Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.832
Filtrar
1.
J Theor Biol ; 484: 110014, 2020 Jan 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31557473

RESUMEN

Superinfection exclusion is a phenomenon whereby the co-infection of a host with a secondary pathogen is prevented due to a current infection by another closely-related pathogenic strain. We construct a novel vector-host mathematical model for two pathogens that exhibit superinfection exclusion and simultaneously account for vaccination strategies against them. We then derive the conditions under which an endemic disease will prevent the establishment of another through the action of superinfection exclusion and show that vaccination against the endemic strain can enable the previously suppressed strain to invade the population. Through appropriate parameterisation of the model for dengue and yellow fever we find that superinfection exclusion alone is unlikely to explain the absence of yellow fever in many regions where dengue is endemic, and that the rollout of the recently licensed dengue vaccine, Dengvaxia, is unlikely to enable the establishment of Yellow Fever in regions where it has previously been absent.

2.
J Infect Dis ; 2019 Nov 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711190

RESUMEN

Next-generation sequencing technologies, exponential increases in the availability of virus genomic data, and ongoing advances in phylogenomic methods have made genomic epidemiology an increasingly powerful tool for public health response to a range of mosquito-borne virus outbreaks. In this review, we offer a brief primer on the scope and methods of phylogenomic analyses that can answer key epidemiological questions during mosquito-borne virus public health emergencies. We then focus on case examples of outbreaks, including those caused by dengue, Zika, yellow fever, West Nile, and chikungunya viruses, to demonstrate the utility of genomic epidemiology to support the prevention and control of mosquito-borne virus threats. We extend these case studies with operational perspectives on how to best incorporate genomic epidemiology into structured surveillance and response programs for mosquito-borne virus control. Many tools for genomic epidemiology already exist, but so do technical and nontechnical challenges to advancing their use. Frameworks to support the rapid sharing of multidimensional data and increased cross-sector partnerships, networks, and collaborations can support advancement on all scales, from research and development to implementation by public health agencies.

4.
Emerg Microbes Infect ; 8(1): 1636-1641, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31711378

RESUMEN

Yellow Fever (YF) remains a major public health issue in Sub-Saharan Africa and South America, despite the availability of an effective vaccine. In Africa, most YF outbreaks are reported in West Africa. However, urban outbreaks occurred in 2016 in both Angola and the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), and imported cases were reported in Chinese workers coming back from Africa. In Central Africa, Cameroon and the Republic of Congo host a high proportion of non-vaccinated populations increasing the risk of urban outbreaks. The main vector is Aedes aegypti and possibly, Aedes albopictus, both being anthropophilic and domestic mosquitoes. Here, we provide evidence that both Ae. aegypti and Ae. albopictus in Cameroon and the Republic of Congo are able to transmit Yellow fever virus (YFV) with higher rates of infection, dissemination, and transmission for Ae. aegypti. We conclude that the potential of both Aedes species to transmit YFV could increase the risk of urban YF transmission and urge public health authorities to intensify their efforts to control domestic vectors, and extend vaccine coverage to prevent major YFV outbreak.

5.
EMBO Mol Med ; : e10375, 2019 Nov 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31746149

RESUMEN

Live 17D is widely used as a prophylactic vaccine strain for yellow fever virus that induces potent neutralizing humoral and cellular immunity against the wild-type pathogen. 17D replicates and kills mouse and human tumor cell lines but not non-transformed human cells. Intratumoral injections with viable 17D markedly delay transplanted tumor progression in a CD8 T-cell-dependent manner. In mice bearing bilateral tumors in which only one is intratumorally injected, contralateral therapeutic effects are observed consistent with more prominent CD8 T-cell infiltrates and a treatment-related reduction of Tregs. Additive efficacy effects were observed upon co-treatment with intratumoral 17D and systemic anti-CD137 and anti-PD-1 immunostimulatory monoclonal antibodies. Importantly, when mice were preimmunized with 17D, intratumoral 17D treatment achieved better local and distant antitumor immunity. Such beneficial effects of prevaccination are in part explained by the potentiation of CD4 and CD8 T-cell infiltration in the treated tumor. The repurposed use of a GMP-grade vaccine to be given via the intratumoral route in prevaccinated patients constitutes a clinically feasible and safe immunotherapy approach.

