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2.
Microb Pathog ; 163: 105388, 2022 Jan 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34995749

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: GI mucormycosis (GI) is a rare but highly lethal infection in patients. There is no single comprehensive review of the literature that demonstrates the various clinical aspects of this infection. METHODS: A structured search of PubMed/Medline was used to collect case reports of GI mucormycosis in patients of all ages published between 2015 and November 2021. RESULTS: Eighty-seven cases were identified through PubMed bibliographic database searches, and final analyses were conducted on 70 adults and ten neonatal patients with GI mucormycosis. Asia had the highest number of reported cases, with 46 (57.5%). Neonatal cases had a mortality rate of 70%, while other cases had a mortality rate of 44%. Corticosteroid therapy and diabetes were the most significant risk factors in patients, while 11% were immunocompetent with no apparent underlying condition. COVID-19 positivity was detected in four adult patients. Moreover, neonatal cases included premature and low-weight infants, metabolic acidosis, and malnutrition. Abdominal pain, fever, and GI perforation were the most common signs of infection, while vomiting occurred in 40% of neonatal cases. In 97% of patients, a histopathologic examination was used to detect infection, whereas culture and molecular methods were used in only 28% and 17% of patients, respectively. Surgery plus anti-infection therapy, anti-infection therapy alone, and surgery alone were used in 61%, 28%, and 11% of patients, respectively. Nonetheless, all neonatal patients underwent surgery. Although used in a small number of patients, posaconazole (30%) and isavuconazole (11%) demonstrated high efficacy in treating patients. CONCLUSION: GI mucormycosis is a rare but highly lethal disease. Treatment of underlying conditions, the use of multiple diagnostic techniques, and appropriate antifungals in conjunction with surgery can all contribute to infection control.

3.
Exp Clin Transplant ; 2022 Jan 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34981710

RESUMEN

Coronavirus disease 2019 increases transplant recipients' susceptibility to rare opportunistic infections as a consequence of the impairment that COVID-19 can cause in the immune system. Mucormycosis is a rare complication but has a high risk of fatal outcome. A 50-year-old woman who received a kidney transplant 10 years previously was admitted to the hospital with COVID-19. During follow-up by the inpatient service, the patient developed pain, edema, and proptosis in the right eye. She was diagnosed with rhino-orbitalcerebral mucormycosis. This is the first reported case of rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis in a renal transplant recipient with COVID-19 infection.

5.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 70(1): 302-305, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34937263

RESUMEN

Rhino-orbital mucormycosis has seen a huge resurgence in patients post COVID-19 infection. In patients with minimal orbital disease and especially with preserved vision, retrobulbar injections of amphotericin B can be of great help in controlling the disease. Instead of giving daily injections of amphotericin B using needles every time, we used an 18-gauge intravenous (IV) cannula with injection port and suture holes to deliver the amphotericin into the orbital space for a period of 5 days. Patients were more compliant and less distressed with this method compared with being given an injection with a needle daily. We got a good response in terms of orbital disease regression with this method. In our review of the literature, we did not come across any such case of amphotericin B injection using an IV cannula. Injection of amphotericin B into the orbit using an IV cannula is a viable and easy treatment option for cases of rhino-orbital mucormycosis.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Infecciones Fúngicas del Ojo , Mucormicosis , Enfermedades Orbitales , Anfotericina B , Antifúngicos/uso terapéutico , Cánula , Infecciones Fúngicas del Ojo/diagnóstico , Infecciones Fúngicas del Ojo/tratamiento farmacológico , Humanos , Mucormicosis/diagnóstico , Mucormicosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Enfermedades Orbitales/diagnóstico , Enfermedades Orbitales/tratamiento farmacológico , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Proc (Bayl Univ Med Cent) ; 35(1): 32-34, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34970028

