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1.
Public Health Nutr ; : 1-12, 2020 Mar 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32131930

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between malnutrition, socioeconomic status (SES) and ethnicity in Chilean adult population. DESIGN: Nationally representative survey (ENS) conducted in 2016-2017. Sociodemographic information, weight, height and hemoglobin (Hb) were measured (2003 ENS). Excess weight was defined as BMI ≥25 kg/m2. Undernutrition included underweight (BMI <18·5 kg/m2), short stature (height <1·49 m in women and <1·62 m in men) or anaemia (Hb <12 g/l). Education and household income level were used as indicators of SES; ethnicity was self-reported. We applied linear combinations of estimators to compare the prevalence of excess weight and undernutrition by SES and ethnicity. SETTING: Chile. PARTICIPANTS: In total, 5082 adults ≥20 years (64 % women) and 1739 women ≥20 years for anaemia analyses. RESULTS: Overall, >75 % of women and men had excess weight. Low SES women either by income or education had higher excess weight ((82·0 (77·1, 86·1) v. 65·0 (54·8, 74·1)) by income; (85·3 (80·6, 89·0) v. 68·2 (61·6, 74·1) %) by education) and short stature (20-49 years; 31(17·9, 48·2) v. 5·2 (2·2,11·4) by education); obesity was also more frequent among indigenous women (20-49 years; 55·8 (44·4, 66·6) v. 37·2 (32·7, 42·0) %) than non-indigenous women. In men, excess weight did not significantly differ by SES or ethnicity, but short stature concentrated in low SES (20-49 years; 47·6 (24·6, 71·6) v. 4·5 (2·1, 9·5) by education) and indigenous men (21·5 (11·9, 5·5, 11·9) v. 8·2 (5·5, 11·9)) (P < 0·05 for all). CONCLUSIONS: In Chile, malnutrition is disproportionately concentrated among women of low SES and indigenous origin; these inequalities should be considered when implementing prevention policies.

2.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; : 1-7, 2020 Jan 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31957526

RESUMEN

Background: Current policy and service provision recommend a woman-centered approach to maternity care and the development of personalized models for clinical assistance. Ethnicity has been recognized as a determinant in the risk calculation of selected obstetric complications. Based on these assumptions, our aims were to describe the linkage between baseline characteristics and maternal ethnicity and to analyze the cost for the local healthcare system, distinguishing mode of delivery, absence or presence of complications at birth, and maternal stay duration for all ethnic groups.Methods: In a 5-year period (2012-16), all women admitted for delivery at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario "A Gemelli" IRCCS, Rome, Italy, were included in the analysis. Maternal demographics, adverse outcomes, and costs were evaluated. Economic calculations were performed by using the "diagnosis-related group" (DRG) approach.Results: A total of 18,093 patients were included in the analysis. An overall care expense of €42,663,481 was calculated. Caucasian was the main ethnicity (90.7%), with 9.3% minority groups. Vaginal delivery (VD) was the most common mode of delivery in all ethnic groups, with a global rate of 59.6%. The highest cesarean section (CS) rates were observed among Maghreb (51.5%) and Afro-Caribbean (47.8%) women. Minority groups had a doubled rate of complicated VD, primarily Afro-Caribbean women (69.9%), followed by Asian (64.1%), Maghreb (63.2%), and Latin American (62.7%) women. Afro-Caribbean women had the highest rate of complicated CS compared to the overall study population (37.6 versus 28.5%, p < .005).Conclusions: Minority groups have increased healthcare costs for birth assistance, mainly due to the higher rates of complications. In a prospective view, two strategies could be planned: first, calculating individualized risk to mitigate the clinical care charge, based on the ad hoc combination of ethnicity, mode of delivery, and obstetric complications; and second, endorsing the current financial return-on-investment opportunity tied to mitigating ethnic disparities in birth outcomes.

3.
J Relig Health ; 59(1): 431-451, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31828596

RESUMEN

Religion, a prominent factor among Black diasporic communities, influences their health outcomes. Given the increase in Black Caribbeans living in the United States, it is important to understand how religion's function among different ethnic groups of Black Americans. We systematically reviewed four databases and included articles of any study design if they (a) focused on the religious experiences of emerging adults (18-29 years) identifying as Black Caribbean in the United States, in light of medical, public health, or mental health outcomes, and (b) were published before November 30, 2018. Study results contribute to future studies' conceptualization and measurement of religion among Black Caribbean emerging adults.


Asunto(s)
Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana , Estado de Salud , Religión , Espiritualidad , Adulto , Afroamericanos , Región del Caribe/etnología , Emigración e Inmigración , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Salud Mental/etnología , Estados Unidos
4.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1047752

RESUMEN

Objetivo: realizar um mapeamento na literatura sobre os estudos que abordam a saúde das mulheres quilombolas. Método: revisão integrativa de literatura de abordagem qualitativa, realizada em três bases de dados, com a utilização da combinação dos descritores: Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano, Mulheres, Saúde, num intervalo temporal de 10 anos. Resultados: emergiram 66 artigos, sendo incluídos 58 para análise e discussão. Formou-se eixos temáticos, onde 25 estavam relacionadas às doenças das mulheres quilombolas e com limitada discussão da promoção da saúde e dos determinantes sociais. Os outros 33 artigos relacionavam-se à contextualização histórica e social dos quilombos, Atenção Primária à Saúde, iniquidade social e violência, racismo e discriminação e acesso das mulheres quilombolas aos serviços de saúde. Conclusão: identificou-se limitações frente a determinação social com foco em pesquisas de cunho biológico e com ênfase na doença, destacando a necessidade imperiosa de estudos voltados a promoção da saúde desta população


