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1.
Sci Robot ; 5(43)2020 Jun 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33022616

RESUMEN

Genetic control methods of mosquito vectors of malaria, dengue, yellow fever, and Zika are becoming increasingly popular due to the limitations of other techniques such as the use of insecticides. The sterile insect technique is an effective genetic control method to manage insect populations. However, it is crucial to release sterile mosquitoes by air to ensure homogeneous coverage, especially in large areas. Here, we report a fully automated adult mosquito release system operated from an uncrewed aerial vehicle or drone. Our system, developed and tested in Brazil, enabled a homogeneous dispersal of sterile male Aedes aegypti while maintaining their quality, leading to a homogeneous sterile-to-wild male ratio due to their aggregation in the same sites. Our results indicate that the released sterile males were able to compete with the wild males in mating with the wild females; thus, the sterile males were able to induce sterility in the native female population. The use of drones to implement the sterile insect technique will lead to improvements in areal coverage and savings in operational costs due to the requirement of fewer release sites and field staff.

2.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(10): e0008658, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33017419

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: From the end of 2016 until the beginning of 2019, Brazil faced a massive sylvatic yellow fever (YF) outbreak. The 2016-2019 YF epidemics affected densely populated areas, especially the Southeast region, causing thousands of deaths of humans and non-human primates (NHP). METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a molecular investigation of yellow fever virus (YFV) RNA in 781 NHP carcasses collected in the urban, urban-rural interface, and rural areas of Minas Gerais state, from January 2017 to December 2018. Samples were analyzed according to the period of sampling, NHP genera, sampling areas, and sampling areas/NHP genera to compare the proportions of YFV-positive carcasses and the estimated YFV genomic loads. YFV infection was confirmed in 38.1% of NHP carcasses (including specimens of the genera Alouatta, Callicebus, Callithrix, and Sapajus), from the urban, urban-rural interface, and rural areas. YFV RNA detection was positively associated with epidemic periods (especially from December to March) and the rural environment. Higher median viral genomic loads (one million times) were estimated in carcasses collected in rural areas compared to urban ones. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The results showed the wide occurrence of YF in Minas Gerais in epidemic and non-epidemic periods. According to the sylvatic pattern of YF, a gradient of viral dissemination from rural towards urban areas was observed. A high YF positivity was observed for NHP carcasses collected in urban areas with a widespread occurrence in 67 municipalities of Minas Gerais, including large urban centers. Although there was no documented case of urban/Aedes YFV transmission to humans in Brazil during the 2016-2019 outbreaks, YFV-infected NHP in urban areas with high infestation by Aedes aegypti poses risks for YFV urban/Aedes transmission and urbanization.

3.
Acta Trop ; 212: 105705, 2020 Sep 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956639

RESUMEN

This review focused on the toxicity of essential oils and their constituents against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera, Culicidae) larvae, a key vector of important arboviral diseases, such as dengue, chikungunya, zika, and yellow fever. This review is based on original articles obtained by searching major databases in the last six years. Our literature review shows that 337 essential oils from 225 plant species have been tested for larvicidal bioactivity. More than 60% of these essential oils were considered active (LC50<100 µg/mL). Most species belong to the families Lamiaceae (19.3%), Lauraceae (9.9%), and Myrtaceae (9.4%). The plants studied for their larvicidal activity against A. aegypti were mainly collected in India and Brazil (30 and 20%, respectively) and the parts of the plants most used were the leaves. Less than 10% of essential oils were evaluated for toxicity against non-target organisms and with the aim to demonstrate safe use. The most used plant parts are leaves and the main compounds of essential oils were described. The most active essential oils are rich in sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, oxygenated sesquiterpenes, and monoterpene hydrocarbons. Here, factors affecting bioactivity (chemical composition, plant parts, and harvesting site) of essential oils and their constituents, as well as safety to non-target organisms are discussed. Essential oils have considerable potential against A. aegypti. This review shows that essential oils might be used to control arboviruses, and further studies on safety and formulations for application in the field should be performed.

