.4 vs -6.7 points) with ECT, but scores were similar in both groups at the end-of-treatment visit (-9.0 vs -9.9 points). In the ECT group only, participants with higher scores on measures of premorbid intelligence (-14.0 vs -11.2 points) and with a comorbid posttraumatic stress disorder diagnosis (-16.6 vs -12.0 points) reported greater reduction in the MADRS score. Those with impaired memory recall had greater reduction in MADRS during the second week of treatment (-13.4 vs -9.6 points), but the levels of MADRS were similar to those with unimpaired recall at the end-of-treatment visit (-14.3 vs -12.2 points). Other results were not significant after false discovery rate adjustment. Conclusions and Relevance: In this secondary analysis of the ELEKT-D randomized clinical trial of ECT vs ketamine, greater improvement in depression was observed with intravenous ketamine among outpatients with nonpsychotic TRD who had moderately severe or severe depression, suggesting that these patients may consider ketamine over ECT for TRD.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno Depresivo Resistente al Tratamiento , Terapia Electroconvulsiva , Ketamina , Humanos , Ketamina/uso terapéutico , Ketamina/administración & dosificación , Terapia Electroconvulsiva/métodos , Femenino , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Trastorno Depresivo Resistente al Tratamiento/terapia , Adulto , Anciano , Resultado del Tratamiento
6.
BMC Psychiatry ; 24(1): 447, 2024 Jun 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38877441

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Self-harm and suicidal ideation are prevalent among adolescents, cause physical and psychosocial disability, and have potentially life-threatening consequences. Dialectical behavioral therapy for Adolescents (DBT-A) is an evidence-based intervention for reducing self-harm. However, few studies have investigated the effectiveness of DBT-A when delivered in routine clinical practice. METHODS: A follow-up cohort study, based on data from a quality assessment register of DBT-A in child and adolescent mental health services including seven outpatient clinics. Inclusion criteria were ongoing or a history of self-harming behavior the last 6 months; current suicidal behavior; at least 3 criteria of DSM-IV Borderline personality disorder (BPD), or at least the self-destruction criterion of DSM-IV BPD, in addition to minimum 2 subthreshold criteria; and fluency in Norwegian. Participants received 20 weeks of DBT-A consisting of multifamily skills training groups and individual therapy sessions. Outcomes from 41 participants included frequency of self-harm, suicide attempts and hospitalizations caused by self-harm or suicide attempts, assessed pre-, during, and post-treatment by self-report and reviews of the patient's medical records. Suicidal ideation, urge to self-harm and perceived feelings of happiness and sadness were assessed by the patients' diary cards at week 1, 5, 10, 15 and 20 of the treatment program. RESULTS: Participants attended an average of 17.9 (SD = 4.7) individual sessions, 14.7 (SD = 3.4) group-based skills training sessions and 4.6 (SD = 4.1) brief intersession telephone consultations. Moderate to large within-group effect sizes (ES) were found in self-harm from pre-treatment to 1-5 weeks (d = 0.64), 6-10 weeks (d = 0.84), 11-15 weeks (d = 0.99), 16-20 weeks (d = 1.26) and post-treatment (d = 1.68). Nine participants were admitted to hospitalization during DBT-A, whereas five had attempted suicide, but no suicides were completed. No statistically significant changes were found in suicidal ideation, urge to self-harm or perceived feelings of happiness or sadness from pre to post treatment. CONCLUSION: The findings of the current study are promising as the participants reported considerably reduced self-harm behavior after DBT-A treatment in a child and adolescent mental health outpatient setting.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno de Personalidad Limítrofe , Terapia Conductual Dialéctica , Conducta Autodestructiva , Ideación Suicida , Intento de Suicidio , Humanos , Adolescente , Femenino , Terapia Conductual Dialéctica/métodos , Masculino , Conducta Autodestructiva/terapia , Conducta Autodestructiva/psicología , Intento de Suicidio/psicología , Trastorno de Personalidad Limítrofe/terapia , Trastorno de Personalidad Limítrofe/psicología , Resultado del Tratamiento , Estudios de Seguimiento , Niño
7.
BMC Psychiatry ; 24(1): 444, 2024 Jun 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38877487

