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1.
Infect Drug Resist ; 17: 387-402, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38312523

RESUMEN

With the advent of COVID-19, the number of patients diagnosed with mucormycosis has increased, especially in developing countries. The reason behind this increase is that COVID-19 causes hypoxia that promotes the growth of fungus. To identify the association between mucormycosis and COVID-19, in critically ill or immunocompromised COVID-19 patients. The literature included in the review was researched from October 1, 2021, to November 1, 2022, by using the Google Scholar database as the search engine. Of the 20 articles included, there were 4 case reports, 2 case series, 10 narrative reviews, and 4 quantitative studies. Mucormycetes growth is caused by several factors, including hyperglycemia owing to previously existing diabetes or excessive use of steroids, increased ferritin levels owing to the inflammatory cascade initiated by COVID-19, and immunosuppression caused by the use of steroids or other immunosuppressive therapy. Reduced white-cell count and activity in COVID-19 leads to increased germination of fungal spores hence developing a catastrophic picture of rhinocerebral mucormycosis. Considering that the hematological patient is frequently treated with cortisone, immunosuppressed due to the underlying condition, but also through the administered therapy, the association with a possible diabetes makes this patient susceptible to developing rhinocerebral mucormycosis during COVID-19 infection. Despite being severe, the association between mucormycosis and COVID-19 is specific and treatable. Development of mucormycosis in hematological patients suffering from severe COVID-19 disease is dangerous, yet not compulsory and can be prevented. Using a common steroid-dose protocol with hyperbaric oxygen and necessary preventive measure reveals the disease as a superadded infection. Hypoxia, poor glycemic control and overuse of steroids or immunosuppressive drugs cause it.

2.
J Maxillofac Oral Surg ; 23(1): 135-144, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38312959

RESUMEN

Introduction: Mucormycosis has emerged as one of the most fatal complications arising due to COVID-19, though it has to be mentioned that the disease is capable of causing serious illness even on its own. Objectives: Through this investigation, we would review the threat that mucormycosis poses, in terms of its prevalence and degree of severity both in the pre- and post-COVID world. Materials and Methods: A comprehensive examination of the studies published in online databases turned up 207 papers, 103 of which had undergone in-depth analysis, using both inclusion and exclusion criteria, shortlisting 15 studies that were appropriate for reviewing. Results: The incidence of mucormycosis was linked to coronavirus in 7 of the 15 studies that were chosen. The remaining eight studies had sufferers of various systemic diseases, like HIV/AIDS and diabetes. Discussion: All the cases suffered diabetes mellitus. Regardless of the time period of the chosen article, corticosteroids and antifungal medications were administered to all patients. There were noticeable differences in terms of mortality, predisposing factors, and virulence between pre-COVID and post-COVID mucormycosis. Summary and Conclusion: The prevalence of systemic conditions such as diabetes in cases of mucormycosis has remained the same even after the incidence of this pandemic, showing that the basic treatment modalities continue to remain the same irrespective of the damage that corona virus has caused to the sufferer, although mucormycosis arising due to COVID-19 differs from mucormycosis that was incident before the advent of the pandemic.

3.
Heliyon ; 10(4): e25840, 2024 Feb 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38370187

RESUMEN

Mucormycosis is an invasive opportunistic fungal infection, which may be lethal and mostly affects patients with immunodeficiency or diabetes mellitus. Among Mucorales fungi, Rhizopus spp. is the most common cause of mucormycosis, followed by genera such as Mucor and Lichtheimia. Here we report a patient with severe COVID-19 infection who developed nasal pain, facial swelling, prominent black eschar on the nasal root. CT scan revealed pansinusitis along the maxillary, ethmoidal, and sphenoid sinuses. Mixed mold infection with Rhizopus microsporus and Mucor racemosus was detected by blood metagenomics next-generation sequencing (mNGS) and later nasal mucosa histological investigation confirmed mucormycosis. Severe COVID-19 infection led to the patient's thrombocytopenia and leukopenia. Later disseminated mucormycosis aggravated the infection and sepsis eventually resulted in death. It is the first case report of mucormycosis in which R. microsporus and M. racemosus as the etiologic agents were found simultaneously in one patient. COVID-19 infection combined with disseminated mucormycosisis can be fatal and mNGS is a fast, sensitive and accurate diagnostic method for fungi detection.

