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1.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 66(1): 101-105, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36656219

RESUMEN

Context: Coinfection and superadded infections in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been reported on multiple series. The emerging second wave of the pandemic has come with a lot of changes, especially in developing countries like India. One of such changes is sudden, significant rise in mucormycosis cases. Aims: To find out clinicopathological association of invasive mucormycosis with COVID-19 infection status and immunocompromised state. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional study done at a tertiary care centre. Methods and Material: All cases admitted in the dedicated mucormycosis ward between 1-06-2021 and 15-06-2021 were included in the study. The cases were admitted with suspicion of mucormycosis. The histopathological results were correlated with KOH mount and radiological reports. The clinicopathological association of occurrence of mucormycosis in post-covid and non-COVID patients along with other risk factors. Statistical Analysis Used: Odds ratio, chi square test were used to find the association using MS Excel 2010 and SPSS. Results: Thirty-six (81.82%) cases were of the post-COVID status, and 8 cases were non-COVID status. Out of 36 post-COVID patients, 33 (91.67%) showed evidence of invasive mucormycosis and of 8 non-COVIDpatients, 7 had evidence of mucormycosis (odds ratio = 1.57). Out of the total diagnosed cases of mucormycosis, 21 (52.5%) patients were known cases of diabetes mellitus (DM), and 7 (17.5%) cases of newly diagnosed hyperglycemia. Thirty (75%) patients out of 40 had some form of immunocompromised state. This shows statistically significant association of DM and immunocompromised state with the occurrence of mucormycosis in post-COVID patients (chi square value2 = 6.891, P value = 0.008). Twenty-five patients had the history of steroid use during the treatment of COVID-19. Conclusions: The infection with COVID-19 definitely increases the odds of contracting mucormycosis, but most of the cases had diabetes mellitus. So, it is possible that COVID-19 virus predisposes individuals to invasive fungal infection by precipitating DM.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfección , Mucormicosis , Humanos , Mucormicosis/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , COVID-19/complicaciones , COVID-19/epidemiología , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 66(1): 106-110, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36656220

RESUMEN

Background: Mucormycosis, once a rare fungal disease, has now shown a surge in cases, and its epidemiology in India is intriguing. Rising incidence confers the necessity of defining the demography of the population at risk, early diagnosis, and recommendations for the management of mucormycosis in patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) infection. Aims: To study the clinico-epidemological profile, risk factors, and histopathological features of COVID-19-associated Mucormycosis (CAM). Setting and Design: This is a retrospective observational study. Material and Methods: Fifty-six biopsy specimens taken from patients of COVID-19 with clinical suspicion of mucormycosis were included. Results: Diabetes mellitus, corticosteroids, and oxygen therapy were the most common risk factors associated with CAM. The mean duration between the onset of symptoms of COVID-19 and onset of CAM was 25.2 ± 15.3 days. Rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis (ROCM) was present in 24.5% of the cases, with a survival rate of 58.3%. Histopathology showed tissue invasion by branching broad-based, pale, fungal hyphae consistent with mucor in 49 (87.5%) cases. Inflammation was acute neutrophilic type in 61.2% of the patients with a survival rate of 63.33%. The survival rate with chronic non-granulomatous and chronic granulomatous was 100% and 81.8%, respectively. Conclusion: Keeping a high index of suspicion for mucormycosis in COVID-19 by all medical fraternities of the health community in the existence of risk factors is the need of the hour for prompt diagnosis. Biopsy of antral necrotic tissue should be performed immediately after suspicion for histopathological study to confirm the diagnosis of mucormycosis and predict prognosis depending on the type of inflammation incited, fungal morphology, load, and necrosis.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormicosis , Humanos , Mucormicosis/diagnóstico , Mucormicosis/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo , Biopsia , Inflamación
3.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 71(1): 39-56, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36588206