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Suicide prevention media campaigns are one way of reaching people at increased suicide risk who would otherwise not seek help. This is the first study of a Norwegian campaign directed both at individuals at risk for suicide and at their social network. METHODS: We evaluated a media campaign consisting of outdoor posters, feature articles, film clips, and online banners in print, digital, and social media spread across the Mid-Norway region in late autumn 2022. This campaign material consisted of information about how to seek help for suicide thoughts and mental health problems and how to help a friend in similar situations. Before and after this campaign, 1149 adult individuals living in Mid-Norway participated in a survey on attitudes to suicide, mental ill health, and help-seeking. RESULTS: There were only marginal changes in attitudes and help-seeking literacy after the campaign. This result was sustained when controlling for age, sex, and campaign visibility. For males, there were a few changes in the negative direction, i.e. lack of willingness to seek help from family and friends, after the campaign. CONCLUSION: We conclude that the campaign did not seem to have the desired effect and suggest ways of improving future regional Norwegian media campaigns.


Asunto(s)
Medios de Comunicación de Masas , Prevención del Suicidio , Humanos , Masculino , Noruega , Femenino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven , Conducta de Búsqueda de Ayuda , Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Adolescente , Medios de Comunicación Sociales , Anciano , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/psicología , Suicidio/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
8.
Transl Psychiatry ; 14(1): 248, 2024 Jun 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38858391

RESUMEN

The treatment of suicidal ideation in patients with depression has been a major problem faced by psychiatric and emergency departments, and reasonable drug selection is particularly important. Ketamine has been shown to reduce suicidal ideation rapidly, but the strength of the effect is unclear and there is little evidence-based medical evidence to support this. We systematically searched all articles published on PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, CNKI and EMBASE. Stata 15 and R 4.1.3 were used for meta-analysis, and odds ratios were calculated in fixed effects or random effects models based on the heterogeneity test results. Our search resulted in 505 articles; we analyzed 14 studies, which included 1,380 participants. The 14 studies included 10 randomized controlled trial (RCT) studies and 4 single-arm studies. Our study suggests that, ketamine has a significant therapeutic effect on suicidal ideation throughout the treatment cycle. We performed network meta-analyses(NMA) and pairwise meta-analyses to compare the efficacy of ketamine in the reduction of suicidal ideation. There was a significant reduction in suicidal ideation within the first day after treatment (NMA ketamine day1 RR = 10.02, 95%CI = 4.24 to 23.68). In repeated treatment, the degree of recovery of suicidal ideation after the last dose was significantly greater than that after the first dose (RR = 0.56, 95%CI = 0.51 to 0.62). Recovery of suicidal ideation was also significantly better in the treatment end point than in the placebo group at the same time point (NMA ketamine day26 RR = 4.29, 95%CI = 1.41 to 13.08). This is the first network meta-analysis to demonstrate the role of ketamine in the alleviation of suicidal ideation. Our network meta-analysis also compared the effects of different drugs at different time points, which was not done in previous studies. This is of great reference significance for future drug research andrational drug use.


Asunto(s)
Ketamina , Ideación Suicida , Ketamina/uso terapéutico , Ketamina/farmacología , Humanos , Antidepresivos/uso terapéutico , Trastorno Depresivo/tratamiento farmacológico , Metaanálisis en Red , Resultado del Tratamiento , Depresión/tratamiento farmacológico
9.
Health Promot Int ; 39(3)2024 Jun 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38770901

RESUMEN

Peer support has a long history of helping people navigate mental health challenges and is increasingly utilized within men's mental health promotion initiatives. Despite considerable research conceptualizing and evaluating peer support in various contexts, little is known about the gendered dimensions of men's peer support and mutual help for mental health. This article provides an empirically informed commentary on men's peer support and informal help-seeking preferences to make recommendations for future directions for research and practice. Research examining men's peer support is emergent and the available evidence suggests that there is potential to conceptually align with many men's values and preferences for mental health help-seeking. Peer support offers a non-clinical, strength-based adjunct to professional support that may aid men in navigating a range of mental health challenges. Consideration must be given to the influence of gender socialization and men's diverse experiences with developing and maintaining peer relationships. It should not be assumed that authentic and supportive relationships will naturally form when men congregate together. As a growing number of interventions and programs emerge targeted at boys and men, there are important opportunities to leverage these health promotion efforts to encourage and coach men to engage in mutual help. Opportunities for research and practice are discussed to better understand and harness the health-promoting potential of peer support for men's mental health.