4.
Diagnostics (Basel) ; 14(3)2024 Jan 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38337830

RESUMEN

Mucormycosis is an infrequent but fatal illness that mainly affects patients with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, diabetic ketoacidosis, solid and hematologic neoplasms, organ transplantation, chronic steroid intake, prolonged neutropenia, iron overload states, neonatal prematurity, severe malnutrition, and HIV. Many cases were reported across the world recently following the COVID-19 pandemic. Recent research has led to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease, and global guidelines are now available for managing this serious infection. Herein, we comprehensively review the etiological agents, pathogenesis, clinical presentations, diagnosis, and management of mucormycosis.

5.
Turk J Emerg Med ; 24(1): 62-65, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38343519

RESUMEN

Mucormycosis is a progressive and life-threatening disease that has been increasingly reported in patients infected by coronavirus diseases 2019 (COVID-19). We describe a case of rhino-orbital mucormycosis with central nervous system involvement resulting in bilateral blindness and intracranial extension in a patient with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus (DM) and mild COVID-19 infection. A 35-year-old obese male, recently diagnosed with DM, presented to the emergency department suffering from dizziness, headache, speech difficulty, and facial weakness. His glycosylated hemoglobin was 10.4% and his reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test came positive for COVID-19. Ocular examination revealed left eye proptosis, ophthalmoplegia, and lid edema with no ocular movement. Imaging studies showed pansinusitis and periorbital and orbital cellulitis with intracranial involvement. Histopathology and biopsy examination confirmed mucormycosis. Medical management included glucose control and liposomal amphotericin B therapy. Septoplasty and functional endoscopic sinus surgery was performed as emergency procedures. The patient survived with bilateral blindness. In this case, we described the importance of considering mucormycosis in COVID-19 patients with uncontrolled diabetes, particularly those presenting with sinusitis, headache, and orbital edema symptoms. Despite intensive antifungal therapy and surgical intervention, it is a serious opportunistic fungal infection associated with long-term complications.

6.
BJR Case Rep ; 10(1): uaad006, 2024 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38352267

RESUMEN

The coronavirus pandemic is now a public health emergency and has spread to nearly 206 countries across the globe. This novel disease has shaken the psycho-social, economic, and medical infrastructure of India. This has become even more challenging, considering the country's huge population. With the increase in the number of coronavirus disease (COVID) cases, our country has seen an unforeseen, unprecedented rise in a potential life and organ-threatening disease-mucormycosis. Mucormycosis is a deadly, extremely morbid, possibly life-threatening, and most feared complication of the coronavirus, caused by environmental molds belonging to the order Mucorales. Here, we report 2 cases of massive epistaxis due to internal carotid artery (ICA) pseudoaneurysm secondary to mucormycosis, post-COVID-19 pneumonia, which was managed by the endovascular route. To the best of our knowledge, there is very sparse literature available describing endovascular treatment of intracranial ICA pseudoaneurysm in a patient with COVID-induced mucormycosis.

7.
Lung India ; 41(1): 63-66, 2024 Jan 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38165311

RESUMEN

Airway mucormycosis is a fatal opportunistic infection typically seen in immunocompromised individuals. In this case report, we present an unusual instance of tracheal stenosis in a patient with diabetes mellitus who had recently recovered from coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19). Our patient was a 69-year-old male with poorly controlled type-II diabetes mellitus, on oral hypoglycemic agents, who had successfully completed treatment for COVID-19. Approximately one month later, he developed a cough, fever and breathlessness. Several factors, including advanced age, history of smoking and tobacco chewing, the nodular appearance of the trachea on bronchoscopy, hypermetabolic wall of the trachea on positron emission tomography scan and dysplasia on biopsy, initially raised suspicion of malignancy. However, repeated biopsies from multiple sites confirmed the diagnosis of tracheal mucormycosis. The patient was treated with amphotericin-B and posaconazole. We extensively reviewed the literature and found only 14 reported cases to discuss compared to ours.