4.
J Virol Methods ; 286: 113976, 2020 Sep 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32971183

RESUMEN

Zika and Dengue viruses present considerable immunological cross-reactivity, resulting in a troublesome serodiagnosis due to occurrence of false positive results. Due to Brazil's wide variety of circulating flaviviruses we aimed to access the use of in house serological tests adapted by National Reference Laboratory for Arboviruses in Brazil and evaluate commercial tests available. We evaluated in house IgM ELISAs for the individual detection of anti-ZIKV, -DENV, and -YFV IgM, against a panel of samples positive for dengue, zika, yellow fever, Rocio, Ilheus, Saint Louis encephalitis, West Nile and chikungunya. We also evaluated two commercial kits for dengue and zika IgM detection recommended by the Brazilian Ministry of Health in 2015. The sensitivity and specificity for the in house ZIKV IgM ELISA was 60.0 % and 88.6 % and for the in house DENV IgM ELISA was 100 % and 82.2 %, respectively. The in house YFV IgM ELISA presented 100 % for both sensitivity and specificity. The Novagnost Zika Virus IgM test presented a sensitivity of 47.3 % and specificity of 85.3 % and the Serion ELISA classic Dengue Virus IgM, 92.8 % and 58.9 %, respectively. Overall, both in house ELISAs for ZIKV and DENV adapted and evaluated here, presented better performances than the commercial kits tested.

5.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 479, 2020 Sep 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32948231

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Since the huge epidemic of Zika virus (ZIKV) in Brazil in 2015, questions were raised to understand which mosquito species could transmit the virus. Aedes aegypti has been described as the main vector. However, other Aedes species (e.g. Ae. albopictus and Ae. japonicus) proven to be competent for other flaviviruses (e.g. West Nile, dengue and yellow fever), have been described as potential vectors for ZIKV under laboratory conditions. One of these, the Asian bush mosquito, Ae. japonicus, is widely distributed with high abundances in central-western Europe. In the present study, infection, dissemination and transmission rates of ZIKV (Dak84 strain) in two populations of Ae. japonicus from Switzerland (Zürich) and France (Steinbach, Haut-Rhin) were investigated under constant (27 °C) and fluctuating (14-27 °C, mean 23 °C) temperature regimes. RESULTS: The two populations were each able to transmit ZIKV under both temperature regimes. Infectious virus particles were detected in the saliva of females from both populations, regardless of the incubation temperature regime, from 7 days post-exposure to infectious rabbit blood. The highest amount of plaque forming units (PFU) (400/ml) were recorded 14 days post-oral infection in the Swiss population incubated at a constant temperature. No difference in terms of infection, dissemination and transmission rate were found between mosquito populations. Temperature had no effect on infection rate but the fluctuating temperature regime resulted in higher dissemination rates compared to constant temperature, regardless of the population. Finally, transmission efficiency ranged between 7-23% and 7-10% for the constant temperature and 0-10% and 3-27% under fluctuating temperatures for the Swiss and the French populations, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study confirming vector competence for ZIKV of Ae. japonicus originating from Switzerland and France at realistic summer temperatures under laboratory conditions. Considering the continuous spread of this species in the northern part of Europe and its adaptation at cooler temperatures, preventative control measures should be adopted to prevent possible ZIKV epidemics.

