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1.
Pers Individ Dif ; 184: 111188, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34393312

RESUMEN

Today, we witness the progress toward global COVID-19 vaccinations organized by countries worldwide. Experts say a mass vaccination plan is the only effective antidote against the spread of SARS-COV-2. However, a part of the world population refuses vaccination. The present study aimed to understand the impact of some individual variables on the intention to get vaccinated. Through a serial mediation model, we tested the influence of fear of COVID-19 on the intention to get vaccinated and the serial mediating effect of existential anxiety and conspiracy beliefs. Via a cross-sectional design this research was conducted with the participation of 223 French adults (Female: 69.5%; Male: 30.5%; M age = 30.26, SD = 13.24; range: 18-75 years) who responded to an online survey. The results showed a positive relationship between fear of COVID-19 and intention to get vaccinated; however, when this fear was associated with high levels of existential anxiety through conspiracy beliefs, the intention to get vaccinated decreased. Our findings were in line with Terror Management Health Model, which states that, in facing health threats, humans may strive to reduce their own perceived vulnerability not only by engaging in healthy behaviors but also denying or avoiding death anxiety, as anti-vaxxers do.

2.
Tour Manag ; 88: 104405, 2022 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34456412

RESUMEN

Data from a survey of 1478 travelers and multistep group structural equation model analysis revealed that the Health Belief Model constructs of cues to action (trust in third-party information sources), perceived severity of and susceptibility to COVID-19, and beliefs about the protection benefits of a COVID-19 vaccine, subsequently elicited willingness to vaccinate and beliefs that others should vaccinate prior to travel and enhanced support for pre-travel vaccination mandates. Also, significant differences in the perceived protection benefits of the vaccine and willingness to vaccinate were found across groups of travelers who travel more or less frequently and those with and without a prior positive test for COVID-19. The study provides a theoretically informed understanding of the dynamics that may enable the success of important health-related travel policy in the wake of COVID-19 and future pandemics and identifies the communication mechanisms that must be leveraged by governments and travel authorities in enforcing policy.

4.
Pattern Recognit ; 121: 108197, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34312570

RESUMEN

The current ML approaches do not fully focus to answer a still unresolved and topical challenge, namely the prediction of priorities of COVID-19 vaccine administration. Thus, our task includes some additional methodological challenges mainly related to avoiding unwanted bias while handling categorical and ordinal data with a highly imbalanced nature. Hence, the main contribution of this study is to propose a machine learning algorithm, namely Hierarchical Priority Classification eXtreme Gradient Boosting for priority classification for COVID-19 vaccine administration using the Italian Federation of General Practitioners dataset that contains Electronic Health Record data of 17k patients. We measured the effectiveness of the proposed methodology for classifying all the priority classes while demonstrating a significant improvement with respect to the state of the art. The proposed ML approach, which is integrated into a clinical decision support system, is currently supporting General Pracitioners in assigning COVID-19 vaccine administration priorities to their assistants.

5.
Biomed Signal Process Control ; 71: 103227, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34630624

RESUMEN

To suppress the epidemics caused by a virus such as COVID-19, three effective strategies listing vaccination, quarantine and medical treatments, are employed under suitable policies. Quarantine motions may affect the economic systems and pharmaceutical medications may be recently in the developing phase. Thus, vaccination seems the best hope of the current situation to control COVID-19 epidemics. In this work, the dynamic model of COVID-19 epidemic is developed when the quarantine factor and the antiviral factor are established as free variables. Moreover, the impulsive populations are comprehended for traveling and migrating of individuals. The proposed dynamics with impulsive distractions are employed to generate the online data. Thereafter, the equivalent model is developed by using only the daily data of symptomatic infectious individuals and the optimal vaccination policy is derived by utilizing the closed-loop control topology. The theoretical framework of the proposed schemes validates the reduction of symptomatic infectious individuals by using fewer doses of vaccines comparing with the scheduling vaccination.