6.
J Vector Ecol ; 44(2): 248-255, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31729805

RESUMEN

In 2008, an outbreak of yellow fever occurred in Abidjan. The entomological investigations confirm that Abidjan is at risk of yellow fever with a suspicion of the National Park of Banco (NPB) forest as a likely area of re-emergence. This study aims to assess the dispersion of sylvatic vectors of arboviruses from the NPB forest to the surrounding areas (Andokoi and Sagbé). The sampling was done in the rainy season using the WHO layer-traps technique. Among the six species of Aedes sampled, Aedes aegypti and Aedes africanus were the potential vectors of arboviruses. Both species were collected in Sagbé but only Ae. aegypti in Andokoi. Only Ae. aegypti were present 400 and 800 m from NPB forest, but at 200 m, it showed respective proportions of 75.5% and 87.5% in Sagbé and Andokoi. In the NPB forest, however, Ae. africanus has been the predominant species. The study showed the presence of Ae. aegypti in Andokoi and Sagbé. However, Ae. africanus was found in the NPB forest and in the 200 m radius in Sagbé. The establishment of an entomological surveillance program in all areas would therefore be essential for the prevention of arboviruses outbreaks in Abidjan.

7.
BMJ Open ; 9(11): 027207, Nov. 2019. ilus, tab
Artículo en Inglés | Sec. Est. Saúde SP, SESSP-IIERPROD, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1026370

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: An ongoing outbreak of yellow fever (YF) has been reported in Brazil with 1261 confirmed cases and 409 deaths since July 2017. To date, there is no specific treatment available for YF. Recently published papers describing in vitro and animal models suggest a potential effect of antiviral drugs (approved for the treatment of hepatitis virus) against flaviviruses, including YF. The primary aim of this study is to analyse the effect of sofosbuvir on viral kinetics and clinical outcomes among patients presenting with YF. This is a multicentre open-label randomised controlled trial with 1:1 individual allocation, stratified by severity and by recruiting centre. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Adults with suspected or confirmed YF infection and symptoms lasting up to 15 days are screened. Eligible and consenting patients are randomised to receive oral sofosbuvir 400 mg daily for 10 days or to receive standard clinical care. Viral kinetics are measured daily and the reduction in YF plasma viral load from the sample at inclusion to 72 hours after randomisation will be compared between active and control groups. Clinical outcomes include severity meeting criteria for intensive care support, liver transplantation, in-hospital mortality and mortality within 60 days. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval was obtained at the participating sites and at the national research ethics committee (CAAE 82673018.6.1001.0068). The trial has been submitted for ethical approval at additional potential recruiting centres. Results of the study will be published in journals and presented at scientific meetings. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Brazilian Clinical Trials Registry (RBR-93dp9n)


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Antivirales , Fiebre Amarilla/tratamiento farmacológico , Brasil , Sofosbuvir
8.
J Infect Dis ; 2019 Nov 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31755526

RESUMEN

Dengue is a global health problem requiring an effective, safe dengue vaccine. We report the results of a phase II, randomized, open-label, single center trial in adults aged 18 to 45 years in the United States designed to explore the effects of the Chimeric Yellow Fever-Derived Tetravalent Dengue Vaccine (CYD-TDV, Dengvaxia) when administered on its designated schedule (months 0, 6 and 12) or on an accelerated dosing schedule (months 0, 2 and 6) and/or given prior to, or concomitantly with, a vaccine against Japanese Encephalitis (JE). Based on DENV serotype-specific neutralizing antibody (NAb), the accelerated dosing schedule was comparable to the 0, 6, and 12-month schedule. Giving JE vaccine concurrently with CYD-TDV did not result in an increase in overall NAb titers. Immunophenotyping of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) revealed an increase in activated CD8+ T cells after CYD-TDV vaccination, a phenomenon which was greatest for the JE vaccine primed. We conclude that an accelerated dosing schedule of CYD-TDV results in essentially equivalent dengue serotype-specific NAb titers as the currently used schedule and there may be an early benefit in antibody titers and activated CD8+ T cells by the administration of the JE vaccine prior to CYD-TDV vaccination. (Trial Registered at ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT01943825).