Objective: to carry out a mapping in the literature on studies addressing the health of quilombolas women. Method: integrative review of literature of qualitative approach, held in three databases, using the combination of the descriptors: african continental ancestry group, women, health, in a time interval of 10 years. Results: 66 articles emerged, being included 58 for analysis and discussion. It formed themes, and from these 25 were related diseases of the quilombo women and limited discussion of health promotion and social determinants. The other 33 articles were related to the historical and social context of the quilombos, Primary Health Care, social inequity and violence, racism and discrimination and access of quilombos women to health services. Conclusion: we identified limitations front the social determination with focus on research of biological nature and an emphasis on disease, highlighting the necessity of studies regarding at promoting the health of this population


Objetivo: realizar un levantamiento en la literatura sobre los estudios que abordan la salud de las mujeres quilombolas. Método: revisión integrativa de literatura de abordaje cualitativo, realizada en tres bases de datos, con la utilización de combinación de las siguientes palabras clave: Grupo con Ancestrales del Continente Africano, Mujeres, Salud, en un intervalo temporal de 10 años. Resultados: han surgido 66 artículos, de los cuales 58 se ha analizado y discutido. A partir de esto, se ha formado ejes temáticos, de los cuales 25 artículos presentan relación con enfermedades de las mujeres quilombolas y con limitada discusión de la Promoción de la Salud y de los Determinantes Sociales. Los otros 33 artículos presentan relación con la contextualización histórica y social de los quilombos, Atención Primaria a la Salud, iniquidad social y violencia, racismo y discriminación y acceso de las mujeres quilombolas a los servicios de salud. Conclusión: se identificó limitaciones frente a la determinación social con foco en investigaciones de carácter biológico y con énfasis en la enfermedad, destacando la necesidad imperiosa de estudios volcados a la Promoción de la Salud de esta población


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Salud de la Mujer , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana , Determinantes Sociales de la Salud , Brasil , Servicios de Salud para Mujeres
5.
Public Health Nutr ; : 1-9, 2019 Oct 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588883

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To analyse disparities of malnutrition in all its forms by socio-economic indicators in children aged <5 years, adolescent girls and women of reproductive age (WRA). DESIGN: We defined wasting/underweight, stunting/short stature, overweight and obesity following the WHO criteria for children aged <5 years, adolescents and WRA. We evaluated the prevalence of malnutrition by wealth status, education level and ethnicity (indigenous/non-indigenous). SETTING: Guatemalan 2014-2015 National Maternal and Child Health Survey. PARTICIPANTS: Children aged <5 years (n 11 962), adolescent girls aged 15-19 years (n 1086) and WRA aged 20-49 years (n 11 354). RESULTS: Stunting/short stature prevalence among children, adolescents and WRA was 2·8, 2·1 and 2·0 times higher in the poorest compared with the richest; 2·9, 2·9 and 2·1 times higher in the lower educational level than in the highest; and 1·7, 1·7 and 1·6 times higher in the indigenous than in the non-indigenous population. In contrast, overweight/obesity prevalence among children, adolescents and WRA was 1·6, 2·1 and 1·8 times higher in the richest compared with the poorest; 1·6, 1·3 and 1·3 times higher in the higher educational level than in the lowest; and 1·3, 1·7 and 1·3 times higher in the non-indigenous than in the indigenous population. CONCLUSIONS: Stunting/short stature is more prevalent among low-income, low-education and indigenous populations in all age groups. In contrast, overweight/obesity is more prevalent in high-income, high-education and non-indigenous populations in all age groups. These outcomes demonstrate socio-economic and ethnic disparities for malnutrition in all its forms.

6.
J Cross Cult Gerontol ; 34(4): 417-437, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31396808

RESUMEN

Data from the Mexican Census reveal that between 2005 and 2015, nearly two million migrants returned voluntarily to Mexico from the United States. Currently, high rates of voluntary-return migration to Mexico continue at the same time that migration flows to the U.S. steadily decline. This return migration trend presents serious challenges for Mexico, a country that has long struggled to satisfy the health care demands of its population. However, little is known about return migrants' health care needs. In this study, we examine the health risk profiles and healthcare utilization for Mexican return migrants and the non-migrant population. We examine how these outcomes are affected by both the migration and return migration experience of the returnee population, while paying close attention to age-group differences. We employ inverse probability weighting regression adjustment (IPWRA) and logistic regression analysis of a sample of 348,450 respondents from the 2014 National Survey of Demographic Dynamics (ENADID) to test for differences in health conditions between those Mexican return migrants and non-migrants. We then turn to the Survey of Migration at Mexico's Northern Border (EMIF Norte, for its Spanish acronym) for the 2014-2017 period to further assess whether certain characteristics linked to aging and the migration experience influence the prevalence of chronic health conditions, and health insurance coverage among 17,258 returned migrants. Findings reveal that compared to non-migrants, returnees are more likely to be physically impaired. These poor health outcomes are influenced by the migration and return migration experience and vary by age group and duration of residence, the time that has elapsed since returning to Mexico. We do not find an association between return migration and mental or emotional distress. Policy implications are discussed in light of immigration reform and restrictions on eligibility for health insurance coverage for older adults in Mexico.