RESUMEN

Rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis (ROCM) is a life-threatening addition to the COVID-19 disease spectrum and is caused by an angioinvasive saprophytic opportunistic fungus. Early diagnosis is important to avoid disease spread and mortality. Contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging plays a major role in detection of intraorbital and intracranial extension. We present imaging findings of 15 patients with post-COVID-19 rhino-orbito-cerebral mucormycosis who were diagnosed with invasive sinus mucormycosis at our institution and are currently undergoing treatment. All patients were diabetics, and 80% had a history of steroid intake during the course of COVID-19 treatment. There was a male preponderance (73.3%). The maxillary sinus was most commonly involved (86.7%). Orbital and intracranial invasion was seen in 73.3% and 60% of patients, respectively. The presence of retroantral, facial, infratemporal, and orbital fat stranding was an early sign of extrasinus spread. Other common sites of extrasinus involvement were the orbit and face, followed by the orbital apex, masticator space, pterygopalatine fossa, bone, skull base, cavernous sinus, brain, and internal carotid artery. In conclusion, early detection of extrasinus spread of mucormycosis by imaging is important so that aggressive treatment can be given and mortality can be reduced.

7.
Transplant Direct ; 8(1): e1255, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34912944

RESUMEN

Background: COVID-19-associated mucormycosis (CAM) is a recently emerging entity. There is a lack of reports of CAM in organ transplant recipients. Methods: We conducted a multicenter (n = 18) retrospective research in India during November 2020 to July 2021. The purpose of this study was to explore the clinical spectrum, outcome and risk factors for mortality of CAM in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs). Results: The incidence of CAM was 4.4% (61/1382 COVID-19-positive KTRs) with 26.2% mortality. The median age of the cohort was 45 (38-54) y. Twenty (32%) were not hospitalized and 14 (22.9%) were on room air during COVID-19. The proportion of postdischarge CAM was 59.1%, while concurrent CAM was reported in 40.9%. The presentation of CAM was 91.8% rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis and 8.2% pulmonary with 19.6% and 100% mortality, respectively. In the univariable analysis, older age, obesity, difficulty of breathing, high-flow oxygen requirement, and delay in starting therapy were significantly associated with mortality. In the multivariable logistic regression analysis, patients requiring high-flow oxygen therapy [odds ratio (95% confidence interval) = 9.3 (1.6-51); P = 0.01] and obesity [odds ratio (95% confidence interval) = 5.2 (1-28); P = 0.05] was associated with mortality. The median follow-up of the study was 60 (35-60) d. Conclusions: We describe the largest case series of CAM in KTRs. Morality in pulmonary CAM is extremely high. Severe COVID-19 pose extra risk for the development of CAM and associated mortality. Our report will help in better understanding the conundrum and management of CAM.

8.
3 Biotech ; 12(1): 6, 2022 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34900512

RESUMEN

The post-coronavirus disease (COVID-19) mucormycosis is a deadly addition to the pandemic spectrum. Although it's a rare, aggressive, and opportunistic disease, the associated morbidity and mortality are significant. The complex interplay of factors aggravating CAM is uncontrolled diabetes, irrational and excessive use of antibiotics, steroids, and an impaired immune system. Recently, India has been witnessing a rapid surge in the cases of coronavirus disease-associated mucormycosis (CAM), since the second wave of COVID-19. The devastating and lethal implications of CAM had now become a matter of global attention. A delayed diagnosis is often associated with a poor prognosis. Therefore, the rapid and early diagnosis of infection would be life-saving. Prevention and effective management of mucormycosis depend upon its early and accurate diagnosis followed by a multimodal therapeutic approach. The current review summarizes an array of detection methods and highlights certain evolving technologies for early and rapid diagnosis of CAM. Furthermore, several potential management strategies have also been discussed, which would aid in tackling the neglected yet fatal crisis of mucormycosis associated with COVID-19.