RESUMEN

This study aimed to review the current literature for epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical spectrum and management of rhino-orbito-cerebral-mucormycosis (ROCM), especially highlighting the association between ROCM and COVID-19 disease and factors resulting in its resurgence during the pandemic. Mucormycosis is a rare, but an important emerging opportunistic fungal infection, often associated with high morbidity and mortality. ROCM is the commonest and also the most aggressive clinical form occurring in debilitated patients in conjunction with sinus or para-sinus involvement due to the propensity for contiguous spread. Recently ROCM has shown an unprecedented resurgence during the current pandemic. Reports from different parts of the world indicated an increased risk and incidence of ROCM in patients who had required hospital admission and have recovered from moderate-to-severe COVID-19 disease. A majority of mucormycosis cases have been reported from India. The presence of diabetes mellitus (DM) and use of corticosteroids for COVID-19 pneumonia were found to be the key risk factors, resulting in higher mortality. Amidst the ongoing pandemic, with the third wave already having affected most of the world, it becomes imperative to adopt a risk-based approach toward COVID-19 patients predisposed to developing ROCM. This could be based on the most recently published literature and emerging data from centers across the world. The present review intended to elucidate the causes that brought about the current spike in ROCM and the importance of its early detection and management to reduce mortality, loss of eye, and the need for mutilating debridement.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormicosis , Enfermedades Orbitales , Humanos , Mucormicosis/diagnóstico , Mucormicosis/epidemiología , Mucormicosis/terapia , COVID-19/epidemiología , Nariz , Agresión , India/epidemiología , Enfermedades Orbitales/diagnóstico , Enfermedades Orbitales/epidemiología , Enfermedades Orbitales/terapia
4.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 71(1): 101-108, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36588217

RESUMEN

Purpose: TO report the corneal manifestations in patients with COVID-19-associated rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis (ROCM). Methods: This study was a retrospective, observational, and record-based analysis of patients of ROCM with corneal involvement. Results: A total of 220 patients were diagnosed with ROCM over a period of 3 months. Thirty-two patients had developed corneal manifestations. The mean age at diagnosis was 52.84 ± 12.8 years. The associated risk factors were systemic mucormycosis, uncontrolled diabetes, recent COVID-19 infection, and injudicious use of systemic steroids. Twenty-nine patients were known diabetics, 32 had recent COVID-19 infection, and 13 gave a history of injudicious use of steroids. The right eye (RE) was affected in nine patients, the left eye (LE) in 20 patients, and both eyes in three patients. Nine patients had a round-oval corneal ulcer. One patient each had a perforated corneal ulcer with uveal prolapse, sealed perforated corneal ulcer, spontaneously healed limbal perforation, diffuse corneal haze with hyphemia, panophthalmitis, diffuse corneal stromal abscess, limbal ischemia, anterior uveitis with posterior synechiae, inferior corneal facet, and filamentary keratitis. Three patients each had a corneal melt and inferior conjunctival xerosis with chemosis. Orbital exenteration was performed in six patients. Five patients with corneal ulcers healed. Topical eye drops of amphotericin (0.5 mg/ml) cycloplegic, antiglaucoma medications, and lubricant eye drops were started along with systemic antifungals. Conclusion: Central corneal ulcer was the most common manifestation of mucormycosis. A concentration as low as 0.5 mg/ml of amphotericin eye drops was effective in the treatment.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Úlcera de la Córnea , Mucormicosis , Enfermedades Orbitales , Humanos , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Mucormicosis/complicaciones , Mucormicosis/diagnóstico , Mucormicosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Anfotericina B , Estudios Retrospectivos , COVID-19/complicaciones , Córnea , Antifúngicos/uso terapéutico , Enfermedades Orbitales/diagnóstico , Enfermedades Orbitales/tratamiento farmacológico
5.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 71(1): 249-256, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36588245