6.
J Infect ; 2020 Sep 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32987099

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: Screening for genes differentially expressed in placental tissues, aiming to identify transcriptional signatures that may be involved in ZIKV congenital pathogenesis. METHODS: Transcriptome data from placental tissues of pregnant women naturally infected with Zika virus during the third trimester were compared to those from women who tested negative for Zika infection. The findings were validated using both a cell culture model and an immunohistochemistry/morphological analysis of naturally infected placental tissues. RESULTS: Transcriptome analysis revealed that Zika virus infection induces downregulation of insulin-like growth factor II (IGF2) gene, an essential factor for fetal development. The Caco-2 cell culture model that constitutively expresses IGF2 was used for the transcriptome validation. Asiatic and African Zika virus strains infection caused downregulated IGF2 gene expression in Caco-2 cells, whereas other flaviviruses, such as dengue serotype 1, West Nile and wild-type yellow fever viruses, had no effect on this gene expression. Immunohistochemical assays on decidual tissues corroborated our transcriptome analysis, showing that IGF2 is reduced in the decidua of Zika virus-infected women. CONCLUSIONS: Our results draw attention to IGF2 modulation in uterine tissues, and this finding is expected to support future studies on strategies to ameliorate the harmful effects of Zika virus infection during pregnancy.

7.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 44, sept. 2020
Artículo en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52652

RESUMEN

Objective. To establish the risk of microcephaly in neonates born to women infected with ZIKV during pregnancy. Methods. A cohort of laboratory-confirmed ZIKV cases of congenital infections (109 mothers infected during pregnancy and 101 newborns) among 308 suspect cases was followed in Belem, Pará, Brazil, from October 2015 to December 2017. Results. A microcephaly risk of 1.98% (95% CI 0.54-6.93%) was found, or 2 cases among the 101 neonates infected with ZIKV during pregnancy. 72% of the pregnant women had ZIKV infection confirmed by RT-qPCR during gestation. Conclusions. Results showed a low incidence of ZIKV-associated birth defects, stillbirth, and miscarriage, which contrasts with previous studies in other Brazilian regions. Previous exposure to yellow fever vaccine and/ or multiserotype DENV infection could be implicated in the protection from ZIKV congenital infection.


Objetivo. Establecer el riesgo de microcefalia en los recién nacidos de mujeres infectadas con ZIKV durante el embarazo. Métodos. Se siguió a una cohorte de casos con infección congénita por ZIKV confirmada por laboratorio (109 madres infectadas durante el embarazo, 101 recién nacidos) conformada a partir de 308 casos sospechosos en Belem, Pará, Brasil, de octubre de 2015 a diciembre de 2017. Resultados. Se encontró un riesgo de microcefalia de 1,98% (IC95% 0,54-6,93%), o 2 casos entre los 101 neonatos infectados con ZIKV durante el embarazo. En el 72% de las mujeres embarazadas se confirmó mediante RT-qPCR la infección por ZIKV durante la gestación. Conclusiones. Los resultados mostraron una baja incidencia de malformaciones congénitas, mortinatos y abortos asociados al ZIKV, lo que contrasta con estudios anteriores de otras regiones de Brasil. La exposición previa a la vacuna contra la fiebre amarilla o la infección previa por varios serotipos de virus del dengue podrían estar implicados en la protección contra la infección congénita por ZIKV.


Asunto(s)
Infección por el Virus Zika , Complicaciones del Embarazo , Microcefalia , Infección por el Virus Zika , Microcefalia , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo , Brasil
8.
J Biomol Struct Dyn ; : 1-13, 2020 Aug 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32815781

RESUMEN

Arboviruses are a group of viruses (e.g. Dengue, Chikungunya and Yellow fever virus) that are transmitted by arthropod vectors, which Aedes aegipty is the vector of main viruses in Americas. This vector is responsible to 2.4 millions of arboviruses cases in Brazil with less than a thousand deaths annually. Despite of epidemiological data, arboviruses treatment is symptomatic and the vaccine control is not effective, which makes the vector control against A. aegipty a promising strategy to diseases control. One way to achieve this goal is to development of A. aegipty sensitive olfactory modulators. Odorant binding protein 1 from A. aegypti (AaegOBP1) is essential in sensory communication, and is the first filter in odorant selection, which makes this target promising to development of new repellents. For this reason, hierarchical virtual screening (ligand-based pharmacophore model and molecular docking) together volatility filter was applied at Sigma-Aldrich database (n = 126.851) to prioritize potential molecules to repellency assays. Three compounds showed adequate stereo-electronic requirements (QFIT> 81.53), score to AaegOBP1 binding site (Score > 36.0) and volatile properties and it was chosen for repellency assays. ZINC00170981 and ZINC00131924 showed a dose-response behavior, while ZINC01621824 did not showed activity in repellency assays. Finally, Molecular Dynamics (MD) was employed to hypothesize the stability of protein-ligand complexes. According to RMSD, RMSF and binding free energy data, ZINC00170981 and ZINC00131924 were able to stabilize AaegOBP1 binding-site during the trajectory by interactions with key residues such as His77, Leu89 and Trp114). Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.