6.
Pers Individ Dif ; 185: 111295, 2022 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34629582

RESUMEN

The behavioral immune system is considered to be a psychological adaptation that decreases the risk of infection. Research suggests that, in the current environment, this system can produce attitudes with negative health consequences, such as increased vaccine hesitancy. In three studies, we investigated whether two facets of the behavioral immune system-germ aversion (i.e., aversion to potential pathogen transmission) and perceived infectability (i.e., perceived susceptibility to disease)-predicted intentions to accept COVID-19 and influenza vaccination during the pandemic. The behavioral immune system mechanisms were measured before the COVID-19 pandemic in one study, and during the pandemic in two. In contrast to previous research, those with higher germ aversion during the pandemic perceived vaccines to be safer and had higher intentions to accept vaccination. Germ aversion before the pandemic was not associated with vaccination intentions. Individuals who perceived themselves as more susceptible to disease were slightly more willing to accept vaccination. We conjecture that high disease threat reverses the relationship between the behavioral immune system response and vaccination. As the associations were weak, individual differences in germ aversion and perceived infectability are of little practical relevance for vaccine uptake.

7.
Pers Individ Dif ; 185: 111245, 2022 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34511678

RESUMEN

Vaccination has become one of the most effective ways of controlling the spread of COVID-19. Consequently, revealing the evolutionary and cognitive antecedents of COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy and vaccination intention has become crucial. Drawing on the theory of behavioral immune system (BIS), we investigate whether perceived vulnerability to disease (PVD) is associated with vaccination intentions through the need for cognitive closure (NCC) and vaccine hesitancy. The data was collected from 525 adults from Turkey. The structural equation modeling results indicate that of the two dimensions of PVD, germ aversion predicts COVID-19 vaccination intention through sequential mediation of NCC and vaccine hesitancy. Perceived infectability, on the other hand, is directly and positively related to vaccination intention. By showing the mediating role of NCC, our results offer an insight as to why germ aversion translates into vaccine hesitancy, and low vaccination intention. We discuss the potential benefits of considering the roles of BIS and NCC in campaigns and policies targeted at increasing COVID-19 vaccine uptake and suggest implications for such practices.

8.
Med Gas Res ; 12(2): 67-68, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34677155

RESUMEN

A 76-year-old female received a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccine (CoronaVac, Sinovac®, Beijing, China) and subsequently experienced chest discomfort. A computed tomography performed 1 day after vaccination showed multiple infiltrations in both lungs and ground-glass shadows in both lung fields. Her fingertip oxygen saturation was 81% and there was widespread wheezing on physical examination. Based on these findings, the patient was hospitalized with a preliminary diagnosis of drug-induced pneumonitis and acute asthma exacerbation due to a SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. During her hospitalization, 40 mg/d systemic steroid, 4 times a day salbutamol nebulized, 2 L/min inhaled oxygen therapy and 400 mg/d moxifloxacin intravenous were administered for 5 days. One month later, the thorax computed tomography scan revealed that the previous findings were almost completely regressed.

9.
Comput Stand Interfaces ; 80: 103572, 2022 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34456503

RESUMEN

Owing to the limitations of Pythagorean fuzzy and intuitionistic fuzzy sets, scientists have developed a distinct and successive fuzzy set called the q-rung orthopair fuzzy set (q-ROFS), which eliminates restrictions encountered by decision-makers in multicriteria decision making (MCDM) methods and facilitates the representation of complex uncertain information in real-world circumstances. Given its advantages and flexibility, this study has extended two considerable MCDM methods the fuzzy-weighted zero-inconsistency (FWZIC) method and fuzzy decision by opinion score method (FDOSM) under the fuzzy environment of q-ROFS. The extensions were called q-rung orthopair fuzzy-weighted zero-inconsistency (q-ROFWZIC) method and q-rung orthopair fuzzy decision by opinion score method (q-ROFDOSM). The methodology formulated had two phases. The first phase 'development' presented the sequential steps of each method thoroughly.The q-ROFWZIC method was formulated and used in determining the weights of evaluation criteria and then integrated into the q-ROFDOSM for the prioritisation of alternatives on the basis of the weighted criteria. In the second phase, a case study regarding the MCDM problem of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine distribution was performed. The purpose was to provide fair allocation of COVID-19 vaccine doses. A decision matrix based on an intersection of 'recipients list' and 'COVID-19 distribution criteria' was adopted. The proposed methods were evaluated according to systematic ranking assessment and sensitivity analysis, which revealed that the ranking was subject to a systematic ranking that is supported by high correlation results over different scenarios with variations in the weights of criteria.