RESUMEN

Purpose: To report the clinico-demographic profile of rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis (ROCM) in patients during the "second wave" of the COVID-19 pandemic in eastern India, and their ophthalmic manifestations at presentation to our tertiary institute. Methods: Cross-sectional study amongst patients presenting to our center based on their hospital records. Demographic information, history related to COVID-19, records of detailed ocular examination, and microbiological, radiological, and histopathological investigation were entered into an online worksheet and analyzed using SPSS 26.0. Results: A total of 219 patients with ROCM were treated from May to September 2021, and 110 of these had ocular manifestations at presentation (50.2%). The age of patients ranged from 22 to 83 years and the mean ± standard deviation (SD) age was 49.9 ± 12.9 years. Ninety (81.8%) patients had been diagnosed with diabetes mellitus, 31 (34%) had hypertension, and 10 had other comorbidities. The duration between the onset of COVID-19 and mucormycosis symptoms was 0 to 60 days with a mean ± SD interval of 20.9 ± 12.6 days. Fifty-six (50.9%) patients had a history of steroid use. Unrelenting ocular or facial pain was the most common presenting symptom, ptosis was the most common anterior segment manifestation, and ophthalmic artery occlusion was the most common posterior segment manifestation. Conclusion: Our data from eastern India reinforces the relationship between COVID-19, diabetes, corticosteroid use, and ROCM. Knowledge of various presenting anterior and posterior segment manifestations of the disease as described in the present study will guide clinicians to recognize the disease early and make every effort to prevent complications.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormicosis , Enfermedades Orbitales , Humanos , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Mucormicosis/diagnóstico , Mucormicosis/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Centros de Atención Terciaria , Pandemias , COVID-19/complicaciones , COVID-19/epidemiología , Factores de Riesgo
7.
Cytopathology ; 2023 Jan 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36648323

RESUMEN

The prevalence of invasive fungal infections is increasing especially in immunocompromised individuals. These are associated with high morbidity even with adequate antifungal therapy. We report an unusual case of Medicopsis romeroi species of phaeohyphomycosis wherein fine needle aspiration cytology enabled a rapid diagnosis and emergent treatment.

8.
World Neurosurg ; 2023 Jan 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36639099

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Osteonecrosis in mucormycosis is a rare phenomenon and has been reported usually following trauma or in immunocompromised individuals. Osteonecrosis of skull as a complication of mucormycosis is a very rare presentation, which makes the study ever so rare and interesting. METHODS: Within 6 months, a total of 114 patients presented with mucormycosis as Covid-19 sequel, of which 60 patients underwent FESS. Six of these 60 patients presented with frontal bone osteonecrosis and were included in the study. All 6 patients presented within a time period of 2-4 months' post FESS FINDINGS: One patient out of 6 succumbed to her illness. One patient presented with local recurrence after 3 months for which she underwent re-surgery and debridement. All other 5 patients showed gradual recovery and are without symptoms or radiological progression on 6 month follow up. INTERPRETATION: Osteonecrosis in mucormycosis is a rare phenomenon and the two entities have rarely been reported together. The disease usually limits itself to frontal bone only and pathogenesis for spread is due to a vicious cycle of infection and ischemia. Prompt diagnosis via imaging, aggressive surgical debridement with a good antifungal cover, good patient compliance and a regular follow-up form the mainstay of treatment.

9.
Int Ophthalmol ; 2023 Jan 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36645635

RESUMEN

AIM: To report cumulative mortality rates using survival analysis from an outbreak of 211 patients with post COVID-19 rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis (ROCM) in central India. METHODS: Case files of eligible patients were evaluated and mucor was identified from deep nasal swabs using freshly prepared KOH mount. All patients underwent contrast enhanced MRI and disease staging was done based on the extent of anatomical involvement. All patients received intravenous Amphotericin B and sinus debridement was done when possible. Orbital exenteration was reserved for patients with advanced orbital disease. RESULTS: The mean age was 50.7 ± 10.2 of which 147 (70%) were men. At presentation, ROCM was limited to sinuses in 72 (34%), orbital extension was seen in 102 (48%) and 31 (15%) had CNS extension. Sinus debridement was possible in 82% cases (n = 173). Thirty-five (16.6%) patients died due to ROCM. The mean follow-up of patients who survived was 126.6 ± 16.4 days. The cumulative mortality rate at day 10 was 4.8% (95%CI = 2.6-8.8%) and increased 13.1% (95%CI = 9.1-18.7%) at day 30 and to 18.4% (95%CI = 13.6-24.8%) at day 60. Majority of deaths (n = 26, 75%) occurred within 1-month of ROCM presentation. Multivariable hazards analysis showed that patients with CNS involvement had a 6.5 times higher risk of death (Hazard Ratio = 6.71, 95% CI = 2.9-15.5, p < 0.001). CONCLUSION: We report significantly lower mortality rates compared to recent literature that varies from 30 to 80% at 1-month follow-up. Timely sinus debridement and systemic Amphotericin B can help reduce mortality. Presence of CNS extension significantly increased the mortality risk with patients with ROCM.