9.
Acta Trop ; 212: 105669, 2020 Aug 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32805213

RESUMEN

Cantareira State Park (CSP) is located in the Metropolitan Region of São Paulo, one of the most densely populated areas on the planet. Recently, a yellow-fever epidemic practically annihilated the howler monkey population in this park, and human infections were reported in the vicinity. As simian and human plasmodia also circulate in CSP, the present study sought to provide an update on the mosquito fauna in this park, including an analysis of the diversity in areas with different degrees of conservation and a comparison of the yields achieved with different collection techniques. From October 2015 to April 2017, adult mosquitoes were collected with CDC traps, hand-held battery-powered aspirators and Shannon traps, and larvae and pupae were collected with larval dippers and suction samplers in natural and artificial breeding sites. In total, 11,038 specimens distributed in 103 taxa represented by 16 genera were collected. Both the observed species richness and diversity were greater in the environments with the highest degree of preservation. The 'wild' (most preserved) area in CSP had the greatest species richness, followed by the transition area and human-impacted area. The estimated richness indicated that the three environments may have a greater number of species than observed in this study, and Sorensen's index showed that the average degree of similarity varies little between areas. In the inventory of local species, the Shannon trap was the most efficient collection technique for adult mosquitoes, and the suction sampler the most efficient for immatures. The results highlight the increase in the number of different taxa collected as different mosquito capture techniques were included, confirming the importance of using several strategies to sample the local mosquito fauna satisfactorily when exploring a greater number of ecotopes. CSP is a refuge and shelter for native and introduced mosquito species where new biocenoses including pathogens, vertebrate hosts and vectors can form, allowing zoonotic outbreaks in the local human population to occur.

10.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(8): e1008699, 2020 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32764827

RESUMEN

São Paulo, a densely inhabited state in southeast Brazil that contains the fourth most populated city in the world, recently experienced its largest yellow fever virus (YFV) outbreak in decades. YFV does not normally circulate extensively in São Paulo, so most people were unvaccinated when the outbreak began. Surveillance in non-human primates (NHPs) is important for determining the magnitude and geographic extent of an epizootic, thereby helping to evaluate the risk of YFV spillover to humans. Data from infected NHPs can give more accurate insights into YFV spread than when using data from human cases alone. To contextualise human cases, identify epizootic foci and uncover the rate and direction of YFV spread in São Paulo, we generated and analysed virus genomic data and epizootic case data from NHPs in São Paulo. We report the occurrence of three spatiotemporally distinct phases of the outbreak in São Paulo prior to February 2018. We generated 51 new virus genomes from YFV positive cases identified in 23 different municipalities in São Paulo, mostly sampled from NHPs between October 2016 and January 2018. Although we observe substantial heterogeneity in lineage dispersal velocities between phylogenetic branches, continuous phylogeographic analyses of generated YFV genomes suggest that YFV lineages spread in São Paulo at a mean rate of approximately 1km per day during all phases of the outbreak. Viral lineages from the first epizootic phase in northern São Paulo subsequently dispersed towards the south of the state to cause the second and third epizootic phases there. This alters our understanding of how YFV was introduced into the densely populated south of São Paulo state. Our results shed light on the sylvatic transmission of YFV in highly fragmented forested regions in São Paulo state and highlight the importance of continued surveillance of zoonotic pathogens in sentinel species.