9.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 99-109, 2022 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34570905

RESUMEN

A severe pandemic of Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) has been sweeping the globe since 2019, and this time, it did not stop, with frequent mutations transforming into virulent strains, for instance, B.1.1.7, B.1.351, and B.1.427. In recent months, a fungal infection, mucormycosis has emerged with more fatal responses and significantly increased mortality rate. To measure the severity and potential alternative approaches against black fungus coinfection in COVID-19 patients, PubMed, Google Scholar, World Health Organization (WHO) newsletters, and other online resources, based on the cases reported and retrospective observational analysis were searched from the years 2015-2021. The studies reporting mucormycosis with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) coinfection and/or demonstrating potential risk factors, such as a history of diabetes mellitus or suppressed immune system were included, and reports published in non-English language were excluded. More than 20 case reports and observational studies on black fungus coinfection in COVID-19 patients were eligible for inclusion. The results indicated that diabetes mellitus, hyperglycemic, and immunocompromised COVID-19 patients with mucormycosis were at a higher risk. We found that it was prudent to assess the potential risk factors and severity of invasive mycosis via standardized diagnostic and clinical settings. Large-scale studies need to be conducted to identify early biomarkers and optimization of diagnostic methods has to be established per population and geographical variation. This will not only help clinicians around the world to detect the coinfection in time but also will prepare them for future outbreaks of other potential pandemics.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , Coinfección/epidemiología , Mucormicosis/epidemiología , Mucormicosis/mortalidad , SARS-CoV-2/aislamiento & purificación , Diabetes Mellitus/patología , Humanos , Hiperglucemia/patología , Huésped Inmunocomprometido/fisiología , Mucorales/crecimiento & desarrollo , Mucorales/aislamiento & purificación , Mucormicosis/patología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 805: 150355, 2022 Jan 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34818767

RESUMEN

Post COVID-19, mucormycosis occurred after the SARS-CoV-2 has rampaged the human population and is a scorching problem among the pandemic globally, particularly among Asian countries. Invasive mucormycosis has been extensively reported from mild to severe COVID-19 survivors. The robust predisposing factor seems to be uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, comorbidity and immunosuppression acquired through steroid therapy. The prime susceptive reason for the increase of mucormycosis cases is elevated iron levels in the serum of the COVID survivors. A panoramic understanding of the infection has been elucidated based on clinical manifestation, genetic and non- genetic mechanisms of steroid drug administration, biochemical pathways and immune modulated receptor associations. This review lime-lights and addresses the "What", "Why", "How" and "When" about the COVID-19 associated mucormycosis (CAM) in a comprehensive manner with a pure intention to bring about awareness to the common public as the cases are inevitably and exponentially increasing in India and global countries as well. The article also unearthed the pathogenesis of mucormycosis and its association with the COVID-19 sequela, the plausible routes of entry, diagnosis and counter remedies to keep the infection at bay. Cohorts of case reports were analysed to spotlight the link between the pandemic COVID-19 and the nightmare-mucormycosis.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormicosis , Comorbilidad , Hongos , Humanos , Mucormicosis/epidemiología , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Curr Probl Diagn Radiol ; 51(1): 112-120, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34802841

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis has emerged as a major opportunistic infection in patients with COVID-19. High clinical suspicion and prompt imaging are crucial for early diagnosis and management. Our study evaluates imaging characteristics of patients with COVID-19 associated Rhino-orbital-cerebral Mucormycosis (CA-ROCM) in a tertiary care hospital in India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis of clinical and imaging data of patients with CA-ROCM who presented between December 2020 to June 2021 was performed. All patients had microbiologically or histologically proven sino-nasal mucormycosis along with documented SARS-CoV-2 positive RT-PCR test and/or classical lung imaging features of COVID-19 infection. The extent of sinus involvement, bony erosions, extra-sinus soft tissue extension, orbital-intracranial invasion, perineural spread, and vascular complications were assessed. RESULTS: Fifty patients were included for the final analysis. Diabetes was the most common associated comorbidity. Seven patients presented with stage I disease, 18 patients with stage II, and 25 patients with stage III disease. The stage of disease showed a positive statistical correlation with HbA1c levels using Pearson's correlation. The common imaging features were "Black turbinate sign" and nonenhancing sino-nasal mucosa (82%), orbital involvement (76%), and diffusion restriction in the optic nerve (24%). Intracranial involvement was seen as perineural extension into the brain (42%), cerebritis (30%), and internal carotid artery involvement (16%). CONCLUSIONS: CA-ROCM is an acute invasive fungal sinusitis with an aggressive clinical course. Black-turbinate sign and peri-antral soft tissue infiltration are early features, whereas extra-nasal tissue infarction, optic nerve diffusion restriction, and vascular invasion are seen with advanced disease.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Mucormicosis , Enfermedades Orbitales , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Mucormicosis/diagnóstico por imagen , Enfermedades Orbitales/diagnóstico por imagen , Estudios Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Am J Otolaryngol ; 43(1): 103220, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34547717