11.
Vaccimonitor (La Habana, Print) ; 30(3): 96-104, 2021. tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1341779

RESUMEN

RESUMEN En los últimos años la República Dominicana ha experimentado una importante reducción en las coberturas de vacunación, producto de esta situación son los casos de tétanos y difteria que han surgido recientemente. Con el objetivo de identificar las barreras para la inmunización y determinar el impacto de la COVID-19 en la adherencia a la vacunación, 2.584 dominicanos completaron una encuesta en línea sobre el historial de vacunación personal y las razones para no vacunarse. Además, respondieron preguntas sobre la aceptación de la vacuna contra la COVID-19 y la influencia de la pandemia en su percepción/adherencia a la vacunación. La mayoría de los encuestados no se vacunó durante la pandemia, el principal motivo fue: "no tenía ninguna vacuna programada para este año". Lo que indica que a pesar de que la pandemia dificultó el acceso a los servicios de vacunación, esta no fue la principal barrera para la inmunización en República Dominicana en el 2020. A pesar de que la mayoría de los participantes están a favor de la vacunación, de las vacunas incluidas en nuestro estudio, la vacuna contra sarampión, rubéola y parotiditis (en niños) fue la única que alcanzó el objetivo del Plan de Acción Mundial sobre Vacunas, de lograr una cobertura de vacunación del 90% para el 2020. La principal barrera para la inmunización es el olvido de vacunarse. Es necesario adoptar un sistema de recordatorio eficaz para aumentar la adherencia y mejorar las tasas de inmunización.


ABSTRACT In recent years, the Dominican Republic has experienced a significant reduction in vaccination coverage; cases of tetanus and diphtheria that have recently emerged are a result of this situation. In order to identify barriers to immunization and determine the impact of COVID-19 on vaccination adherence, 2,584 Dominicans completed an online survey on personal vaccination history and reasons for not getting vaccinated. In addition, they answered questions about the acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine and the influence of the pandemic on their perception/adherence to vaccination. Most of those surveyed were not vaccinated during the pandemic, the main reason being: "I had no vaccination scheduled for this year." This indicates that even though the pandemic made it difficult to access vaccination services, this was not the main barrier to immunization in the Dominican Republic in 2020. Despite the fact that most of the participants are in favor of vaccination, of the vaccines included in our study, the only one that reached the goal of the Global Vaccine Action Plan of achieving 90% vaccination coverage by 2020 was measles, mumps and rubella in children. The main barrier to immunization is forgetting to get vaccinated. It is necessary to adopt an effective reminder system to increase adherence and improve immunization rates.

12.
Vaccimonitor (La Habana, Print) ; 30(3): 145-152, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1341784

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT Vaccine development using different platforms is one of the important strategies to address coronavirus disease pandemic. The global need for vaccines requires effective vaccine approaches and collaboration between pharmaceutical and biotechnological companies, governments and the industrial and academic sectors. About 72% of the vaccine candidates are being developed by the private sector, while 28% are carried out by the public sector and different non-profit organizations. COVID-19 vaccines are based on complete viruses (inactivated or attenuated), viral vectors (replicating or not), antigenic subunits (proteins or peptides), nucleic acids (RNA or DNA) or virus-like particles. Important aspects of vaccine development include manufacturing flexibility, speed, cost, safety, cellular and humoral immunogenicity, vaccine stability and cold chain maintenance. Vaccines can be prepared using different manufacturing platforms, computational biology, gene synthesis, structure-based antigen design and protein engineering. Individual confidence, convenience and complacency are factors that affect the attitude towards acceptance of COVID-19 vaccination. This could be complicated by socio-demographic, psychologic, cognitive and cultural factors.


RESUMEN El desarrollo de vacunas utilizando diferentes plataformas es una de las estrategias importantes para abordar la pandemia de COVID-19. La necesidad mundial de vacunas requiere enfoques de vacunas eficaces y la colaboración entre las empresas farmacéuticas y biotecnológicas, los gobiernos y los sectores industrial y académico. Alrededor del 72% de los candidatos vacunales están siendo desarrolladas por el sector privado, mientras que el 28%, por el sector público y diferentes organizaciones sin fines de lucro. Las vacunas contra la COVID-19 se basan en virus completos (inactivados o atenuados), vectores virales (replicantes o no), subunidades antigénicas (proteínas o péptidos), ácidos nucleicos (ARN o ADN) o partículas similares a virus. Aspectos importantes del desarrollo de vacunas incluyen la flexibilidad de fabricación, la velocidad, el costo, la seguridad, la inmunogenicidad celular y humoral, la estabilidad de la vacuna y el mantenimiento de la cadena de frío. Las vacunas se pueden preparar con precisión utilizando diferentes plataformas de fabricación, biología computacional, síntesis de genes, diseño de antígenos basado en estructuras e ingeniería de proteínas. La confianza individual, la conveniencia y la complacencia son factores que afectan la actitud hacia la aceptación de la vacunación contra la COVID-19. Esto podría complicarse por factores sociodemográficos, psicológicos, cognitivos y culturales.