Asunto(s)
Genoma Viral , Enfermedades de los Primates/virología , Fiebre Amarilla/veterinaria , Fiebre Amarilla/virología , Virus de la Fiebre Amarilla/genética , Zoonosis/virología , Animales , Brasil/epidemiología , Brotes de Enfermedades , Genómica , Humanos , Filogenia , Filogeografía , Enfermedades de los Primates/epidemiología , Enfermedades de los Primates/transmisión , Primates/virología , Fiebre Amarilla/epidemiología , Fiebre Amarilla/transmisión , Virus de la Fiebre Amarilla/clasificación , Virus de la Fiebre Amarilla/aislamiento & purificación , Zoonosis/epidemiología , Zoonosis/transmisión
11.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200046, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667460

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND Fluctuations in climate have been associated with variations in mosquito abundance. OBJECTIVES To analyse the influence of precipitation, temperature, solar radiation, wind speed and humidity on the oviposition dynamics of Aedes aegypti in three distinct environmental areas (Brasília Teimosa, Morro da Conceição/Alto José do Pinho and Dois Irmãos/Pintos) of the city of Recife and the Fernando de Noronha Archipelago northeastern Brazil. METHODS Time series study using a database of studies previously carried out in the areas. The eggs were collected using spatially distributed geo-referenced sentinel ovitraps (S-OVTs). Meteorological satellite data were obtained from the IRI climate data library. The association between meteorological variables and egg abundance was analysed using autoregressive models. FINDINGS Precipitation was positively associated with egg abundance in three of the four study areas with a lag of one month. Higher humidity (ß = 45.7; 95% CI: 26.3 - 65.0) and lower wind speed (ß = -125.2; 95% CI: -198.8 - -51.6) were associated with the average number of eggs in the hill area. MAIN CONCLUSIONS The effect of climate variables on oviposition varied according to local environmental conditions. Precipitation was a main predictor of egg abundance in the study settings.


Asunto(s)
Aedes/fisiología , Oviposición/fisiología , Animales , Brasil , Ciudades , Femenino , Mosquitos Vectores/fisiología , Dinámica Poblacional , Estaciones del Año , Población Urbana
12.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200218, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32696917

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Southeast Brazil has recently experienced a Yellow Fever virus (YFV) outbreak where the mosquito Haemagogus leucocelaenus was a primary vector. Climatic factors influence the abundance of mosquito vectors and arbovirus transmission. OBJECTIVES: We aimed at describing the population dynamics of Hg. leucocelaenus in a county touched by the recent YFV outbreak. METHODS: Fortnightly egg collections with ovitraps were performed from November 2012 to February 2017 in a forest in Nova Iguaçu, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The effects of mean temperature and rainfall on the Hg. leucocelaenus population dynamics were explored. FINDINGS: Hg. leucocelaenus eggs were continuously collected throughout the study, with a peak in the warmer months (December-March). The climatic variables had a time-lagged effect and four weeks before sampling was the best predictor for the positivity of ovitraps and total number of eggs collected. The probability of finding > 50% positive ovitraps increased when the mean temperature was above 24ºC. The number of Hg. leucocelaenus eggs expressively increase when the mean temperature and accumulated precipitation surpassed 27ºC and 100 mm, respectively, although the effect of rainfall was less pronounced. MAIN CONCLUSIONS: Monitoring population dynamics of Hg. leucocelaenus and climatic factors in YFV risk areas, especially mean temperature, may assist in developing climate-based surveillance procedures to timely strengthening prophylaxis and control.