10.
J Immunoassay Immunochem ; : 1-14, 2023 Jan 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36602425

RESUMEN

Changes in the immune system participate in the pathogenesis and development of infectious diseases. Previous studies have indicated immune dysregulation in patients suffering from COVID-19 and mucormycosis. Therefore, this study investigated whether interleukin-27 (IL-27) and interleukin-32 (IL-32) levels may participate in the development and outcome of COVID-19 associated mucormycosis (CAM). The blood samples were obtained from 79 patients suffering from COVID-19 and mucormycosis and 25 healthy subjects. The serum samples were isolated from the whole blood and frequencies of some immune cells were measured by a cell counter. The levels of IL-27 and IL-32 were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. IL-27 and IL-32 levels were significantly lower in patients with COVID-19 and mucormycosis than healthy subjects (P < .05), although there was no significant difference in IL-27 between patients with COVID-19 and CAM. IL-27 level was significantly higher in severe COVID-19 survivors than dead cases (P < .01). Patients with CAM had significant increases in NLR compared to COVID-19 patients and healthy individuals (P < .0001-0.01). NLR was significantly associated with COVID-19 outcome (P < .05). Severe COVID-19 survivors had a significant reduction in NLR compared to non-survivors (P < .05). Changes in IL-27 and IL-32 levels may contribute to the pathogenesis of CAM. IL-27 may relate to the pathogenesis and outcomes of mucormycosis in COVID-19 patients.

11.
J Oral Biol Craniofac Res ; 13(2): 207-209, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36712579

RESUMEN

It was a great challenge for the prosthodontist to rehabilitate and sustain the prosthesis in patients with bilateral maxillectomy defects due to mucormycosis seen with Covid-19 during second wave in India. In such extensive defects there was difficulty in retaining the obturator due to the absence of soft tissue or anatomical undercuts, condition of existing dentition, retained inferior turbinates and limitation in taking retention from defect side during healing phase. In such extensive maxillectomy defects, retention, stability and support can be enhanced by maximum preservation of hard and soft tissues, skin grafting and removal of inferior turbinates to provide a larger surface area for stress distribution. But here, in this case series, maxillectomy defects with retained inferior turbinates presented a problem in retaining the obturator prosthesis due to limitation in taking retention from the defect side. The conventional method of fabrication of obturator using autopolymerizing acrylic failed in terms of weight of the prosthesis and in gaining retention from the defect side during healing phase. Therefore, thermoplastic vacuum pressed Polyvinyl chloride sheet (PVC) was used for fabrication of delayed surgical obturator due to many merits conferred by it. Its light weight, non porous nature, easy adaptability, patient comfort, efficient undercut engagement, hygienic nature makes it a good treatment option. The main cocern was to close oro-nasal communication to eliminate the need of nasogastric tube and to prevent nasal regurgitation. In all cases, patients were comfortable with the obturator prosthesis in terms of adaptation and function.