8.
Mycopathologia ; 189(1): 10, 2024 Jan 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38231407

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Mucormycosis and aspergillosis are angioinvasive infections mainly occurring in immunocompromised patients. However, mixed infection with mucormycosis and aspergillosis in post-COVID-19 patients is rare. In this report, we will report four cases and comprehensively review the published literature on COVID-19 associated mixed infection of aspergillosis and mucormycosis. METHOD: Besides four of our cases, we searched for published articles using PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, and Web of Science databases from the beginning of 2020 until October 2023. RESULT: During the COVID-19 pandemic, we analyzed 52 cases (4 from our research and 48 from other studies). The most common underlying disease (59.6%) was diabetes mellitus. However, 19.2% of COVID-19 patients had no underlying condition. Interestingly, rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis featured prominently in India and Iran, while other countries primarily reported a higher prevalence of pulmonary cases. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, this study highlights the presence of mixed aspergillosis and mucormycosis in COVID-19 patients who previously had common underlying diseases or even a healthy immune system. Therefore, managing COVID-19 patients should involve screening serum and respiratory samples using biomarkers to detect superinfections.


Asunto(s)
Aspergilosis , COVID-19 , Coinfección , Mucormicosis , Humanos , Mucormicosis/complicaciones , Mucormicosis/diagnóstico , Mucormicosis/epidemiología , Pandemias , COVID-19/complicaciones
9.
Future Microbiol ; 2024 Jan 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38294306

RESUMEN

Aim: The study aimed to identify quantitative parameters that increase the risk of rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis, and subsequently developed a machine learning model that can anticipate susceptibility to developing this condition. Methods: Clinicopathological data from 124 patients were used to quantify their association with COVID-19-associated mucormycosis (CAM) and subsequently develop a machine learning model to predict its likelihood. Results: Diabetes mellitus, noninvasive ventilation and hypertension were found to have statistically significant associations with radiologically confirmed CAM cases. Conclusion: Machine learning models can be used to accurately predict the likelihood of development of CAM, and this methodology can be used in creating prediction algorithms of a wide variety of infections and complications.


Fungal infections caused by the Mucorales order of fungi usually target patients with a weakened immune system. They are usually also associated with abnormal blood sugar states, such as in diabetic patients. Recent work during the COVID-19 outbreak suggested that excessive steroid use and diabetes may be behind the rise in fungal infections caused by Mucorales, known as mucormycosis, in India, but little work has been done to see whether we can predict the risk of mucormycosis. This study found that these fungal infections need not necessarily be caused by Mucorales species, but by a wide variety of fungi that target patients with weak immune systems. Secondly, we found that diabetes, breathing-assisting devices and high blood pressure states had associations with COVID-19-associated fungal infections. Finally, we were able to develop a machine learning model that showed high accuracy when predicting the risk of development of these fungal infections.

10.
Mycoses ; 67(1): e13679, 2024 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38214399

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The mechanisms underlying COVID-19-associated pulmonary mucormycosis (CAPM) remain unclear. We use a transcriptomic analysis of the innate immune cells to investigate the host immune and metabolic response pathways in patients with CAPM. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We enrolled subjects with CAPM (n = 5), pulmonary mucormycosis (PM) without COVID-19 (n = 5), COVID-19 (without mucormycosis, n = 5), healthy controls (n = 5) without comorbid illness and negative for SARS-CoV-2. Peripheral blood samples from cases were collected before initiating antifungal therapy, and neutrophils and monocytes were isolated. RNA sequencing was performed using Illumina HiSeqX from monocytes and neutrophils. Raw reads were aligned with HISAT-2 pipeline and DESeq2 was used for differential gene expression. Gene ontology (GO) and metabolic pathway analysis were performed using Shiny GO application and R packages (ggplot2, Pathview). RESULTS: The derangement of core immune and metabolic responses in CAPM patients was noted. Pattern recognition receptors, dectin-2, MCL, FcRγ receptors and CLEC-2, were upregulated, but signalling pathways such as JAK-STAT, IL-17 and CARD-9 were downregulated; mTOR and MAP-kinase signalling were elevated in monocytes from CAPM patients. The complement receptors, NETosis, and pro-inflammatory responses, such as S100A8/A9, lipocalin and MMP9, were elevated. The major metabolic pathways of glucose metabolism-glycolysis/gluconeogenesis, pentose phosphate pathway, HIF signalling and iron metabolism-ferroptosis were also upregulated in CAPM. CONCLUSIONS: We identified significant alterations in the metabolic pathways possibly leading to cellular iron overload and a hyperglycaemic state. Immune responses revealed altered recognition, signalling, effector functions and a pro-inflammatory state in monocytes and neutrophils from CAPM patients.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormicosis , Humanos , Mucormicosis/microbiología , SARS-CoV-2 , Perfilación de la Expresión Génica , Inmunidad Innata
11.
J Cytol ; 41(1): 8-12, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38282813