Asunto(s)
Emigración e Inmigración/tendencias , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Estado de Salud , Cobertura del Seguro , Americanos Mexicanos , Migrantes , Adolescente , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , México/etnología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores Sexuales , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
7.
BMC Med Educ ; 19(1): 151, 2019 May 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31096964

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Training in the use of cost-conscious strategies for medical students may prepare new physicians to deliver health care in a more sustainable way. Recently, a role-modeling cost-conscious behaviors scale (RMCCBS) was developed for assessing students' perceptions of their teachers' attitudes to cost consciousness. We aimed to translate the RMCCBS into Brazilian Portuguese, adapt the scale, transculturally, and validate it. METHODS: We adopted rigorous methodological approaches for translating, transculturally adapting and validating the original scale English version into Brazilian Portuguese. We invited all 400 undergraduate medical students enrolled in the 5th and 6th years of a medical course in Northeast Brazil between January and March 2017 to participate. Of the 400 students, 281 accepted to take part in the study. We analyzed the collected data using the SPSS software version 21 and structural equation modeling (SEM) was performed using AMOS SPSS version 18. We conducted exploratory factor analysis (EFA), varimax rotation, with Kaiser Normalization and Principal Axis Factoring extraction method. We conducted confirmatory factor analysis (CFA), using the SEM. We used the following indexes of adherence of the model: Comparative fit index (CFI), Goodness-of-fit index (GFI) and Tucker-Lewis Index (TLI). We considered the Bayesian Information Criterion (BIC) for Sample-size adjusted. The root mean square error of approximation was calculated. Values below 0.08 were considered acceptable. Composite reliability analyzes were performed to evaluate the accuracy of the instrument. Values above 0.70 were considered satisfactory. RESULTS: Of the 281 undergraduate medical students, 195 (69.3%) were female. Mean age of participants was 25.0 ± 2.6 years. In the EFA, the KMO was 0.720 and the Bartlett sphericity test was significant (p < 0.001). We conducted the EFA into two factors: role-modeling cost-conscious behaviors in health (seven items) and health waste behaviors (six items). The 13 item-scale was submitted to composite reliability analyzes, obtaining values of 0.813 and 0.761 for the role-modeling cost-conscious behaviors and the health waste behaviors factors, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that the cost-conscious behaviors scale has good psychometric properties and is a valid and reliable instrument for evaluating medical students' perception of their teachers' cost-conscious behaviors.


Asunto(s)
Competencia Cultural , Gastos en Salud/estadística & datos numéricos , Estudiantes de Medicina/psicología , Traducción , Actitud del Personal de Salud , Brasil , Características Culturales , Análisis Factorial , Humanos , Rol del Médico , Psicometría , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
8.
BMC Public Health ; 19(1): 399, 2019 Apr 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30975126

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Latinos are currently the largest and fastest growing racial/ethnic group in the United States and have the lowest rates nationally of regular sources of primary care. The changing demographics of Latino populations have significant implications for the future health of the nation, particularly with respect to chronic disease. Community-based agencies and clinics alike have a long history of engaging community health workers (CHWs) to provide a broad range of tangible and emotional support strategies for Latinos with chronic diseases. In this paper, we present the protocol for a community intervention designed to evaluate the impact of CHWs in a Community-Clinical Linkage model to address chronic disease through innovative utilization of electronic health records (EHRs) and application of mixed methodologies. Linking Individual Needs to Community and Clinical Services (LINKS) is a 3-year, prospective matched observational study designed to examine the feasibility and impact of CHW-led Community-Clinical Linkages in reducing chronic disease risk and promoting emotional well-being among Latinos living in three U.S.-Mexico border communities. METHODS: The primary aim of LINKS is to create Community-Clinical Linkages between three community health centers and their respective county health departments in southern Arizona. Our primary analysis is to examine the impact of the intervention 6 to 12-months post program entry. We will assess chronic disease risk factors documented in the EHRs of participants versus matched non-participants. By using a prospective matched observational study design with EHRs, we have access to numerous potential comparators to evaluate the intervention effects. Secondary analyses include modeling within-group changes of extended research-collected measures. This approach enhances the overall evaluation with rich data on physical and emotional well-being and health behaviors of study participants that EHR systems do not collect in routine clinical practice. DISCUSSION: The LINKS intervention has practical implications for the development of Community-Clinical Linkage models. The collaborative and participatory approach in LINKS illustrates an innovative evaluation framework utilizing EHRs and mixed methods research-generated data collection. TRIAL REGISTRATION: This study protocol was retrospectively registered, approved, and made available on Clinicaltrials.gov by NCT03787485 as of December 20, 2018.