Asunto(s)
Promoción de la Salud , Salud Mental , Grupo Paritario , Apoyo Social , Humanos , Masculino , Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Salud del Hombre
10.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1386031, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38799678

RESUMEN

Strong Teens and Resilient Minds (STORM) is a multimodal, school-based approach for depression and suicide prevention in adolescents that is currently implemented in a region in the Netherlands. The STORM approach will be implemented in new regions in the coming years. This study used the implementation mapping protocol to report on the development of the STORM implementation plan. First, a needs assessment was conducted through semi-structured interviews with stakeholders and brainstorming sessions with regional programme leaders in the two regions that started implementing STORM in 2023. This led to the identification of six main barriers to implementation: high level of demands for schools, insufficient understanding of the programme content, insufficient network collaboration, no perceived relative advantage of STORM by stakeholders, lack of attention to sustainability, and high work pressure. Second, performance and change objectives were formulated based on these barriers. For example, a performance objective for potential providers was that they felt supported by STORM. Third, implementation strategies were selected from theory and translated into practical applications through brainstorming sessions with programme leaders. The following strategies were included in the implementation plan: collaborate with similar initiatives within the region, free up time for STORM tasks, tailor strategies, identify and prepare STORM champions, and promote network weaving. Last, a plan to evaluate the implementation of STORM and the application of the STORM implementation plan was formulated. Planned evaluation research will provide more insight into the usefulness and impact of the STORM implementation plan.


Asunto(s)
Depresión , Prevención del Suicidio , Humanos , Adolescente , Países Bajos , Depresión/prevención & control , Femenino , Desarrollo de Programa , Masculino , Servicios de Salud Escolar , Instituciones Académicas , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Entrevistas como Asunto , Evaluación de Necesidades
11.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1337362, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38694977

RESUMEN

Suicide has emerged as an urgent threat in recent years as COVID-19 impaired the health and economic wellbeing of millions of Americans. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the impact of COVID-19 and the ongoing opioid epidemic has "taken a mental, emotional, physical, and economic toll on individuals, families, and communities," increasing the need for innovative solutions to prevent suicide on a national scale. The National Suicide Hotline Designation Act of 2020 established 988 as the universal telephone number for suicide prevention and represents a key federal intervention to address this crisis. However, research on 9-8-8's effectiveness is limited, given the Act's recent enactment and implementation at the federal and state levels. This policy analysis investigates how and to what extent the mental health crisis system in Georgia has improved since the implementation of the 2020 Act as well as the implications of state law on population-level mental health outcomes. Georgia is used as a nationally representative case study for two reasons: (1) Georgia had a robust statewide suicide hotline prior to 2020, providing solid infrastructure on which federal expansion of a suicide hotline number could be built, and (2) the conflicting characteristics of Georgia's mental health system represent several different pockets of the U.S., allowing this analysis to apply to a broad range of states and locales. The paper draws on takeaways from Georgia to propose state and national policy recommendations for equitable interventions to prevent and respond to this form of violence.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Líneas Directas , Prevención del Suicidio , Humanos , COVID-19/prevención & control , COVID-19/epidemiología , Georgia , Suicidio/estadística & datos numéricos , Estados Unidos , Política de Salud , Formulación de Políticas , Salud Mental
12.
Lancet Psychiatry ; 11(6): 451-460, 2024 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38760112