RESUMEN

Background: The second wave of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic recorded a surge in rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis (ROCM) infection in COVID-19-positive patients with diabetes and on concomitant steroid therapy. The rapidly progressive and devastating nature of the disease necessitated prompt diagnosis and early intervention to improve patient outcomes. Histopathology and fungal culture remain essential tools; however, these investigations have long and variable turn-around times (TATs) and may delay the initiation of treatment. Frozen section is not widely available and should be avoided in COVID-19-positive cases due to the risk of aerosol production and droplet exposure. In cases with high clinicoradiologic suspicion for mucormycosis, imprint cytologic evaluation provides a rapid diagnosis. Familiarity with fungal cytomorphology, awareness of morphologic pitfalls, and implementation of a standardized reporting format aid in diagnostic accuracy. Method: Eighteen COVID-19-positive patients, who were admitted to our hospital with clinical suspicion of mucormycosis during June and July 2021, were included in the study. We used nasal or oral imprint cytology for the initial, rapid detection of Mucor. Cytology findings were correlated with histopathology and fungal culture results. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated. Results: The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV were 100%, 100%, 100% and 100%, respectively. Conclusion: This study showed that imprint cytology can be a rapid, cost-effective, first-line diagnostic modality in Mucor diagnosis.

13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38216422

RESUMEN

The occurrence of mucormycosis has been observed in individuals with COVID-19. However, there is limited information on the epidemiological factors, presentation, diagnostic certainty, and outcome of this infection in children. PubMed, MEDLINE, Scopus, Embase, Web of Science, LitCovid, and back-references of the identified manuscripts were systematically searched from December 2019 to March 2023. We have identified 14 cases of pediatric mucormycosis in patients with COVID-19. The median age of patients was 10.7 years. Among these cases, 10 were associated with active COVID-19. In 7 cases, the patients had pre-existing diabetes mellitus and concomitant diabetic ketoacidosis. Corticosteroids were administered to treat COVID-19 in 7 of the patients. The most common clinical presentation of the disease was rhino-orbital cerebral mucormycosis. Seven patients died (50%). Given the high mortality rate, clinicians should maintain a high level of clinical suspicion of mucormycosis in pediatric patients with COVID-19.

14.
BMJ Case Rep ; 17(1)2024 Jan 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38199654

RESUMEN

Restoring the maxillary resection defect involving the alveolar process, the hard and soft palate and the paranasal sinuses in terms of phonetics, mastication and deglutition is more challenging, especially with young patients with aesthetic concerns.This case report describes the prosthodontic rehabilitation of a young patient with a unilateral subtotal maxillectomy due to post-COVID-19 mucormycosis. A patient-specific subperiosteal implant was planned to rehabilitate the patient's bony defect. Using postsurgical CT, a customised subperiosteal titanium framework was fabricated by the direct metal laser sintering method using grade IV titanium alloy. The fabricated framework was implanted over the patient's zygomatic anatomic contour. Three months later, the patient-specific implant was unveiled to the oral cavity, an open-tray impression was made and the fixed implant prosthesis was fabricated.This case report opens a new realm of rehabilitation for severely compromised maxillary bony defects and impaired oral functioning with no other viable conventional reconstruction options.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Implantes Dentales , Mucormicosis , Humanos , Mucormicosis/cirugía , Prostodoncia , Titanio , Proceso Alveolar
16.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 72(2): 190-194, 2024 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38099361