Asunto(s)
Servicios de Salud Comunitaria/organización & administración , Agentes Comunitarios de Salud/organización & administración , Promoción de la Salud/métodos , Hispanoamericanos/estadística & datos numéricos , Arizona , Enfermedad Crónica/prevención & control , Centros Comunitarios de Salud/organización & administración , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , México , Atención Primaria de Salud/organización & administración , Estudios Prospectivos , Conducta de Reducción del Riesgo , Estados Unidos , Adulto Joven
9.
Nutr J ; 18(1): 21, 2019 03 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30922320

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Healthier dietary patterns are generally more costly than less healthy patterns, but dietary costs may be more important for dietary quality in lower educated and ethnic minority groups. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between dietary costs and dietary quality and interactions with ethnicity and socioeconomic position (SEP). METHODS: We used cross-sectional data from 4717 Dutch, Surinamese, Turkish and Moroccan origin participants of the multi-ethnic HELIUS study (the Netherlands), who completed an ethnic-specific food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). The primary outcome measure was dietary quality according to adherence to the Dutch Healthy Diet index 2015 (DHD15-index, range 0-130). Individual dietary costs (the monetary value attached to consumed diets in Euros) were estimated by merging a food price variable with the FFQ nutrient composition database. Regression analyses were used to examine main and interaction effects. Analyses were adjusted for age, sex, smoking, energy intake, physical activity, ethnicity and educational level. RESULTS: Having higher dietary costs was associated with higher dietary quality. Analyses stratified by educational level showed that associations were stronger in higher educated (Btertile3 = 8.06, 95%CI = 5.63; 10.48) than in lower educated participants (Btertile3 = 5.09, 95%CI = 2.74; 7.44). Stratification by ethnic origin showed strongest associations in Turkish participants (Btertile2 = 9.31, 95%CI = 5.96; 12.65) and weakest associations in Moroccan participants (Btertile3 = 4.29, 95%CI = 0.58; 8.01). Regardless of their level of education, Turkish and Moroccan individuals consumed higher quality diets at the lowest cost than Dutch participants. CONCLUSIONS: The importance of dietary costs for dietary quality differs between socioeconomic and ethnic subgroups. Increasing individual food budgets or decreasing food prices may be effective for the promotion of healthy diets, but differential effects across socioeconomic and ethnic subgroups may be expected.


Asunto(s)
Costos y Análisis de Costo , Dieta Saludable/estadística & datos numéricos , Dieta/economía , Grupos Étnicos , Factores Socioeconómicos , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Registros de Dieta , Femenino , Alimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Grupos Minoritarios , Marruecos/etnología , Países Bajos , Suriname/etnología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Turquia/etnología
10.
Medwave ; 19(1): e7470, 2019 Jan 07.
Artículo en Español, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30816880

RESUMEN

Background: The Functional Status Score for the Intensive Care Unit (FSS-ICU) is a valid and reliable instrument to measure physical functioning in the intensive care unit setting. Translation and cross-cultural adaptation in Chile has not been published for the FSS-ICU. Aim: To translate and cross-culturally adapt all associated documents of the original FSS-ICU for Chile. Method: The Spanish version of FSS-ICU, available at www.ImproveLTO.com, was used as the starting point. This version was previously translated, with the original FSS-ICU developers, following established guidelines for this process. The Chilean pocket card version was newly developed based on the English version at www.ImproveLTO.com. Cognitive interviews were conducted for the adaptation of the FSS-ICU and pocket card version to assess understanding of relevant stakeholders (i.e., Chilean intensive care unit physiotherapists). Adaptations to the translation were made when agreement among the physiotherapists was less than 80%. Results: Cognitive interviews of the Chilean FSS-ICU (85 items) and pocket card version (18 items) were performed with 30 Chilean physiotherapists from 18 hospitals (14 public and 4 private). During the interviews, modest adaptations mainly made in the general guidelines and specific instructions for three items of the FSS-ICU and two items of the pocket card. Finally, the frequently asked questions, pocket card and full version of the FSS-ICU were developed. The original developers accepted all adaptations. Conclusions: The Chilean version of the FSS-ICU was easy to understand by the physiotherapists. The FSS-ICU is freely available for non-commercial clinical and research use by Chilean Spanish-speakers.


Asunto(s)
Comparación Transcultural , Estado de Salud , Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos , Chile , Guías como Asunto , Humanos , Entrevistas como Asunto , Lenguaje , Fisioterapeutas , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
11.
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 19(1): 43-52, Jan.-Mar. 2019. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013123

RESUMEN

Abstract Objectives: to analyze the prenatal care of pregnant teenagers interviewed in the post-partum period in Brazilian maternity hospitals, according to economic status and skin color. Methods: data were obtained from the Birth in Brazil study, a national hospital-based survey in 2011 and 2012. Information was obtained from interviews with the postpartum women and from data collected from their prenatal cards. Multivariate logistic regression was used to verify whether maternal and prenatal care characteristics were associated with ina-dequate prenatal care. Results: a total of 3,317 teenage mothers were interviewed in the postpartum period, 84.4% of whom had received inadequate prenatal care, with worse results for lower-income, lower-schooling, and multiparous teens. In the same way, it became evident the higher proportion of black teenagers and those from economic classes D/E among those who failed to receive routine laboratory tests, who received little orientation on the pregnancy, labor, and childbirth, and who were forced to go from one maternity hospital to another before being admitted to give birth. Conclusions: strategies targeted to the most vulnerable pregnant teenagers should be implemented in order to achieve greater equality in teenagers' prenatal care, seeking to assure easier access, earlier initiation of care, and greater case-resolution capacity