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: It is an incontrovertible fact that the Rhino Orbital Cerebral Mucormycosis (ROCM) upsurge is being seen in the context of COVID-19 in India. Briefly presented is evidence that in patients with uncontrolled diabetes, a dysfunctional immune system due to SARS-COV-2 and injudicious use of corticosteroids may be largely responsible for this malady. OBJECTIVE: To find the possible impact of COVID 19 infection and various co-morbidities on occurrence of ROCM and demonstrate the outcome based on medical and surgical interventions. METHODOLOGY: Prospective longitudinal study included patients diagnosed with acute invasive fungal rhinosinusitis after a recent COVID-19 infection. Diagnostic nasal endoscopy (DNE) was performed on each patient and swabs were taken and sent for fungal KOH staining and microscopy. Medical management included Injection Liposomal Amphotericin B, Posaconazole and Voriconazole. Surgical treatment was restricted to patients with RT PCR negative results for COVID-19. Endoscopic, open, and combined approaches were utilized to eradicate infection. Follow-up for survived patients was maintained regularly for the first postoperative month. RESULTS: Out of total 131 patients, 111 patients had prior history of SARS COVID 19 infection, confirmed with a positive RT-PCR report and the rest 20 patients had no such history. Steroids were received as a part of treatment in 67 patients infected with COVID 19. Among 131 patients, 124 recovered, 1 worsened and 6 died. Out of 101 known diabetics, 98 recovered and 3 had fatal outcomes. 7 patients with previous history of COVID infection did not have any evidence of Diabetes mellitus, steroid intake or any other comorbidity. CONCLUSION: It can be concluded that ROCM upsurge seen in the context of COVID-19 in India was mainly seen in patients with uncontrolled diabetes, a dysfunctional immune system due to SARS-COV-2 infection and injudicious use of corticosteroids.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/inmunología , Mucormicosis/inmunología , Corticoesteroides/efectos adversos , Antifúngicos/uso terapéutico , COVID-19/epidemiología , Complicaciones de la Diabetes/inmunología , Diagnóstico por Imagen , Endoscopía , Femenino , Humanos , India/epidemiología , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Mucormicosis/tratamiento farmacológico , Mucormicosis/epidemiología , Pandemias , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , SARS-CoV-2
15.
J Clin Imaging Sci ; 11: 62, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34877069

RESUMEN

Mucormycosis (previously called zygomycosis or phycomycosis) is an uncommon opportunistic infection with the gastrointestinal form being the rarest occurrence and one of the most lethal infections known to humanity. The most common risk factors predisposing to develop gastric mucormycosis are uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, stem cell transplantation, or underlying any hematologic malignancy and major trauma. Pain abdomen, hematemesis, and melena are common symptoms which the patient presents. The exact diagnosis of gastric mucormycosis can be missed due rarity of the disease. A high level of suspicion is required in the early diagnosis and management of disease, particularly in immunocompromised patients. The radiological imaging modalities such as CT scan or MRI of the abdomen initially usually reveal non-specific findings such as mucosal wall thickening, mass, and reactive lymphadenopathy and prompt additional investigation with endoscopic or surgical biopsy of the lesions. The disease outcome and mortality are very high with gastrointestinal mucormycosis.