Asunto(s)
Culicidae/virología , Bosques , Insectos Vectores/virología , Dinámica Poblacional , Fiebre Amarilla , Virus de la Fiebre Amarilla/aislamiento & purificación , Animales , Brasil , Culicidae/clasificación , Insectos Vectores/clasificación , Estaciones del Año , Temperatura , Virus de la Fiebre Amarilla/genética
13.
J Med Entomol ; 2020 Jun 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32484514

RESUMEN

Mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae) are one of the most important disease vector species in the world. Many species have a high degree of anthropophilia and are often found in human habitations. In the present study, we have inventoried the nocturnal mosquito assemblage in intra-, peri-, and extradomicile environments in four municipalities in Pará, Brazil. At each municipality, a residence was selected and the mosquitoes were sampled using the protected human attraction capture and Shannon trap methods in April (rainy season) and August 2018 (dry season). We have collected a total of 696 mosquito specimens belonging to 8 genera and 17 species. The most abundant species were Mansonia (Mansonoides) titillans (Walker) (366/696, 52.6%), Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) albitarsis Lynch-Arribálzaga (97/696, 13.9%), and Culex (Culex) quinquefasciatus Say (93/696, 13.4%). Mosquito richness, abundance, and composition did not differ between intra-, peri-, and extradomicile environments suggesting limited habitat segregation among the different species. However, mosquito species richness and mosquito species abundance were significantly higher during the rainy season than during the dry season, suggesting increased mosquito activity during the rainy season. We detected several important vector species of human diseases including Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Linnaeus), Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) darlingi Root, Haemagogus (Conopostegus) leucocelaenus (Dyar and Shannon), Coquillettidia (Coquillettidia) venezuelensis (Theobald), and Culex (Culex) quinquefasciatus which are the main transmitters of dengue, malaria, yellow fever, mayaro, and oropouche fever, respectively. As inventories of disease-carrying mosquitoes in the region are very scarce, mainly in residential environments, our results suggest high potential for mosquito-borne disease transmission in Pará State.

14.
Enferm. actual Costa Rica (Online) ; (38): 61-74, Jan.-Jun. 2020.
Artículo en Portugués | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1090087

RESUMEN

Resumo Este estudo teve como objetivo discutir as percepções dos Agentes Comunitários de Saúde e Agentes de Combate a Endemias sobre o processo de orientação da população quanto à prevenção e controle do Aedes Aegypti. Tratase de estudo descritivo-exploratório de natureza qualitativa, realizado com 07 Agentes de Combate a Endemias e 12 Agentes Comunitários de Saúde em uma cidade no interior da Bahia, cujos dados foram coletados por meio de entrevista semiestruturada, gravada com auxílio de gravador e analisado através da técnica do discurso do sujeito coletivo, que permitiu a construção de discursos coletivos. Os resultados mostram que na percepção de tais profissionais, a população não contribui para a prevenção e controle do Aedes Aegypti de modo eficaz, deixando apenas que os profissionais em questão atuem de forma ativa, sendo que este trabalho deve ser em conjunto com a população e os Agentes. Concluímos que com base nos resultados obtidos a população é orientada quanto aos cuidados para a prevenção do AA, no entanto, grande parte das pessoas não colocam em prática o que é pasado para eles, sendo assim, existe a necessidade de implementação de atividades para sensibilização deles.


Abstract This study aimed to discuss the perceptions of Community Health Agents and Endemic Control Agents on the process of guiding the population regarding the prevention and control of Aedes Aegypti. This is a descriptive and exploratory study of qualitative nature, conducted with 07 Endemic Disease Agents and 12 Community Health Agents in a city in the interior of Bahia, whose data were collected through semi-structured interviews, recorded with the aid of tape recorder and analyzed through the technique of collective subject discourse, which allowed the construction of collective discourses. The results show that in the perception of such professionals, the population does not contribute to the prevention and control of Aedes Aegypti effectively, leaving only the professionals in question to act actively, and this work should be together with the population and the agents. We conclude that based on the results obtained the population is oriented towards care for the prevention of AA, however, most people do not put into practice what is passed on to them, so there is a need to implement activities to raise awareness of them.