Resumo Objetivos: analisar a assistência pré-natal de puérperas adolescentes brasileiras, segundo as características econômicas e de cor da pele. Métodos: foram utilizados dados da pesquisa Nascer no Brasil, um inquérito nacional de base hospitalar, realizado entre 2011 e 2012. As informações foram obtidas por meio de entrevistas com as puérperas e coleta de dados dos cartões de pré-natal. Realizou-se regressão logística multivariada para verificar quais características maternas e dos cuidados recebidos estavam associadas à inadequação da assistência pré-natal. Resultados: um total de 3.317 puérperas adolescentes foram entrevistadas, tendo 84,4% recebido cuidado inadequado durante o pré-natal, com pior resultado para as adolescentes de classe econômica mais baixa, menor escolaridade e multíparas. Do mesmo modo, ficou evidente a maior proporção de adolescentes da classe econômica D/E e de cor da pele preta que não conseguiram realizar exames preconizados como rotina durante a gravidez, que receberam poucas orientações sobre a gestação e parto, e que mais peregrinaram em busca de maternidade para realização do parto. Conclusões: estratégias direcionadas ao grupo de adolescentes mais vulneráveis devem ser implementadas visando maior equidade na assistência pré-natal de adolescentes, buscando garantir acesso facilitado, início precoce da assistência e maior resolutividade.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Embarazo , Adolescente , Embarazo en Adolescencia , Atención Prenatal , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Racismo , Factores Socioeconómicos , Brasil , Salud Materno-Infantil , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Servicios de Salud Materno-Infantil , Inequidad Social
12.
Licere (Online) ; 22(1): I:445-f:472, mar.2019. ilus
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS | ID: biblio-998755

RESUMEN

O lazer ainda é tratado com características eurocêntricas (contraposição ao trabalho). Frente a isso, enfatizamos a necessidade de uma educação para/pelo lazer pautada na matriz afro-brasileira. Para tanto, identificamos modos de fazer e conteúdos dessa matriz em produções realizadas no campo de atuação da educação física. Por meio da revisão sistemática, foram encontrados 42 resultados sendo selecionados 16 estudos, sendo 8 relativos a manifestações culturais afro-brasileiras. Identificamos que as culturas de diferentes matrizes se interagem de formas distintas, promovendo a articulação dos conflitos entre a cultura das mestiçagens que a enredam, das anacronias que a sustentam, por fim, a maneira em que trabalha a hegemonia e as resistências que mobilizam.


Leisure is still treated with eurocentric characteristics (contrast to work). Face of this, we emphasize the needing for an education for leisure based on the African-Brazilian array. To do so, we identify how to making and contents of this array in productions carried out in the field of Physical Education. Through the systematic revision, 42 results were found and we selected 16 studies, 8 were related to AfricanBrazilian cultural manifestations. We identify that the cultures of different arrays interact in distinct ways, promoting the articulation of the conflicts between the culture of the mestizos that tangle it, of the anachronisms that sustain it, and finally, the way in which the Hegemony works and the Resistances that mobilize it.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Cultura , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana , Educación , Actividades Recreativas , Recreación , Religión , Identificación Social , Baile , Música
13.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 43: e17, 2019. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-978884

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT Objective To identify and summarize existing literature on the burden of HIV, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and viral hepatitis (VH) in indigenous peoples and Afro-descendants in Latin America to provide a broad panorama of the quantitative data available and highlight problematic data gaps. Methods Published and grey literature were systematically reviewed to identify documents published in English, Spanish, or Portuguese with data collected between January 2000 and April 2016 on HIV, STI, and VH disease burden among indigenous peoples and Afro-descendants in 17 Latin American countries. Results Sixty-two documents from 12 countries were found. HIV prevalence was generally low (< 1%) but pockets of high prevalence (> 5%) were noted in some indigenous communities in Venezuela (Warao) (9.6%), Peru (Chayahuita) (7.5%), and Colombia (Wayuu females) (7.0%). High active syphilis prevalence (> 5%) was seen in some indigenous communities in Paraguay (11.6% and 9.7%) and Peru (Chayahuita) (6.3%). High endemicity (> 8%) of hepatitis B was found in some indigenous peoples in Mexico (Huichol) (9.4%) and Venezuela (Yanomami: 14.3%; Japreira: 29.5%) and among Afro-descendant quilombola populations in Brazil (Frechal: 12.5%; Furnas do Dionísio: 8.4% in 2008, 9.2% in 2003). Conclusions The gaps in existing data on the burden of HIV, STIs, and VH in indigenous peoples and Afro-descendants in Latin America highlight the need to 1) improve national surveillance, by systematically collecting and analyzing ethnicity variables, and implementing integrated biobehavioral studies using robust methodologies and culturally sensitive strategies; 2) develop a region-wide response policy that considers the needs of indigenous peoples and Afro-descendants; and 3) implement an intercultural approach to health and service delivery to eliminate health access barriers and improve health outcomes for these populations.