9.
BMJ Open ; 9(11): e027207, 2019 Nov 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31772079

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: An ongoing outbreak of yellow fever (YF) has been reported in Brazil with 1261 confirmed cases and 409 deaths since July 2017. To date, there is no specific treatment available for YF. Recently published papers describing in vitro and animal models suggest a potential effect of antiviral drugs (approved for the treatment of hepatitis virus) against flaviviruses, including YF. The primary aim of this study is to analyse the effect of sofosbuvir on viral kinetics and clinical outcomes among patients presenting with YF. This is a multicentre open-label randomised controlled trial with 1:1 individual allocation, stratified by severity and by recruiting centre. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Adults with suspected or confirmed YF infection and symptoms lasting up to 15 days are screened. Eligible and consenting patients are randomised to receive oral sofosbuvir 400 mg daily for 10 days or to receive standard clinical care. Viral kinetics are measured daily and the reduction in YF plasma viral load from the sample at inclusion to 72 hours after randomisation will be compared between active and control groups. Clinical outcomes include severity meeting criteria for intensive care support, liver transplantation, in-hospital mortality and mortality within 60 days. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval was obtained at the participating sites and at the national research ethics committee (CAAE 82673018.6.1001.0068). The trial has been submitted for ethical approval at additional potential recruiting centres. Results of the study will be published in journals and presented at scientific meetings. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Brazilian Clinical Trials Registry (RBR-93dp9n).

10.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; : 1-4, 2019 Nov 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31634051

RESUMEN

Yellow fever has been recently described in nonurban areas of Brazil despite 80 years of commercial vaccine use. Although the disease does not spread fear in the general population as it did in the past, yellow fever virus continues to cause many cases of severe disease. Persistence of the virus in the host is a new mechanism to be considered in the pathology of the disease. Immunization with a fractional dose of vaccine during emergency situations needs to be evaluated for antibody duration, and new and improved vaccines should be considered.

11.
Ocul Immunol Inflamm ; : 1-4, 2019 Oct 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31603703

RESUMEN

Purpose: To report the manifestation of Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada-like disease (VKH) following yellow fever vaccination. Methods: Case report. Results: A 34-year-old immunocompetent male had tinnitus, headache, and decreased vision after a booster dose of yellow fever vaccine. Visual acuity was 20/100 in the right eye and 20/80 in the left, with serous retinal detachment (SRD) and choroidal thickening identified on clinical examination and multimodal imaging. Lumbar puncture revealed pleocytosis and an increased protein content, but extensive investigations ruled out infectious/neurological diseases. Pulse intravenous methylprednisolone was given, followed by a tapering regimen of high-dose oral prednisone. Azathioprine was started early, 3 weeks after initiation of oral steroids. Intraocular inflammation and SRD rapidly resolved, with visual acuity reaching 20/20 in both eyes, after 3 weeks. No recurrence of intraocular inflammation or sign of depigmentation was so far noticed, at 2 years of follow-up. Conclusion: Yellow fever vaccine may be a possible trigger for VKH.

12.
J Med Entomol ; 2019 Oct 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31612914

RESUMEN

Mosquitoes of the Aedes genus are vectors for dengue, chikungunya, Zika, and yellow fever viruses. Mosquito repellents are an effective way to prevent mosquito bites and reduce the spread of mosquito-borne diseases. In the early 90s, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a list of active ingredients that pose minimum risk to human health that can be used as pesticides or repellents without passing the EPA registration process. The present study examined the efficacy of 21 of the active ingredients listed by the EPA 25 (B) exempt list and five commercially available sprays that only contained active ingredients from the EPA 25(B) list in repelling female Aedes aegypti (L.) females. We performed choice bioassays in a controlled laboratory environment, using a Y-tube olfactometer to determine attraction rates of humans to female Ae. aegypti in the presence of one of the 21 active ingredients and five commercially available repellent sprays. We found that cinnamon oil, peppermint oil, spearmint oil, lemongrass oil, and garlic oil reduced mosquito attraction to human odor. Of the five commercial repellent sprays, only one reduced mosquito attraction for up to 30 min in our assay. The EPA 25 (B) list contains active ingredients that under the conditions of our assay repel Ae. aegypti.