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: There has been a sudden increase in the number of rhino-orbital mucormycosis cases, primarily affecting patients recovering from COVID-19 infection. The local health authorities have declared the current situation an epidemic. In this study, we assess the role of exenteration in preventing disease progression and improving survival in patients with rhino-orbital mucormycosis. METHODS: The patients undergoing exenteration were grouped into the exenteration arm and those denying exenteration were grouped into the nonexenteration arm. The patients were followed at 1 month and 3 months. The 6-month survival data were collected telephonically. Continuous data were presented as Mean ± SD/Median (IQR) depending on the normality distribution of data, whereas the frequency with percentages was used to present the categorical variables. Kaplan-Meier survival curves were created to estimate the difference in survival of patients with exenteration in rhino-orbital mucormycosis versus those without exenteration. RESULTS: A total of 14 patients were recruited for our study based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. All the patients were qualified for exenteration; however, only eight patients underwent exenteration and six patients did not consent to exenteration. At the end of 3 months in the exenteration group, four (50%) patients died. Two patients died within a week of exenteration, whereas two patients died after 2 weeks of exenteration. The deaths in the first week were attributed to septic shock and the deaths happening beyond 2 weeks were attributed to severe meningitis. The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis showed the cumulative probability of being alive at 1 month in the exenteration arm to be 85%, and it decreased to 67% by 53 days and subsequently remained stable until the end of 3 months. CONCLUSION: The Kaplan-Meier survival analysis did not show a survival benefit of exenteration at 3 months and 6 months in COVID-associated rhino-orbital mucormycosis.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Oftalmopatías , Infecciones Fúngicas del Ojo , Mucormicosis , Enfermedades Orbitales , Humanos , Mucormicosis/complicaciones , Mucormicosis/diagnóstico , Mucormicosis/cirugía , Enfermedades Orbitales/diagnóstico , Enfermedades Orbitales/cirugía , Enfermedades Orbitales/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones Fúngicas del Ojo/tratamiento farmacológico , COVID-19/complicaciones , Antifúngicos/uso terapéutico
17.
Med Mycol ; 62(1)2024 Jan 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38130212

RESUMEN

This study aimed to investigate the risk factors associated with intracranial involvement in COVID-19-associated mucormycosis (CAM) and to develop a nomogram model for predicting the risk of intracranial involvement, with a specific focus on perineural spread. An ambispective analysis was conducted on 275 CAM patients who received comprehensive treatment. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed to identify independent risk factors, and a nomogram was created based on the results of the multivariable analysis. The performance of the nomogram was evaluated using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, and the discriminatory capacity was assessed using the area under the curve (AUC). The model's calibration was assessed through a calibration curve and the Hosmer Lemeshow test. In the results, the multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed that age (OR: 1.23, 95% CI 1.06-3.79), HbA1c (OR: 7.168, 95% CI 1.724-25.788), perineural spread (OR: 6.3, 95% CI 1.281-19.874), and the disease stage were independent risk factors for intracranial involvement in CAM. The developed nomogram demonstrated good discriminative capacity with an AUC of 0.821 (95% CI 0.713-0.909) as indicated by the ROC curve. The calibration curve showed that the nomogram was well-calibrated, and the Hosmer Lemeshow test yielded a P-value of 0.992, indicating a good fit for the model. In conclusion, this study found that CAM particularly exhibits perineural spread, which is a predictive factor for intracranial involvement. A nomogram model incorporating age, HbA1c, disease stage, and perineural spread was successfully developed for predicting intracranial involvement in CAM patients in both in-patient and out-patient settings.


Discovery of perineural spread in COVID-19-associated mucormycosis reveals a new predictive model for intracranial complications which is crucial for early intervention.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormicosis , Humanos , Mucormicosis/epidemiología , Mucormicosis/veterinaria , Hemoglobina Glucada , COVID-19/veterinaria , Curva ROC , Factores de Riesgo , Estudios Retrospectivos
18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38081413

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To compare COVID-19-associated pulmonary mucormycosis (CAPM) with COVID-19-associated rhino-orbital mucormycosis (CAROM), ascertain factors associated with CAPM among patients with COVID-19, and identify factors associated with 12-week mortality in CAPM. METHODS: We performed a retrospective multicenter cohort study. All study participants had COVID-19. We enrolled CAPM, CAROM, and COVID-19 subjects without mucormycosis (controls; age-matched). We collected information on demography, predisposing factors, and details of COVID-19 illness. Univariable analysis was used to compare CAPM and CAROM. We used multivariable logistic regression to evaluate factors associated with CAPM (with hypoxemia during COVID-19 as the primary exposure) and 12-week mortality. RESULTS: We included 1,724 cases (CAPM [n=122], CAROM [n=1,602]) and 3,911 controls. Male sex, renal transplantation, multimorbidity, higher neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio, intensive care admission, and cumulative glucocorticoid dose for COVID-19 were significantly higher in CAPM than in CAROM. On multivariable analysis, COVID-19-related hypoxemia (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.388, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.209-4.700), male sex, rural residence, diabetes, serum C-reactive protein, glucocorticoid and zinc use during COVID-19 were independently associated with CAPM. CAPM had a higher 12-week mortality than CAROM (56/107 [52.3%] vs. 413/1356 [30.5%]; p=0.0001). Hypoxemia during COVID-19 (aOR [95% CI], 3.70 [1.34-10.25]) and Aspergillus co-infection (aOR [95% CI], 5.40 [1.23-23.64]) were independently associated with mortality in CAPM, while surgery was associated with better survival. CONCLUSION: CAPM is a distinct entity with a higher mortality than CAROM. Hypoxemia during COVID-19 illness is associated with CAPM. COVID-19 hypoxemia and Aspergillus co-infection were associated with higher mortality in CAPM.