13.
Recurso de Internet en Inglés, Español, Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-48468

RESUMEN

A diretora da Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde (OPAS), Carissa F. Etienne, afirmou que a América Latina e o Caribe estão a caminho de atingir a meta da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) de vacinar 40% de sua população antes do final do ano, mas seis países ainda não vacinaram 20%.


Asunto(s)
Américas , Vacunas contra la COVID-19
14.
Pregunta y respuesta en Portugués | SOF - Segunda Opinión Formativa | ID: sof-44366

RESUMEN

A imunossupressão ocorre geralmente em pessoas que fazem tratamento para doenças autoimunes como Lupos, artrite reumatoide, Doença de Crohn, anemia hemolítica, as espondiloartrites, a artrite psoriásica,  a esclerose sistêmica (esclerodermia), a síndrome de Sjögren, miopatias inflamatórias e as vasculites(1). Pessoas que estão em tratamento pós-transplante de órgãos ou células tronco ou ainda que façam quimioterapia também são consideradas como imunossuprimidas.

Pessoas com imunodepressão igualmente devem tomar a dose de reforço da vacina contra Covid-19, sendo essas as que têm imunodeficiência primária grave, que vivem com HIV/AIDS e que tenham contagem de células CD4+ <200 células/mm³ e pacientes que fazem hemodiálise(1).


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , Inmunosupresión
15.
Recurso de Internet en Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-48465

RESUMEN

Milhares de mulheres que vivem um dos momentos mais especiais da vida já se vacinaram contra a Covid-19 e garantiram a proteção durante a gravidez.


Asunto(s)
Mujeres Embarazadas , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , Vacunación
16.
Recurso de Internet en Inglés, Español, Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-48461

RESUMEN

A diretora da Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde (OPAS), Carissa F. Etienne, anunciou nesta quarta-feira (29) que o organismo internacional firmou um acordo com a Sinovac e está em negociações avançadas com outros fabricantes para adquirir vacinas contra a COVID-19 adicionais em nome de países para complementar acordos bilaterais, doações e doses recebidas por meio do mecanismo COVAX.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , COVID-19
17.
J Med Biochem ; 40(4): 327-334, 2021 Sep 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34616222

RESUMEN

Background: Most studies on immune response after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination focused on serum IgG antibodies and cell-mediated immunity, discounting the role of anti-SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing IgA antibodies in preventing viral infection. This study was aimed to quantify serum IgG and IgA neutralizing antibodies after mRNA COVID-19 vaccination in baseline SARS-CoV-2 seronegative healthcare workers. Methods: The study population consisted of 181 SARSCoV-2 seronegative healthcare workers (median age 42 years, 59.7% women), receiving two doses of Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine BNT162b2 (Comirnaty). Serum samples were collected before receiving the first vaccine dose, 21 days (before the second vaccine dose) and 50 days afterwards. We then measured anti-spike trimeric IgG (Liaison XL, DiaSorin), anti-spike receptor binding domain (RBD) IgG (Access 2, Beckman Coulter) and anti-spike S1 subunit IgA (ELISA, Euroimmun). Results were presented as median and interquartile range (IQR). Results: Vaccine administration elicited all anti-SARS-CoV2 antibodies measured. Thirty days after the second vaccine dose, 100% positivization occurred for anti-spike trimeric IgG and anti-spike RBD IgG, whilst 1.7% subjects remained anti-spike S1 IgA negative. The overall increase of antibodies level ratio over baseline after the second vaccine dose was 576.1 (IQR, 360.7-867.8) for anti-spike trimeric IgG, 1426.0 (IQR, 742.0-2698.6) for anti-spike RBD IgG, and 20.2 (IQR, 12.5-32.1) for anti-spike S1 IgA. Significant inverse association was found between age and overall increase of anti-spike trimeric IgG (r=-0.24; p=0.001) and anti-spike S1 IgA (r=-0.16; p=0.028), but not with anti-spike RBD IgG (r=-0.05; p=0.497). Conclusions: mRNA COVID-19 vaccination elicits sustained serum levels of anti-spike trimeric IgG and anti-spike RBD IgG, while also modestly but significantly increasing those of anti-spike S1 IgA.