RESUMEN Objetivo Identificar y resumir la bibliografía existente sobre la carga de la infección por el VIH, las infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS) y las hepatitis virales en las poblaciones indígenas y afrodescendientes en América Latina para proporcionar un panorama amplio de los datos cuantitativos disponibles y poner de relieve las brechas problemáticas que pudiera haber en los datos. Métodos Se hizo un examen sistemático de la bibliografía publicada y la bibliografía gris para encontrar documentos publicados en inglés, español o portugués con datos recogidos entre enero del 2000 y abril del 2016 sobre la carga de la infección por el VIH, las ITS y las hepatitis virales en las poblaciones indígenas y afrodescendientes en 17 países latinoamericanos. Resultados Se encontraron 62 documentos de 12 países. La prevalencia de la infección por el VIH fue generalmente baja (< 1%), pero se observaron focos de prevalencia alta (> 5%) en algunas comunidades indígenas en Venezuela (Warao) (9,6%), Perú (Chayahuita) (7,5%) y Colombia (las mujeres Wayuus) (7,0%). Se observó prevalencia alta de sífilis activa (> 5%) en algunas comunidades indígenas en Paraguay (11,6% y 9,7%) y Perú (Chayahuita) (6,3%). Se encontró endemicidad alta (> 8%) de la hepatitis B en algunos pueblos indígenas en México (Huichol) (9,4%) y Venezuela (Yanomami: 14,3%; Japreira: 29,5%) y en las poblaciones quilombola de afrodescendientes en Brasil (Frechal: 12,5%; Furnas do Dionísio: 8,4% en el 2008, 9,2% en el 2003). Conclusiones Las brechas en los datos existentes sobre la carga de la infección por el VIH, las ITS y las hepatitis virales en las poblaciones indígenas y afrodescendientes en América Latina destacan la necesidad de: 1) mejorar la vigilancia nacional mediante la recolección y el análisis sistemáticos de las variables de etnicidad y la ejecución de estudios bioconductuales integrados que utilicen metodologías sólidas y estrategias sensibles a diferencias entre las culturas; 2) elaborar una política de respuesta de alcance regional que considere las necesidades de las poblaciones indígenas y de afrodescendientes; y 3) aplicar un enfoque intercultural de la salud y de la prestación de servicios conexos para eliminar las barreras de acceso a la salud y mejorar los resultados en materia de salud para estas poblaciones.


RESUMO Objetivo Identificar e sintetizar a literatura existente sobre a carga de HIV, infecções sexualmente transmissíveis (IST) e hepatite viral nos povos indígenas e afrodescendentes da América Latina para traçar um amplo panorama dos dados quantitativos disponíveis e destacar as lacunas problemáticas nos dados. Métodos Foi realizada uma revisão sistemática da literatura publicada e da literatura cinzenta para identificar documentos publicados em inglês, espanhol ou português com dados coletados entre janeiro de 2000 e abril de 2016 sobre a carga de HIV, IST e hepatite viral nos povos indígenas e afrodescendentes em 17 países latino-americanos. Resultados Sessenta e dois documentos de 12 países foram encontrados. A prevalência de HIV observada foi em geral baixa (<1%), com focos de alta prevalência (>5%) observados em comunidades indígenas da Venezuela (warao) (9,6%), Peru (chayahuita) (7,5%) e Colômbia (mulheres wayúu) (7,0%). Foi verificada uma alta prevalência de sífilis ativa (> 5%) em comunidades indígenas no Paraguai (11,6% e 9,7%) e Peru (chayahuita) (6,3%). A alta endemicidade (>8%) de hepatite B foi observada em povos indígenas no México (huichol) (9,4%) e Venezuela (ianomâmi 14,3%; japrería 29,5%) e em comunidades negras quilombolas no Brasil (Frechal 12,5%; Furnas do Dionísio 8,4% em 2008 e 9,2% em 2003). Conclusões As lacunas nos dados existentes sobre a carga de HIV, IST e hepatite viral nos povos indígenas e afrodescendentes na América Latina destacam a necessidade de: melhorar a vigilância nacional com coleta sistemática e análise de variáveis de etnicidade e realizar estudos integrados de análise biocomportamental com o uso de metodologias robustas e estratégias sensíveis à diversidade cultural; desenvolver uma política de resposta regional que considere as necessidades dos povos indígenas e afrodescendentes; e implementar um enfoque intercultural à saúde e prestação de serviços para derrubar as barreiras de acesso à saúde e melhorar os resultados de saúde nestas populações.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual/transmisión , VIH , Salud de Poblaciones Indígenas , América Latina/epidemiología
14.
Cad Saude Publica ; 34(12): e00012818, 2018 11 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30517311

RESUMEN

Brazil currently has the highest absolute number of homicides in the world, which results from a complex range of factors. This study aimed at understanding the associations between socio-environmental determinants of health (SDH) and homicides in Brazil through a systematic literature review. The review followed PRISMA guidelines, selecting quantitative and qualitative studies published in Portuguese, English, and Spanish carried out between 2002 and 2017, available in the PubMed, MEDLINE, LILACS, SciELO and BVS-BIREME databases. Two trilingual reviewers tracked studies independently by basing on the eligibility criteria. We critically assessed the selected studies with the Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) or the Checklist for Analytical Cross-Sectional Studies, depending on the study design. We considered 60 studies and grouped their SDH into categories to develop a narrative synthesis about each SDH. These categories were: territory; race/ethnicity; gender; age; social inequalities and economic factors; development; education; work and employment; drugs and trafficking; other SDH. We found some SDH were more associated with homicides, such as being young, black, male, of low education level, and also people who lived in places of high social inequality, such as urban suburbs and agricultural frontiers. Unemployment and drug trafficking, as well as intersections between various SDH were also prominent. Education seems to be a protective factor for homicide. Despite the limited capacity of interpretation due to the high range of methodological approaches, this review shows the importance of considering SDH and their intersections when developing homicide prevention policies.