19.
Indian J Pathol Microbiol ; 66(4): 823-828, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38084540

RESUMEN

COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 has been studied and reported widely since November 2019, after its first case was detected in Wuhan, China. It has proven to be a fatal disease worldwide. COVID-19 causes severe disease in patients with immunosuppression and has always been associated with high mortality in such patients. Immunocompromised patients are always at a higher risk of getting co-infections too, and the same is true with COVID-19. It predisposes to the development of many fungal infections of which, mucormycosis is one of the most common ones, especially in the Indian population where a large group of the population is predisposed to diabetes mellitus. India has the world's largest population of diabetic patients; therefore, the prevalence of COVID-19-associated mucormycosis (CAM) is also the highest in India. Also, the use of corticosteroids over a long duration of time predisposes the patients to the development of mucormycosis owing to immunosuppression. Hypoxia, low total leukocyte count, and high ferritin are the other predisposing factors that lead to the growth of mucormycosis associated with COVID-19. Here, we present five cases within a span of 2 months, of mucormycosis-associated COVID-19 with mixed infections of aspergillosis and actinomycetes. Four cases had mucormycosis with aspergillosis and one with mucormycosis with Actinomyces. Three patients recovered fully after being treated with intravenous amphotericin B; however, unfortunately, two of our patients could not be saved.

20.
Ocul Oncol Pathol ; 9(5-6): 115-122, 2023 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38089178

RESUMEN

Introduction: A sharp upsurge in the number of coronavirus disease-associated mucormycosis cases was noted during the second wave of coronavirus disease in India. The fungal hyphae spread from the nasal mucosa, orbit to the brain, hence otherwise called rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis (ROCM). Prompt diagnosis and early initiation of treatment with amphotericin B, aggressive surgical debridement of the PNS, and orbital exenteration, where indicated, are essential for successful outcome. This study is done to enumerate the clinical, radiological, and histopathological findings of post-exenterated specimens of ROCM. Methods: This is a non-randomized cross-sectional study conducted at a tertiary care center. Ten post-exenterated specimens were examined histopathologically for the involvement of the central retinal artery, superior ophthalmic vein (SOV), optic nerve, muscle, and orbital fat showing necrosis.Clinical findings of these 10 patients were studied retrospectively for visual loss, proptosis, extraocular movements for muscle involvement, scleral necrosis, and fundus findings for artery or vein occlusions. Preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings like the number of orbital quadrants showing soft tissue thickening or tissue enhancement, diffusion restriction in the optic nerve, soft tissue enhancement seen at the orbital apex or superior orbital fissure, loss of flow void in the left internal carotid artery, enlargement of the SOV containing filling defect on post-contrast images were noted. Results: Optic nerve involvement was seen in 100% patients clinically, 70% on MRI, and 50% on histopathological examination (HPE). Muscle involvement was seen in 100% patients clinically, 90% on MRI, and 80% on HPE. None of the patients had scleral necrosis clinically. Scleral tenting was seen in 20% patients on MRI and 20% on HPE. Clinically, central retinal artery involvement was seen in 40%, and cilioretinal artery involvement was seen in 10%. MRI could not give much information on artery involvement. Clinically, none of them had central retinal vein occlusion. 20% had an enlarged SOV seen on MRI. HPE showed vascular involvement in 90% of the specimens. Conclusion: Clinical, radiological, and histopathological findings play a major role in the diagnosis, staging, and follow-up of ROCM.

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