12.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 32(2): 106819, 2023 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36495645

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The Angio-invasive Rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis (ROCM) producing strokes is a less explored entity. Our hospital, a stroke-ready one, had an opportunity to manage mucormycosis when it was identified as the nodal center for mucormycosis management. We are sharing our experiences and mistakes in managing the cerebrovascular manifestations of ROCM. METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study during the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic from 1st May 2021 to 30th September 2021, where consecutive patients aged more than 18 years with microbiologically confirmed cases of ROCM were included. Clinical details (timing of stroke onset after ROCM symptoms, GCS, NIHSS), imaging findings (ASPECTS, the territory of stroke, the pattern of infarct, hemorrhagic transformation, cavernous sinus thrombosis), angiogram findings, management details (IV thrombolysis), and outcomes (mRS at discharge and duration of hospital stay) were documented. We also compared the demographics, clinical features (NIHSS), radiological findings, treatment details, duration of hospital stay, and functional outcome at the discharge of the ROCM stroke patients with stroke patients without ROCM. RESULTS: Stroke developed in 42% of patients with ROCM, predominantly anterior circulation border zone ischemic infarcts. Strokes occurred after a median of five days from the onset of ROCM symptoms. The most common vessel involved was the ophthalmic artery, followed by the cavernous ICA. We could not thrombolyse ROCM stroke patients. ROCM patients who developed stroke compared with patients without stroke had a more infiltrative fungal infection and higher inflammatory markers. Mucormycosis associated stroke patients had higher in-hospital mortality and poor functional outcomes. T CONCLUSION: Due to delayed recognition of stroke symptoms, none received reperfusion strategies, leading to poor functional outcomes. For early stroke detection, ROCM cases need frequent monitoring and education of patients and their relatives about the ALS acronym (loss of ambulation, limb weakness, and loss of speech).


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormicosis , Enfermedades Nasales , Accidente Cerebrovascular , Humanos , Mucormicosis/diagnóstico , Mucormicosis/epidemiología , Mucormicosis/terapia , Curva de Aprendizaje , Pandemias , Enfermedades Nasales/diagnóstico , Enfermedades Nasales/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedades Nasales/microbiología , Antifúngicos/uso terapéutico , COVID-19/complicaciones , Accidente Cerebrovascular/diagnóstico por imagen , Accidente Cerebrovascular/epidemiología
13.
Exp Ther Med ; 25(1): 47, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36569440

RESUMEN

Mucormycosis, which is a life threatening condition, is one of the side effects experienced by post-COVID-19 patients. Early identification and timely treatment are essential to stop the dissemination of the disease, since invasive mucormycosis has a very high fatality rate and significant disease dispersion. Conventional diagnostic techniques, including clinical diagnosis, serology, histopathology and radiology, have limitations in diagnosing the disease at an early stage. This warrants the need for advanced diagnostic tools such as nucleic acid diagnostics, advanced serological tests (ELISpot), PCR (pan-Mucorale test) and multiplex PCR. These techniques have been introduced to identify this invasive fungal infection at an incipient stage, thereby helping clinicians to prevent adverse outcomes. The use of biosensors and micro-needle based diagnostic methodologies will pave the way for devising more point-of-care tests that can be employed for the detection of mucormycosis at an incipient stage. The present review discusses the current techniques available and their drawbacks, and the usefulness of advanced diagnostic tools. Furthermore, the possibility of using future diagnostic methods for the diagnosis of mucormycosis is highlighted.

14.
J Clin Microbiol ; 61(1): e0140922, 2023 Jan 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36533925

RESUMEN

There has been significant increase in the use of molecular tools for the diagnosis of invasive aspergillosis (IA) and mucormycosis. However, their range of detection may be too limited as species diversity and coinfections are increasing. Here, we aimed to evaluate a molecular workflow based on a new multiplex PCR assay detecting the whole Aspergillus genus and the Mucorales order followed by a species-specific PCR or a DNA-sequencing approach for IA and/or mucormycosis diagnosis and species identification on serum. Performances of the MycoGENIE Aspergillus spp./Mucorales spp. duplex PCR kit were analyzed on a broad range of fungal strains and on sera from high-risk patients prospectively over a 12-month period. The kit allowed the detection of nine Aspergillus species and 10 Mucorales (eight genera) strains assessed. No cross-reactions between the two targets were observed. Sera from 744 patients were prospectively analyzed, including 35 IA, 16 mucormycosis, and four coinfections. Sensitivity varies from 85.7% (18/21) in probable/proven IA to 28.6% (4/14) in COVID-19-associated pulmonary aspergillosis. PCR-positive samples corresponded to 21 A. fumigatus, one A. flavus, and one A. nidulans infections. All the disseminated mucormycosis were positive in serum (14/14), including the four Aspergillus coinfections, but sensitivity fell to 33.3% (2/6) in localized forms. DNA sequencing allowed Mucorales identification in serum in 15 patients. Remarkably, the most frequent species identified was Rhizomucor pusillus (eight cases), whereas it is barely found in fungal culture. This molecular workflow is a promising approach to improve IA and mucormycosis diagnosis and epidemiology.