Resumen Este estudio tuvo como objetivo discutir las percepciones de los Agentes de Salud Comunitaria y los Agentes de Control Endémico sobre el proceso de orientación de la población con respecto a la prevención y el control del Aedes Aegypti. Este es un estudio descriptivo y exploratorio de naturaleza cualitativa, realizado con 07 Agentes de Enfermedades Endémicas y 12 Agentes de Salud Comunitaria en una ciudad del interior de Bahía, cuyos datos fueron recolectados a través de entrevistas semiestructuradas, registradas con la ayuda de una grabadora y analizados a través de la técnica del discurso del sujeto colectivo, que permitió la construcción de discursos colectivos. Los resultados muestran que, en la percepción de tales profesionales, la población no contribuye a la prevención y al control del Aedes Aegypti de manera efectiva, dejando solamente a los profesionales en cuestión para que actúen activamente, y este trabajo debe ser realizado juntamente con la población y con los agentes. Concluimos que, en base a los resultados obtenidos, la población está orientada hacia la atención para la prevención de AA, sin embargo, la mayoría de las personas no ponen en práctica lo que se les transmite, por lo que es necesario implementar actividades para crear conciencia sobre ellos.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Prevención Primaria/educación , Brasil , Salud Pública , Agentes Comunitarios de Salud , Servicios de Salud Comunitaria , Enfermedades Endémicas , Aedes , Vigilancia en Salud Pública
15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32491144

RESUMEN

Eleven lactating women were inadvertently vaccinated with 17DD yellow fever vaccine in a small city of Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Their infants were being exclusively breast-fed and the breastfeeding was interrupted for 10 days. Serum and breastmilk were collected from the vaccinated mothers and tested for the presence of genomic RNA of the vaccine strain 8, 10 and 15 days after vaccination. Viral RNA was not detected in any of the serum and human milk samples tested and the infants remained asymptomatic. Our result strengthens the effectineness of stopping breastfeeding for 10 days after the inadvertent yellow fever vaccination of lactating women.


Asunto(s)
Lactancia Materna/efectos adversos , Leche Humana/virología , Vacuna contra la Fiebre Amarilla/efectos adversos , Fiebre Amarilla/prevención & control , Virus de la Fiebre Amarilla/inmunología , Anticuerpos Antivirales/sangre , Antígenos Virales/sangre , Brasil , Femenino , Humanos , Recién Nacido , ARN Viral/sangre , Fiebre Amarilla/transmisión , Vacuna contra la Fiebre Amarilla/administración & dosificación
16.
Viruses ; 12(6)2020 06 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32580374

RESUMEN

Arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) of the genus Flavivirus are distributed globally and cause significant human disease and mortality annually. Flavivirus infections present a spectrum of clinical manifestations, ranging from asymptomatic to severe manifestations, including hemorrhage, encephalitis and death. Herein, we describe 3 case reports of cerebrovascular involvement in patients infected by dengue and Zika viruses in Sao Jose do Rio Preto, São Paulo State, Brazil, a hyperendemic area for arbovirus circulation, including dengue, yellow fever, chikungunya and Saint Louis encephalitis viruses. Our findings highlight the potential threat that unusual clinical manifestations may pose to arbovirus disease management and recovery.

18.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(1): 445-454, 2020 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32394876

RESUMEN

The Aedes aegypti mosquito inhabits most tropical and subtropical regions of the globe, where it transmits arboviral diseases of substantial public health relevance, such as dengue fever. In subtropical regions, Ae. aegypti often presents an annual abundance cycle driven by weather conditions. Because different population states may show varying responses to control, we are interested in studying what time of the year is most appropriate for control. To do so, we developed two dynamic site-occupancy models based on more than 200 weeks of mosquito trapping data from nearly 900 sites in a subtropical Brazilian city. Our phenomenological, Markovian models, fitted to data in a Bayesian framework, accounted for failure to detect mosquitoes in two alternative ways and for temporal variation in dynamic rates of local extinction and colonization of new sites. Infestation varied from nearly full cover of the city area in late summer, to between 10% and 67% of sites occupied in winter depending on the model. Sensitivity analysis reveals that changes in dynamic rates should have the greatest impact on site occupancy during autumn and early winter months, when the mosquito population is declining. We discuss the implications of this finding to the timing of mosquito control.