Asunto(s)
Homicidio/estadística & datos numéricos , Determinantes Sociales de la Salud , Brasil , Grupos Étnicos , Humanos , Masculino , Características de la Residencia , Factores Sexuales , Factores Socioeconómicos
15.
Ethn Dis ; 28(4): 555-560, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30405300

RESUMEN

Objective: Global recommendations on physical activity for noncommunicable disease prevention can be promoted using partner support strategies among women of Mexican descent and other ethnicities. Design/Methods: This systematic review utilized a multifaceted ecological approach by focusing comprehensively on community, individual, and social factors influencing physical activity. PubMed, SAGE Publications, EBSCO, ResearchGate, the Cochrane Library and Google Scholar search engines were used to find research on physical activity, with inclusion criteria of Mexican American women, aged ≥ 18 years, comprising at least 50% of study population sizes. Main Outcome Measures: An initial search of 232 articles with subsequent searches from reference lists led to selection of a mixture of qualitative (3), mixed methods (3), and intervention (1) studies reporting partner support for physical activity as perceived by women. Results: Primarily, studies have conceptualized physical activity as leisure time activities. Few studies have considered multiple ecological factors in examining influences of physical activity among women. Importantly, how women perceive support for physical activity received from partners has been shown to influence their levels of activity. Conclusions: Conceptualization of physical activity restricted only to leisure time eliminates other domains that a broader definition of the term encompasses. Future studies are needed to investigate partner support influences on the overall physical activity of Mexican American women within a larger ecological context. Careful attention to partner support for physical activity engagement can help ameliorate and prevent chronic diseases both nationally and around the world.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio Físico , Americanos Mexicanos/psicología , Apoyo Social , Femenino , Humanos , Estados Unidos
16.
Cien Saude Colet ; 23(9): 2917-2926, 2018 Sep.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30281730

RESUMEN

Through anthropological, ethnographic research, this paper seeks to reflect on the dynamics of the daily functioning of a public health service specialized in the treatment of eating disorders, as well as on the process of illness experienced by adolescents who publicly face anorexia nervosa. The Eating Disorders Program observed in Rio de Janeiro provides both outpatient care and hospitalization. Fieldwork provided the knowledge about care provided to adolescents and their families, as well as the difficulties experienced by the multi-professional team. The closer coexistence of the researcher and health services facilitated the identification of the many challenges that permeate the health professional-user relationship, professional lack of motivation in the face of the complex disease, lack of qualification to treat adolescents, and other obstacles. We seek to stress the importance of this theme for the Brazilian Public Health, with the development of guidelines to orient health services, as well as public health policies that promote the establishment of programs, actions and activities aimed to give visibility and ensure rights for people with eating disorders in the country.


Asunto(s)
Anorexia Nerviosa/terapia , Prestación de Atención de Salud/organización & administración , Práctica de Salud Pública , Salud Pública , Adolescente , Brasil , Niño , Femenino , Personal de Salud/organización & administración , Personal de Salud/normas , Política de Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Relaciones Profesional-Paciente
17.
Psicol. ciênc. prof ; 38(3): 450-464, jul.-set. 2018. ilus, tab
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, Index Psicología - Revistas técnico-científicas | ID: biblio-947762

RESUMEN

Opressão, agressão e violência são práticas que afetam a saúde mental da pessoa alvo. O racismo, como crença na superioridade de algumas raças sobre outras, que justifica a desigualdade entre os grupos, é uma forma de opressão, de agressão e de violência. O objetivo geral desta revisão sistemática foi encontrar na literatura científica brasileira estudos sobre o impacto do racismo na saúde mental de negros no Brasil; o objetivo específico foi verificar a contribuição da Psicologia nesse tópico. Foram realizadas buscas nas plataformas SciELO e Lilacs, referentes ao período de 1999 a 2014, as quais retornaram 509 artigos, que foram filtrados segundo critérios definidos. Dezenove artigos foram considerados relevantes para análise, mesmo que não tratando exclusivamente do impacto do racismo na saúde mental. Concluiu-se que o tema tem baixa produção acadêmica no Brasil de modo geral, pouca contribuição da Psicologia e menos ainda das demais disciplinas afetas aos CAPS (Centros de Assistência Psicossocial), espaços de assistência pública à saúde mental, buscados majoritariamente pela população negra de baixa renda, dependente dos serviços de saúde pública....(AU)


Oppression, aggression and violence are practices that affect the mental health of the target person. Racism, the belief that some races are superior to others, which justifies inequalities among groups, is a form of oppression, aggression and violence. The general objective of this systematic review was to find in the Brazilian scientific literature studies on the impact of racism on mental health of the black population in Brazil; the secondary objective was to verify the contributions of psychology to this topic. Searches, carried out in SciELO and Lilacs platforms, returned 509 articles, that were filtered according to criteria of interest. Nineteen articles were considered relevant for analysis, even if they did not deal exclusively with the impact of racism on mental health. It was found that this subject has low academic production in Brazil, low contribution from Psychology and even less, or none, from other disciplines related to the CAPS (Psychosocial Assistance Centers), public agencies for mental health care requested mainly by low income black population dependent on public health services....(AU)


Oppression, aggression and violence are practices that affect the mental health of the target person. Racism, the belief that some races are superior to others, which justifies inequalities among groups, is a form of oppression, aggression and violence. The general objective of this systematic review was to find in the Brazilian scientific literature studies on the impact of racism on mental health of the black population in Brazil; the secondary objective was to verify the contributions of psychology to this topic. Searches, carried out in SciELO and Lilacs platforms, returned 509 articles, that were filtered according to criteria of interest. Nineteen articles were considered relevant for analysis, even if they did not deal exclusively with the impact of racism on mental health. It was found that this subject has low academic production in Brazil, low contribution from Psychology and even less, or none, from other disciplines related to the CAPS (Psychosocial Assistance Centers), public agencies for mental health care requested mainly by low income black population dependent on public health services....(AU)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Psicología , Brasil , Salud Mental , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana , Racismo
18.
BMC Med ; 16(1): 145, 2018 Aug 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30122155