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: High levels of mental health problems among young people were reported during the COVID-19 pandemic, but studies of the post-pandemic period are scarce. We assessed mental health problems among Finnish youth before, during, and after the COVID-19 pandemic using nationwide population-based samples. Our aim was to examine in which direction the heightened levels of adolescent mental health problems have developed after the pandemic. METHODS: In this national, repeated cross-sectional, population-based study in Finland, we recruited students at lower and upper secondary level (aged 13-20 years) who were taking part in the Finnish School Health Promotion (SHP) survey in 2015-23 (119 681-158 897 participants per round). The SHP is based on total sampling and conducted biennially between March and May. Self-reports covered the seven-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder Scale; the two-item Patient Health Questionnaire for depression; the Mini Social Phobia Inventory for social anxiety; the Short Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale for mental wellbeing; loneliness; the Sick, Control, One Stone, Fat, Food measure for disordered eating; and suicidality (suicidal ideation, deliberate self-harm, and suicide attempts). Scales were dichotomised using validated cutoffs. Presence of any and comorbid mental health problems was assessed. Logistic (for dichotomised outcomes) and linear (for Short Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale) mixed effects models were used to analyse the effect of survey year on mental health, controlling for sociodemographic background factors and stratified by gender and school level. Cisgender and transgender youth were compared. FINDINGS: Between 2015 and 2023, the SHP study recruited 722 488 students (371 634 [51·6%] girls and 348 857 [48·4%] boys) with a mean age of 15·8 years (SD 1·3) who were either in the eighth and ninth grades of comprehensive school or the first and second years of general and vocational upper secondary schools in Finland. The proportion of participants with generalised anxiety, depression, and social anxiety symptoms above the cutoff increased from pre-COVID-19 levels to 2021 and remained at these higher levels in 2023 among all study groups. Among girls in lower secondary education, prevalence of generalised anxiety, depression, and social anxiety symptoms increased from 2021 to 2023, as did social anxiety among girls in upper secondary education. Among boys, the proportion with social anxiety symptoms decreased between 2021 and 2023. Mental wellbeing scores decreased in all groups between 2021 and 2023, and disordered eating increased in girls, and in boys in lower secondary education. Suicidality increased in girls but not in boys. Loneliness was the only measure to show improvement in all groups from 2021 to 2023. In 2023, 55 895 (72·6%) of 76 994 girls and 22 718 (32·8%) of 69 205 boys reported at least one mental health problem, and 37 250 (48·4%) girls and 9442 (13·6%) boys reported comorbid mental health problems. Among both transfeminine and transmasculine youth, the prevalence of generalised anxiety and depression symptoms decreased from 2021 to 2023, but compared with cisgender youth, the proportions were significantly higher throughout. INTERPRETATION: The effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on youth mental health could be long lasting. In this study, the substantial change for the better among transgender youth was a positive exception. Providing adequate support and treatment for young people with poor mental health is essential, but solutions to the mental health crisis need to address a wider societal perspective and should be developed in partnership with young people. FUNDING: NordForsk, Research Council of Finland. TRANSLATIONS: For the Finnish and Swedish translations of the abstract see Supplementary Materials section.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Salud Mental , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/psicología , Adolescente , Estudios Transversales , Masculino , Femenino , Finlandia/epidemiología , Adulto Joven , Salud Mental/estadística & datos numéricos , Trastornos Mentales/epidemiología , Trastornos Mentales/psicología , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Ansiedad/psicología , Ideación Suicida , Estudiantes/psicología , Estudiantes/estadística & datos numéricos , Depresión/epidemiología , Depresión/psicología
13.
Nervenarzt ; 95(7): 651-655, 2024 Jul.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38753178

RESUMEN

Antidepressive pharmacotherapy has undergone various phases in its history. The euphoria of the early years on the relief of depressive symptoms was followed by a long period of clinical experience and intensive scientific work resulting in a more balanced perspective. Current debates circle around the actual effectiveness, especially with respect to long-term treatment, the prevention of suicide and the sequelae of discontinuation of an antidepressant. The evaluation of antidepressants as a group and often also the risk-benefit ratio of an individual treatment change over time. Antidepressants are typical for many forms of psychiatric treatment which, in a term from Hanfried Helmchen, are just as Janus-faced as psychiatry in a general sense is as a science and as a clinical discipline.


Asunto(s)
Antidepresivos , Humanos , Antidepresivos/uso terapéutico , Antidepresivos/efectos adversos , Medición de Riesgo , Prevención del Suicidio , Trastorno Depresivo/tratamiento farmacológico , Resultado del Tratamiento , Medicina Basada en la Evidencia , Psiquiatría
14.
Curr Opin Pediatr ; 36(4): 449-455, 2024 Aug 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38774967

RESUMEN

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to describe the existing limited data related to the use of semaglutide in adolescents with obesity, supplementing with findings from adult studies of semaglutide use. RECENT FINDINGS: Semaglutide, as a once weekly subcutaneous injection for weight management, effectively reduces body mass index (BMI) while improving hyperglycemia, elevated alanine aminotransferase levels, hyperlipidemia, and quality of life in youth with obesity. As of this review, only one large randomized clinical trial of semaglutide in youth has been completed, with a follow-up duration of 68 weeks. Thus, long-term data on the safety in adolescents is limited, particularly regarding the risks of cholelithiasis, pancreatitis, suicidal ideation, and disordered eating. Due to the cost of semaglutide, particularly in the United States, limited cost effectiveness analyses have demonstrated unfavorable incremental cost-effectiveness ratios for semaglutide relative to phentermine-topiramate as an alternative antiobesity medication in adolescents. SUMMARY: Semaglutide represents an important advance in the pediatric obesity management, with clear short-term reductions in BMI and improvement in metabolic parameters. However, its long-term safety and efficacy for youth with obesity remain to be demonstrated. Additional research is needed to assess trends in utilization and adherence to minimize the risk of worsening socioeconomic disparities in pediatric obesity.