Asunto(s)
Aedes , Dengue/transmisión , Control de Mosquitos/métodos , Estaciones del Año , Aedes/virología , Animales , Teorema de Bayes , Brasil/epidemiología , Dengue/epidemiología , Humanos , Cadenas de Markov , Dinámica Poblacional , Factores de Tiempo , Tiempo (Meteorología)
19.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e190437, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32428083

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are the most important arbovirus vectors in the world. OBJECTIVES This study aimed to investigate and compare the infestation pattern of these species in a neighbourhood of Recife, Brazil, endemic for arboviruses in 2005 (T1) and 2013 (T2). METHODS Infestation, distribution and relative abundance of these sympatric species were recorded by egg collection using a network of 59 sentinel ovitraps (s-ovt) at fixed sampling stations for 12 months in T1 and T2. FINDINGS A permanent occupation pattern was detected which was characterised by the presence of egg-laying females of one or both species with a high ovitrap positivity index (94.3 to 100%) throughout both years analysed. In terms of abundance, the total of eggs collected was lower (p < 0.005) in T2 (146,153) than in T1 (281,103), although ovitraps still displayed a high index of positivity. The spatial distribution showed the presence of both species in 65.1% of the 148 s-ovt assessed, while a smaller number of traps exclusively contained Ae. aegypti (22%) or Ae. albopictus (13.2%) eggs. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Our comparative analysis demonstrated the robustness of the spatial occupation and permanence of Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus populations in this endemic urban area.


Asunto(s)
Aedes/clasificación , Mosquitos Vectores/clasificación , Aedes/fisiología , Distribución Animal , Animales , Infecciones por Arbovirus/epidemiología , Infecciones por Arbovirus/transmisión , Brasil/epidemiología , Enfermedades Endémicas , Femenino , Masculino , Mosquitos Vectores/fisiología , Oviposición , Densidad de Población , Estaciones del Año
20.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 53: e20190504, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32267458

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The study of the landscape ecology, biological microhabitat, and epidemiological implications for the distribution of the main vectors Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus contribute to the prevention and control actions regarding the diseases they transmit. METHODS: This study sought to assess data on positive properties of the vector control program activities from 1998 to 2010. An entomological survey was also carried out on a sample of buildings collecting larvae and pupae from containers between October and April (spring / summer) from 2002 to 2005. We assessed the physico-chemical data of the water in 20% of positive containers. The vegetation and urbanization were assessed with the aid of satellite images and microenvironments were classified as urbanized, woods, and shrubs. The data were analyzed using statistical and geoprocessing software. RESULTS: Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus colonized all types of microhabitats and microenvironments, predominantly in the urbanized area, in isolation and in coexistence. The microhabitat of Ae. aegypti showed a temperature gradient greater than that of Ae. albopictus, and there was an association with urbanized areas for the first species and wooded areas for the last species. CONCLUSIONS: Landscape ecology and intra-urban differences favor different microclimates, which contribute to the coexistence of species in the urban environment in an area close to the forest, raising the risk of other arbovirus infections in urban areas. The ecological niche should be considered for Ae. albopictus. Entomological and virologic monitoring are suggested as arbovirus surveillance actions in urban infested centers near preserved forests.


Asunto(s)
Aedes/fisiología , Ecosistema , Mosquitos Vectores/fisiología , Aedes/clasificación , Distribución Animal , Animales , Infecciones por Arbovirus/transmisión , Brasil , Mosquitos Vectores/clasificación , Densidad de Población , Estaciones del Año , Análisis Espacial , Población Urbana
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