13.
Med Vet Entomol ; 2019 Sep 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31566765

RESUMEN

A population of Aedes (Stegomyia) albopictus (Skuse) (Diptera: Culicidae), a vector of chikungunya, dengue, yellow fever, and Zika and West Nile viruses, has been detected in Windsor, Ontario, Canada from 2016 onwards. Here, we describe its seasonal distribution, as well as the various aquatic habitats from which this species was collected and its larval co-habitation. We collected immatures from tires, treeholes, extruded polystyrene foam containers, discarded plastic cups, old recycling bins and oviposition traps. Aedes albopictus larvae were collected with Aedes japonicus (Theobald), Anopheles punctipennis (Say), Culex pipiens Linnaeus, Ochlerotatus hendersoni (Cockerell), Ochlerotatus triseriatus (Say) and Orthopodomyia signifera (Coquillett). Adult female and male specimens were collected from Biogents sentinel traps (Biogents AG, Regensburg, Germany), as well as Centers for Disease Control and Prevention miniature light traps (CDC, Atlanta, GA, U.S.A.), and also as they alighted on the investigators. Peak adult collections occurred in September during epidemiological week 37. We also collected Aedes (Stegomyia) aegypti (Linnaeus), a new record for Canada, in 2016 and from two new collection sites in 2017. The 2017 collections were 3.5 km north and 19.4 km south of the index site. The present study adds to the increasing number of studies reporting range expansions of these mosquito species.

14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31636070

RESUMEN

Flaviviruses comprise several medically important viruses, including Japanese encephalitis virus, West Nile virus, dengue virus (DENV), yellow fever virus and Zika virus (ZIKV). A large outbreak of DENV and ZIKV occurred recently, leading to many cases of illness and death. However, despite decades of efforts, we have no clinically specific therapeutic drugs against DENV and ZIKV. Previous studies showed that inflammatory responses play a critical role in dengue and Zika pathogenesis. Thus, in this study, we examined a series of novel anti-inflammatory compounds and found that treatment with compound 2d could dose-dependently reduce viral protein expression and viral progeny production in HEK-293 and Raw264.7 cells with four serotypes of DENV and ZIKV infection. As well, considering medication safety, compound 2d could not suppress cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1) enzymatic activities and thus could prevent bleeding side effect. Moreover, compound 2d significantly inhibited COX-2 enzymatic activities and prostaglandin E2 levels, associated with viral replication, as compared with a selective COX-2 inhibitor, celecoxib. Furthermore, administering 5 mg/kg compound 2d to DENV-2-infected AG129 mice prolonged survival and reduced viremia and serum cytokine levels. Overall, compound 2d showed therapeutic safety and efficacy in vitro and in vivo and could be further developed as a potential therapeutic agent for flavivirus infection.

15.
Front Immunol ; 10: 2192, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31616412

RESUMEN

The Yellow Fever (YF) vaccination is recommended for people living in endemic areas and represents the most effective strategy to reduce the risk of infection. Previous studies have warned that booster regimens should be considered to guarantee the long-term persistence of 17DD-YF-specific memory components in adults living in areas with YF-virus circulation. Considering the lower seroconversion rates observed in children (9-12 months of age) as compared to adults, this study was designed in order to access the duration of immunity in single-dose vaccinated children in a 10-years cross-sectional time-span. The levels of neutralizing antibodies (PRNT) and the phenotypic/functional memory status of T and B-cells were measured at a baseline, 30-45 days, 1, 2, 4, 7, and 10 years following primary vaccination. The results revealed that a single dose induced 85% of seropositivity at 30-45 days and a progressive time-dependent decrease was observed as early as 2 years and declines toward critical values (below 60%) at time-spans of ≥4-years. Moreover, short-lived YF-specific cellular immunity, mediated by memory T and B-cells was also observed after 4-years. Predicted probability and resultant memory analysis emphasize that correlates of protection (PRNT; effector memory CD8+ T-cells; non-classical memory B-cells) wane to critical values within ≥4-years after primary vaccination. Together, these results clearly demonstrate the decline of 17DD-YF-specific memory response along time in children primarily vaccinated at 9-12 months of age and support the need of booster regimen to guarantee the long-term persistence of memory components for children living in areas with high risk of YF transmission.