Asunto(s)
Fármacos Antiobesidad , Péptidos Similares al Glucagón , Obesidad Infantil , Humanos , Péptidos Similares al Glucagón/uso terapéutico , Péptidos Similares al Glucagón/efectos adversos , Adolescente , Obesidad Infantil/tratamiento farmacológico , Fármacos Antiobesidad/uso terapéutico , Fármacos Antiobesidad/efectos adversos , Resultado del Tratamiento , Índice de Masa Corporal , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Inyecciones Subcutáneas , Pérdida de Peso/efectos de los fármacos , Calidad de Vida
15.
J Affect Disord ; 360: 108-113, 2024 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38788857

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: rTMS is a safe and effective intervention for treatment-resistant depression (TRD). However, there is limited data on its specific impact on suicidal ideation (SI), and the trajectory of SI over the treatment course. OBJECTIVE: This open-label clinical trial investigated SI outcomes and trajectories in patients with TRD receiving low-frequency rTMS (LFR) to the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC; N = 55). METHODS: A latent class mixed-effect model was used to identify response trajectories for SI as well as core mood symptoms. Logistic regression analyses investigated risk factors associated with identified trajectories. RESULTS: For each symptom domain, we identified two distinct trajectories during LFR, one tracking improvement (SI: n = 35, 60 %; mood: n = 29, 53 %) and the other tracking no improvement (SI: n = 20, 40 %; mood: n = 26, 47 %). Male sex, higher baseline anxiety, and higher baseline SI were risk factors for no improvement of SI; while higher baseline anxiety and benzodiazepine use were risk factors for no improvement of mood. Mediation analyses showed that anxiety was a risk factor for no improvement of SI and mood independent of benzodiazepine treatment. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to investigate trajectories of response to LFR to the right DLPFC. SI and mood improved with LFR in most patients but the severity of anxiety symptoms was a factor of poor prognosis for both. Nuanced characterization of SI response to rTMS may lead to critical insights for individualized targeting strategies.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno Depresivo Resistente al Tratamiento , Ideación Suicida , Estimulación Magnética Transcraneal , Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Trastorno Depresivo Resistente al Tratamiento/terapia , Estimulación Magnética Transcraneal/métodos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto , Factores de Riesgo , Corteza Prefontal Dorsolateral , Ansiedad/terapia , Resultado del Tratamiento , Afecto/fisiología
16.
J Clin Psychiatry ; 85(2)2024 Apr 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38696221

RESUMEN

Objective: Although individuals with a family history of alcohol use disorder (AUD) have a superior antidepressant response to ketamine, outcomes in patients with current AUD remain unclear. This study sought to investigate whether intranasal (IN) racemic (R,S)-ketamine had antisuicidal and antidepressant effects in unipolar and bipolar depression and whether comorbid AUD conferred superior antisuicidal outcomes for patients.Methods: This was a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial (May 2018 to January 2022) of single administration, fixed-dose (50 mg) IN (R,S)-ketamine (or saline comparator) in unmedicated inpatients meeting Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision, criteria for a current major depressive episode (bipolar or unipolar), with current suicidal ideation (SI) and past attempt. Patients with and without comorbid AUD were enrolled. Change in Scale for Suicide Ideation score was the primary outcome measure, and change in Montgomery-Åsberg Depression Rating Scale score was the secondary outcome measure.Results: No significant group × time effect was noted for SI (F = 1.1, P = .36). A statistical trend toward superior improvement in suicidality was observed in participants with comorbid AUD. The group × time interaction was significant for improvements in depression (F = 3.06, P = .03) and largely unaffected by comorbid AUD or primary mood disorder type. Within the ketamine group, a significant correlation was observed between improvement in depressive symptoms and SI for patients without comorbid AUD (r =0.927, P = .023) that was absent in patients with AUD (r = 0.39, P = .44).Conclusion: IN ketamine induced rapid antidepressant effects compared to placebo but did not significantly alter SI scores. The treatment was well tolerated. Continued investigation with IN ketamine as a practical alternative to current formulations is warranted.Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03539887.