16.
Indian J Crit Care Med ; 25(11): 1314-1317, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34866832

RESUMEN

Infectious diseases with the coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) can be linked to various microbial and fungal coinfections. Mucormycosis is an invasive opportunistic infection that enters as inhalation of fungal spores through the nose or paranasal sinuses in diabetic and immunocompromised patients. We present our experience of managing seven cases of recent COVID-19 infection with uncontrolled diabetes who developed rhino-orbital mucormycosis. All patients were diagnosed by clinical examination and imaging and managed by emergency surgical debridement and liposomal amphotericin-B. A lethal triad of impaired immunity due to COVID-19 infection, state of hyperglycemia, increased use of steroids, or rampant broad-spectrum antimicrobials works as fertile soil and may assist in the growth or alleviation of a fungal infection. Healthcare professionals must be aware of the potential of secondary invasive fungal infections in diabetic patients with moderate to severe category of COVID-19 infectious disease, especially on steroid therapy. How to cite this article: Panwar P, Gupta A, Kumar A, Gupta B, Navriya SC. Mucormycosis in COVID Diabetic Patients: A Horrifying Triad! Indian J Crit Care Med 2021;25(11):1314-1317.

17.
Indian J Crit Care Med ; 25(11): 1318-1319, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34866833

RESUMEN

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19)-associated mucormycosis is on the rise in the Indian subcontinent. We report a unique case of cutaneous mucormycosis in a case of newly diagnosed young diabetic patient with severe COVID-19 pneumonia with post-COVID lung fibrosis. Neither did he have any preceding trauma or wound, nor was there any evidence of any secondary dissemination. Cutaneous mucormycosis without evidence of either is unheard off. Possible risk factors in this case were multiple bacterial secondary infections with the use of higher antibiotics, use of voriconazole for possible aspergillosis, and steroid use. How to cite this article: Tambe RR, Hinduja A, Sunil S, Varaiya A, Joshi A. Cutaneous Mucormycosis in a Patient of Severe COVID-19 Pneumonia: A Rarer than Rare Case Report. Indian J Crit Care Med 2021;25(11):1318-1319.

18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34868899

RESUMEN

Mucormycosis is a fungal infection commonly seen in Indian population, in which aggressive surgical intervention to cut away the infected tissue becomes necessary. This may cause disfigurement and leave open wounds which requires prosthetic replacement for psychological benefit and also protect the inner soft tissues of the patient which are exposed to the foreign bodies. Mucormycosis has shown a sudden surge in recent times associated with patients affected by Covid-19. It is a rare but serious complication which can cause loss of eye, nose and associated structures leaving the patient disfigured. The aim of this case report is to describe an economic but effective nonsurgical treatment option to restore the facial defect using acrylic resin baseplate to enhance retention by using the available undercuts and was packed using silicone material. The prosthesis was retained mechanically and omitted the use of any retentive aids such as the use of spectacles or implants.

19.
Clin Epidemiol Glob Health ; 12: 100917, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34869942

RESUMEN

With numbers of active COVID-19 cases in India falling in recent weeks and the healthcare system finally showing signs of coping with the mucormycosis epidemic, several new reports of COVID-19 cases linked to "white fungus" have emerged. This has led to rising concern with the potential to stretch the capacity of an already burdened healthcare system. Moreover, the implications of this disease in the COVID-19 population and its consequences on the health and socio-economic structure of the country have not been vastly studied. This commentary explores the need for government efforts in the context of containing candidiasis during the pandemic and provides key recommendations on combating this imminent public health challenge.

20.
Cureus ; 13(11): e19208, 2021 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34873538

RESUMEN

Sinonasal mucormycosis is a deadly fungal illness that primarily affects diabetics who are uncontrolled. Numerous cranial nerves can be involved; however, facial nerve palsy has only been observed in a few cases. The main objective of this research is to highlight facial nerve involvement as a clinical sign of sinonasal mucormycosis. Nasal stuffiness, headaches, eye pain, orbital edema, ophthalmoplegia, and vision loss are common symptoms in these mucormycosis patients. The study was done in the Department of Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery, All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), Raipur, India. Nevertheless, 17 patients with facial nerve palsy (lower motor nerve palsy) and sinonasal mucormycosis arrived at our department. All patients were diabetic, and a majority of patients got Schirmer's test positive with severe stage. In the case of mucormycosis, facial nerve palsy is an unusual but noteworthy symptom. This could be misinterpreted as a cerebrovascular accident (CVA), causing the therapy to be delayed. This is critical as early identification, surgical debridement, and adequate therapy of the underlying metabolic imbalance, as well as amphotericin B, are critical for a successful treatment outcome in mucormycosis.

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