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Suicide is the second leading cause of death among adolescents worldwide, and is a major driver of health inequity among Indigenous people in high-income countries. However, little is known about the burden of suicide among Indigenous populations in low- and middle-income nations, and no synthesis of the global data is currently available. Our objective was to examine the global incidence of suicide among Indigenous peoples and assess disparities through comparisons with non-Indigenous populations. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review of suicide rates among Indigenous peoples worldwide and assessed disparities between Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations. We performed text word and Medical Subject Headings searches in PubMed, MEDLINE, Embase, Cumulative Index of Nursing and Allied Health (CINAHL), PsycINFO, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS), and Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO) for observational studies in any language, indexed from database inception until June 1, 2017. Eligible studies examined crude or standardized suicide rates in Indigenous populations at national, regional, or local levels, and examined rate ratios for comparisons to non-Indigenous populations. RESULTS: The search identified 13,736 papers and we included 99. Eligible studies examined suicide rates among Indigenous peoples in 30 countries and territories, though the majority focused on populations in high-income nations. Results showed that suicide rates are elevated in many Indigenous populations worldwide, though rate variation is common, and suicide incidence ranges from 0 to 187.5 suicide deaths per 100,000 population. We found evidence of suicide rate parity between Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations in some contexts, while elsewhere rates were more than 20 times higher among Indigenous peoples. CONCLUSIONS: This review showed that suicide rates in Indigenous populations vary globally, and that suicide rate disparities between Indigenous and non-Indigenous populations are substantial in some settings but not universal. Including Indigenous identifiers and disaggregating national suicide mortality data by geography and ethnicity will improve the quality and relevance of evidence that informs community, clinical, and public health practice in Indigenous suicide prevention.


Asunto(s)
Salud Global/estadística & datos numéricos , Grupos de Población/estadística & datos numéricos , Suicidio/etnología , Suicidio/estadística & datos numéricos , Grupos Étnicos/estadística & datos numéricos , Geografía , Humanos , Incidencia
19.
Rev Gaucha Enferm ; 39: e20170164, 2018 Jul 02.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29995073

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To analyze scientific publications in order to identify the cross-cultural adaptation methods of instruments that are mainly applied in nursing. METHOD: Integrative review, in the electronic sources Medline - Pubmed, Cinahl, Lilacs, Scopus and Web of Science. 96 peer-reviewed papers, published between 2010 and 2015 were selected. RESULTS: The articles that composed the sample were published in 59 different journals, 15.2% were Brazilian. The largest number of publications was concentrated in 2015 (31.2%), 28 countries appeared on the list which is led by Brazil (33.3%), followed by China (10.4%). It was used 26 different guidelines, however the one proposed by Beaton and their collaborators was mentioned in 47 (49.0%) articles and the Brislin's in 12 (12.5%). CONCLUSION: This review does not allow us to define the most appropriate method, however all methods applied agreed on the use of back translation. In addition, many studies in different languages and countries showed the international acceptability of the method developed by Beaton et al.


Asunto(s)
Bibliometría , Indicadores de Salud , Enfermería , Traducciones , Brasil , China , Comparación Transcultural , Guías como Asunto , Humanos
20.
Pharmacogenomics J ; 18(6): 749-759, 2018 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29713005

RESUMEN

We present allele frequencies involving 39 pharmacogenetic biomarkers studied in Brazil, and their distribution on self-reported race/color categories that: (1) involve a mix of perceptions about ancestry, morphological traits, and cultural/identity issues, being social constructs pervasively used in Brazilian society and medical studies; (2) are associated with disparities in access to health services, as well as in their representation in genetic studies, and (3), as we report here, explain a larger portion of the variance of pharmaco-allele frequencies than geography. We integrated a systematic review of studies on healthy volunteers (years 1968-2017) and the analysis of allele frequencies on three population-based cohorts from northeast, southeast, and south, the most populated regions of Brazil. Cross-validation of results from these both approaches suggest that, despite methodological heterogeneity of the 120 studies conducted on 51,747 healthy volunteers, allele frequencies estimates from systematic review are reliable. We report differences in allele frequencies between color categories that persist despite the homogenizing effect of >500 years of admixture. Among clinically relevant variants: CYP2C9*2 (null), CYP3A5*3 (defective), SLCO1B1-rs4149056(C), and VKORC1-rs9923231(A) are more frequent in Whites than in Blacks. Brazilian Native Americans show lower frequencies of CYP2C9*2, CYP2C19*17 (increased activity), and higher of SLCO1B1-rs4149056(C) than other Brazilian populations. We present the most current and informative database of pharmaco-allele frequencies in Brazilian healthy volunteers.


Asunto(s)
Bases de Datos Genéticas , Frecuencia de los Genes , Farmacogenética/métodos , Variantes Farmacogenómicas , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Brasil , Grupos de Población Continentales/genética , Haplotipos , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Disparidades en Atención de Salud/etnología , Herencia , Humanos , Linaje , Fenotipo
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