Asunto(s)
Administración Intranasal , Alcoholismo , Antidepresivos , Trastorno Bipolar , Trastorno Depresivo Mayor , Ketamina , Ideación Suicida , Humanos , Ketamina/administración & dosificación , Ketamina/farmacología , Método Doble Ciego , Masculino , Femenino , Trastorno Bipolar/tratamiento farmacológico , Trastorno Bipolar/complicaciones , Adulto , Proyectos Piloto , Antidepresivos/administración & dosificación , Antidepresivos/uso terapéutico , Trastorno Depresivo Mayor/tratamiento farmacológico , Alcoholismo/tratamiento farmacológico , Persona de Mediana Edad , Comorbilidad , Resultado del Tratamiento
17.
Psychiatry Res ; 337: 115936, 2024 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38705042

RESUMEN

To evaluate the effect of ADHD diagnosis by the age of 10 on the suicide/self-harm risk at age 14 and examine factors that may modify/mediate the association, a longitudinal study based on the nationwide survey consisting of 5,107 children in Australia was used. Self-harm and suicidal risks in children with ADHD at age 14 were the main outcomes; ADHD medication, history of bullied or depression, and other sociodemographic disadvantages, were treated as covariates. The diagnosis of ADHD at age 10 is associated with elevated risks of self-harm, suicidal thoughts, planning, or attempts by age 14, with greater susceptibility in males. The pathway from ADHD symptoms to suicide/self-harm could also be mediated by depression and exposure to bullying assessed at age 12. Note that depression and exposure to bullying might at best contribute to less than 10 % of the total effect of ADHD diagnosis on either the risk of suicide or self-harm. Early gender-tailored intervention and prevention strategies are crucial in clinical practice and health policy.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad , Acoso Escolar , Conducta Autodestructiva , Suicidio , Humanos , Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad/epidemiología , Masculino , Conducta Autodestructiva/epidemiología , Conducta Autodestructiva/psicología , Femenino , Adolescente , Niño , Australia/epidemiología , Suicidio/estadística & datos numéricos , Suicidio/psicología , Estudios Longitudinales , Depresión/epidemiología , Ideación Suicida , Factores de Riesgo
18.
BMC Psychiatry ; 24(1): 341, 2024 May 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38714931

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Major depressive disorder (MDD) is the most disabling and burdensome mental disorder, negatively affecting an individual's quality of life and daily functioning. the current study was conducted with the aim of investigating the clinical effects of intravenous ketamine on symptoms of MDD and suicidal ideation. METHODS: The current randomized clinical trial was carried out on 64 patients diagnosed with treatment-resistant major depressive disorder between April and August 2022. The participants were randomly assigned to two groups: the intervention group received a dose of 0.5 mg/kg of ketamine, while the control group received normal saline. The Montgomery-Asberg Depression Scale and Beck's Suicidal Ideation Scale were utilized to assess depression and suicidal ideation, respectively. RESULTS: One hour after the administration of ketamine treatment, there was a notable and significant improvement in both depression symptoms (35.16 ± 8.13 vs. 14.90 ± 10.09) and suicidal ideation (6.74 ± 6.67 vs. 0.42 ± 1.52). Moreover, there were statistically significant differences in depression scores between the two groups at one hour, four hours, one day, three days, one week, one month, and two months after the administration of ketamine (p-value < 0.001). However, ketamine recipients frequently experienced side effects such as increased heart rate, headache, dizziness, and dissociative syndrome symptoms. CONCLUSION: The observed rapid onset of action and sustained effect demonstrate the potential of ketamine to provide relief from depressive symptoms in a shorter timeframe compared to traditional treatment approaches. These findings contribute to the growing body of evidence supporting the use of ketamine as a valuable therapeutic option for patients with treatment-resistant depression. IRCT REGISTRATION: IRCT registration number: IRCT20210806052096N1; IRCT URL: https://www.irct.ir/trial/62243 ; Ethical code: IR.ZUMS.REC.1400.150; Registration date: 2022-04-09.