18.
J Med Biochem ; 40(4): 335-340, 2021 Sep 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34616223

RESUMEN

Background: Since universal vaccinations represents the most effective strategy to mitigate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), baseline assessment and post-vaccine monitoring of anti-SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies are essential to vaccination programs. Therefore, this study aimed to compare data of five commercial anti-SARS-CoV2 immunoassays after administration of an mRNA vaccine. Methods: Venous blood was collected from three healthcare workers, receiving a double (30 g) dose of BNT162b2 mRNA Covid-19 vaccine (Comirnaty, Pfizer), on the day of the first vaccine dose and then at fixed intervals for the following 2 months. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody response was assayed with Roche Total Ig anti-RBD (receptor binding domain), DiaSorin TrimericS IgG (spike trimer), Beckman Coulter IgG anti-RBD, SNIBE IgG anti-RBD and Technogenetics IgG anti-N/S1. Results: A total number of 45 samples were drawn at the end of the 2-month study period. The Spearman's correlations of absolute anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were always excellent (all p<0.001), comprised between 0.967-0.994. Satisfactory results were also observed when absolute antiSARS-CoV-2 antibodies values of the five methods were compared with the mean consensus value, with correlations always higher than 0.979 (all p<0.001). The agreement of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies positivity versus the consensus median positivity ranged between 0.764 and 1.000 (always p<0.001), but become always >0.900 after readjustment of one assay cutoff. Conclusions: All the immunoassays evaluated in this study appear suitable for monitoring anti-SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies response in subjects undergoing mRNA COVID-19 vaccination.

19.
Front Microbiol ; 12: 675528, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34616371

RESUMEN

The rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 variants has quickly spanned doubts and the fear about their ability escape vaccine protection. Some of these variants initially identified in caged were also found in humans. The claim that these variants exhibited lower susceptibility to antibody neutralization led to the slaughter of 17 million minks in Denmark. SARS-CoV-2 prevalence tests led to the discovery of infected farmed minks worldwide. In this study, we revisit the issue of the circulation of SARS-CoV-2 variants in minks as a model of sarbecovirus interspecies evolution by: (1) comparing human and mink angiotensin I converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) and neuropilin 1 (NRP-1) receptors; (2) comparing SARS-CoV-2 sequences from humans and minks; (3) analyzing the impact of mutations on the 3D structure of the spike protein; and (4) predicting linear epitope targets for immune response. Mink-selected SARS-CoV-2 variants carrying the Y453F/D614G mutations display an increased affinity for human ACE2 and can escape neutralization by one monoclonal antibody. However, they are unlikely to lose most of the major epitopes predicted to be targets for neutralizing antibodies. We discuss the consequences of these results for the rational use of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines.

20.
Glob Pediatr Health ; 8: 2333794X211048738, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34616860

RESUMEN

Background: The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic remains serious public issue. COVID-19 vaccine is a vital strategy to prevent this critical pandemic. However, unwillingness to take this vaccine are key barriers to manage the COVID-19 pandemic. The control of this pandemic will depend principally on the people acceptance of COVID-19 vaccine. Therefore, this systematic review and meta-analysis was intended to determine the acceptance rate toward COVID-19 vaccine in Africa. Methods: African Journals OnLine, PubMed, Cochrane Review, HINARI, EMBASE, Google Scholar, Web of Science, and Scopus were used to retrieve related articles. The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) guidelines were used for this study. Random-effect model, a funnel plot, Egger's test, I 2 statistic, subgroup analysis was done. The study was performed by using a STATA version 11 statistical software. Results: A total of 22 studies with 33,912 study participants were included in this systematic review and meta-analysis. From this finding, the pooled prevalence of acceptance toward COVID-19 vaccine among adults in Africa was 48.93% (95% CI: [39.49, 58.37]). The subgroup analysis revealed that the pooled prevalence of COVID-19 vaccine acceptance among adults in Africa was highest (66.03%, 95% CI [62.84, 69.22]) in Southern Africa, and Lowest (24.28%, 95% CI [3.26, 45.30]) in Northern Africa. Conclusion: This study showed that the estimate of the pooled prevalence of acceptance toward COVID-19 vaccine among adults in Africa was very low. All concerned bodies should be actively involved to improve the acceptance rate of COVID-19 vaccine.

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