Asunto(s)
Aspergilosis , COVID-19 , Coinfección , Infecciones Fúngicas Invasoras , Mucorales , Mucormicosis , Humanos , Mucormicosis/diagnóstico , Mucormicosis/microbiología , Reacción en Cadena de la Polimerasa Multiplex , Coinfección/diagnóstico , Flujo de Trabajo , Aspergilosis/diagnóstico , Mucorales/genética , Infecciones Fúngicas Invasoras/diagnóstico , Aspergillus/genética , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN , ADN , ADN de Hongos , Prueba de COVID-19
15.
Eur J Med Chem ; 246: 115010, 2023 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36566630

RESUMEN

Mucormycosis is a fungal infection which got worsens with time if not diagnosed and treated. The current COVID-19 pandemic has association with fungal infection specifically with mucormycosis. Already immunocompromised patients are easy target for COVID-19 and mucormycosis as well. COVID-19 infection imparts in weak immune system so chances of infection is comparatively high in COVID-19 patients. Furthermore, diabetes, corticosteroid medicines, and a weakened immune system are the most prevalent risk factors for this infection as we discussed in case studies here. The steroid therapy for COVID-19 patients sometimes have negative impact on the patient health and this state encounters many infections including mucormycosis. There are treatments available but less promising and less effective. So, researchers are focusing on the promising agents against mucormycosis. It is reported that early treatment with liposomal amphotericin B (AmB), manogepix, echinocandins isavuconazole, posacanazole and other promising therapeutic agents have overcome the burden of mucormycosis. Lipid formulations of AmB have become the standard treatment for mucormycosis due to their greater safety and efficacy. In this review article, we have discussed case studies with the infection of mucormycosis in COVID-19 patients. Furthermore, we focused on anti-mucormycosis agents with mechanism of action of various therapeutics, including coverage of new antifungal agents being investigated as part of the urgent global response to control and combat this lethal infection, especially those with established risk factors.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormicosis , Micosis , Humanos , Pandemias , Antifúngicos/farmacología , Antifúngicos/uso terapéutico , Micosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Mucormicosis/diagnóstico , Mucormicosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Mucormicosis/microbiología
18.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 43(1): 103220, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34547717