Asunto(s)
Antidepresivos , Trastorno Depresivo Mayor , Trastorno Depresivo Resistente al Tratamiento , Ketamina , Ideación Suicida , Humanos , Ketamina/uso terapéutico , Ketamina/administración & dosificación , Masculino , Femenino , Trastorno Depresivo Mayor/tratamiento farmacológico , Adulto , Trastorno Depresivo Resistente al Tratamiento/tratamiento farmacológico , Antidepresivos/uso terapéutico , Antidepresivos/administración & dosificación , Persona de Mediana Edad , Administración Intravenosa , Escalas de Valoración Psiquiátrica , Resultado del Tratamiento
19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38723257

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND AIM: This study evaluated the association between rs1396409 and rs9883258 and the risk of schizophrenia (SCZ) and treatment outcomes in Egyptian patients. METHODS: This study included 88 patients with SCZ and 88 healthy controls. Lipid profile was assayed. Genotyping of rs1396409 and rs9883258 polymorphisms was analyzed using real-time PCR. RESULTS: The rs1396409 AG genotype frequency was significantly associated with SCZ risk (p = 0.002). Also, significant increased risk of SCZ was observed under allelic (p = 0.001), dominant (p = 0.001) and overdominant (p = 0.001) genetic model of rs1396409. However, rs9883258 AA genotype revealed nonsignificant association with SCZ. Cases with the rs1396409AG genotype exhibited hypertriglyceridemia (p < 0.001) and hypercholesterolemia (p = 0.001). In total, 72.3% and 74.5% of the cases presented with rs1396409 AG have negative symptoms (p = 0.022) and exhibited poor drug response (p = 0.023), respectively; all cases with rs1396409 GG genotype attempted suicide (p = 0.002) and are drug-free (p = 0.003). SCZ patients with negative symptoms had hypercholesterolemia (p = 0.008) mainly low-density lipoproteins (LDLc) (p = 0.016), and those with cognitive symptoms presented with low level of high-density lipoprotein (HDLc) (p = 0.023). Moreover, the multivariate regression analysis revealed that both rs1396409 G allele and HDLc were predictors of SCZ (p = 0.003 and 0.001, resp.). CONCLUSION: The current study concluded that metabotropic glutamate receptor 7 (GRM7) rs1396409 AG could be a potential biomarker for SCZ diagnosis. It also revealed an independent association between the GRM7 rs1396409 G allele, HDLc and SCZ development.


Asunto(s)
Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Receptores de Glutamato Metabotrópico , Esquizofrenia , Humanos , Esquizofrenia/genética , Masculino , Femenino , Egipto , Adulto , Receptores de Glutamato Metabotrópico/genética , Resultado del Tratamiento , Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad , Persona de Mediana Edad , Genotipo , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Alelos , Estudios de Asociación Genética
20.
PLoS One ; 19(5): e0300366, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38722970

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Antidepressants are a first-line treatment for depression, yet many patients do not respond. There is a need to understand which patients have greater treatment response but there is little research on patient characteristics that moderate the effectiveness of antidepressants. This study examined potential moderators of response to antidepressant treatment. METHODS: The PANDA trial investigated the clinical effectiveness of sertraline (n = 326) compared with placebo (n = 329) in primary care patients with depressive symptoms. We investigated 11 potential moderators of treatment effect (age, employment, suicidal ideation, marital status, financial difficulty, education, social support, family history of depression, life events, health and past antidepressant use). Using multiple linear regression, we investigated the appropriate interaction term for each of these potential moderators with treatment as allocated. RESULTS: Family history of depression was the only variable with weak evidence of effect modification (p-value for interaction = 0.048), such that those with no family history of depression may have greater benefit from antidepressant treatment. We found no evidence of effect modification (p-value for interactions≥0.29) by any of the other ten variables. CONCLUSION: Evidence for treatment moderators was extremely limited, supporting an approach of continuing discuss antidepressant treatment with all patients presenting with moderate to severe depressive symptoms.


Asunto(s)
Antidepresivos , Depresión , Atención Primaria de Salud , Sertralina , Humanos , Sertralina/uso terapéutico , Masculino , Antidepresivos/uso terapéutico , Femenino , Depresión/tratamiento farmacológico , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto , Resultado del Tratamiento , Anciano , Análisis de Datos , Análisis de Datos Secundarios
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