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: It is an incontrovertible fact that the Rhino Orbital Cerebral Mucormycosis (ROCM) upsurge is being seen in the context of COVID-19 in India. Briefly presented is evidence that in patients with uncontrolled diabetes, a dysfunctional immune system due to SARS-COV-2 and injudicious use of corticosteroids may be largely responsible for this malady. OBJECTIVE: To find the possible impact of COVID 19 infection and various co-morbidities on occurrence of ROCM and demonstrate the outcome based on medical and surgical interventions. METHODOLOGY: Prospective longitudinal study included patients diagnosed with acute invasive fungal rhinosinusitis after a recent COVID-19 infection. Diagnostic nasal endoscopy (DNE) was performed on each patient and swabs were taken and sent for fungal KOH staining and microscopy. Medical management included Injection Liposomal Amphotericin B, Posaconazole and Voriconazole. Surgical treatment was restricted to patients with RT PCR negative results for COVID-19. Endoscopic, open, and combined approaches were utilized to eradicate infection. Follow-up for survived patients was maintained regularly for the first postoperative month. RESULTS: Out of total 131 patients, 111 patients had prior history of SARS COVID 19 infection, confirmed with a positive RT-PCR report and the rest 20 patients had no such history. Steroids were received as a part of treatment in 67 patients infected with COVID 19. Among 131 patients, 124 recovered, 1 worsened and 6 died. Out of 101 known diabetics, 98 recovered and 3 had fatal outcomes. 7 patients with previous history of COVID infection did not have any evidence of Diabetes mellitus, steroid intake or any other comorbidity. CONCLUSION: It can be concluded that ROCM upsurge seen in the context of COVID-19 in India was mainly seen in patients with uncontrolled diabetes, a dysfunctional immune system due to SARS-COV-2 infection and injudicious use of corticosteroids.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/inmunología , Mucormicosis/inmunología , Corticoesteroides/efectos adversos , Antifúngicos/uso terapéutico , COVID-19/epidemiología , Complicaciones de la Diabetes/inmunología , Diagnóstico por Imagen , Endoscopía , Femenino , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mucormicosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Mucormicosis/epidemiología , Pandemias , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Pan Afr Med J ; 42: 312, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36451988

RESUMEN

Introduction: Rhino-orbito-cerebral-mucormycosis (ROCM) is the most common form of mucormycosis observed during the second wave of COVID-19 where a steep rise in the number of cases was seen. The orbital form is almost always associated with fungal sinusitis. Among the various treatment modalities available, the role of retrobulbar Amphotericin-B injections is under-reported. This study is conducted to determine the role of transcutaneous retrobulbar amphotericin-B (TRAMB) in the management of COVID-19 associated ROCM. Methods: a retrospective analysis of 61 patients of COVID-19 associated ROCM was done, who met the inclusion criteria and presented to a tertiary care center, between May to August 2021. These patients were administered TRAMB (deoxycholate/emulsion form) along-with systemic amphotericin B. All the patients were evaluated for clinical improvement. Results: out of 61 patients, 58 (95.08%) showed overall improvement. 40 patients (65.57%) stabilized or improved clinically and 3 patients succumbed to the illness due to advanced systemic mucormycosis and acute kidney failure. Sixteen out of 58 patients underwent orbital exenteration. Out of remaining 43 patients, 35 showed complete recovery of orbital and ocular disease and the disease stabilized in eight patients. Seven patients demonstrated TRAMB associated ocular complications which however completely resolved in six patients. Conclusion: to the best of the author´s knowledge, regression of orbital mucormycosis with improvement in ptosis, proptosis, ocular motility and stabilization of visual acuity are scarcely reported in literature. Further TRAMB as a globe non-deforming treatment modality is an option available for ROCM.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormicosis , Humanos , Mucormicosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Anfotericina B , COVID-19/complicaciones , Estudios Retrospectivos , Nariz
20.
Clin Nephrol Case Stud ; 10: 76-81, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36458102

RESUMEN

India witnessed an epidemic of mucormycosis during the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Renal mucormycosis has been reported rarely, mostly from India, but only 2 cases have been reported following COVID-19 infection to date. We report a case of mucormycosis predominantly affecting kidneys in a young and previously healthy male following COVID-19 pneumonia, for which he had received corticosteroid, remdesivir, and tocilizumab. He presented with hematuria, progressive oliguria, and severe acute kidney injury (AKI) requiring dialysis. The diagnosis was made on kidney biopsy and contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) showed segmental and subsegmental renal artery pseudoaneurysms with distal occlusion of both kidneys. He underwent bilateral nephrectomy and received high-dose amphotericin (AMB) and posaconazole. He developed cardiac arrhythmia and pulmonary edema attributed to AMB-related cardiotoxicity after a cumulative ABM dose of 2,450 mg. This is the first case report describing the survival of a patient with bilateral renal mucormycosis following COVID-19 infection. Our case report highlights the importance of considering mucormycosis in a patient with post-COVID-19 AKI to make an early diagnosis and aggressive management comprising of surgical debridement and high-dose AMB to improve survival.

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