17.
Vaccine ; 37(48): 7147-7154, 2019 Nov 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590934

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Vaccination is the most important measure for prevention and control of yellow fever. It is recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) for residents of endemic areas and travelers to risk areas. In 2013, the WHO discontinued the recommendation of booster doses every 10 years, indicating a single dose as sufficient for lifelong protection. OBJECTIVE: Considering the lower immune response to YF vaccine in children compared to adults, this study was set out to assess the duration of immunity to YF in children vaccinated in the first two years of life. METHODS: This cross-sectional study involved children aged 9 months to 12 years with accessible vaccination records recruited in primary care units from a metropolitan area in Southeast Brazil. The serologic status (negative, indeterminate and positive), and geometric mean titers (GMT, inverse dilution) of neutralizing antibodies against YF obtained by Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test was assessed across categories of time after YF vaccination. The strength of association of seropositivity with time was assessed by the odds ratio (OR) taking recent vaccination (1-6 months) as reference. RESULTS: A total of 824 children recruited from August 2010 to July 2011were tested. The proportion of seropositivity (95% C.I.) and GMT (95% C.I.) dropped markedly across time periods: from 86.7% (80.5-91.4%), GMT 47.9 (38.3-59.9) in newly vaccinated to 59.0% (49.7-67.8%), GMT 14.8 (11.6-19.1) and 42.2% (33.8-51.0), GMT 8.6 (7.1-12.1), respectively in the subgroups vaccinated 31-72 months and 73-100 months before. CONCLUSIONS: Analogous to previous findings in adults, these data support the need for revaccination of children living in areas with yellow fever virus circulation in humans or in other primates. The data also supported the change of a booster dose to 4 years of age for those primarily vaccinated for yellow fever in the first two years of life.

18.
Viruses ; 11(10)2019 Oct 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31627415

RESUMEN

Yellow fever virus (YFV) represents a re-emerging zoonotic pathogen, transmitted by mosquito vectors to humans from primate reservoirs. Sporadic outbreaks of YFV occur in endemic tropical regions, causing a viral hemorrhagic fever (VHF) associated with high mortality rates. Despite a highly effective vaccine, no antiviral treatments currently exist. Therefore, YFV represents a neglected tropical disease and is chronically understudied, with many aspects of YFV biology incompletely defined including host range, host-virus interactions and correlates of host immunity and pathogenicity. In this article, we review the current state of YFV research, focusing on the viral lifecycle, host responses to infection, species tropism and the success and associated limitations of the YFV-17D vaccine. In addition, we highlight the current lack of available treatments and use publicly available sequence and structural data to assess global patterns of YFV sequence diversity and identify potential drug targets. Finally, we discuss how technological advances, including real-time epidemiological monitoring of outbreaks using next-generation sequencing and CRISPR/Cas9 modification of vector species, could be utilized in future battles against this re-emerging pathogen which continues to cause devastating disease.

19.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 13(10): e0007783, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31589616

RESUMEN

The case-fatality rate of yellow fever virus (YFV) is one of the highest among arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses). Although historically, the Asia-Pacific region has remained free of YFV, the risk of introduction has never been higher due to the increasing influx of people from endemic regions and the recent outbreaks in Africa and South America. Singapore is a global hub for trade and tourism and therefore at high risk for YFV introduction. Effective control of the main domestic mosquito vector Aedes aegypti in Singapore has failed to prevent re-emergence of dengue, chikungunya and Zika viruses in the last two decades, raising suspicions that peridomestic mosquito species untargeted by domestic vector control measures may contribute to arbovirus transmission. Here, we provide empirical evidence that the peridomestic mosquito Aedes malayensis found in Singapore can transmit YFV. Our laboratory mosquito colony recently derived from wild Ae. malayensis in Singapore was experimentally competent for YFV to a similar level as Ae. aegypti controls. In addition, we captured Ae. malayensis females in one human-baited trap during three days of collection, providing preliminary evidence that host-vector contact may occur in field conditions. Finally, we detected Ae. malayensis eggs in traps deployed in high-rise building areas of Singapore. We conclude that Ae. malayensis is a competent vector of YFV and re-emphasize that vector control methods should be extended to target peridomestic vector species.

20.
MBio ; 10(5)2019 Oct 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31641088

RESUMEN

The molecular basis of attenuation for live-attenuated vaccines is poorly understood. The yellow fever (YF) 17D vaccine virus was derived from the wild-type, parental strain Asibi virus by serial passage in chicken tissue and has proven to be a very safe and efficacious vaccine. We have previously shown that wild-type Asibi is a typical RNA virus with high genetic diversity, while the 17D vaccine virus has very little genetic diversity. To investigate this further, we treated Asibi and 17D viruses with ribavirin, a GTP analog with strong antiviral activity that increases levels of mutations in the viral genome. As expected, ribavirin treatment introduced mutations into the Asibi virus genome at a very high frequency and decreased viral infectivity while, in contrast, the 17D vaccine virus was resistant to ribavirin, as treatment with the antiviral introduced very few mutations into the genome, and viral infectivity was not lost. The results were confirmed for another YF wild-type parental and vaccine pair, a wild-type French viscerotropic virus and French neurotropic vaccine. Using recombinant Asibi and 17D viruses, ribavirin sensitivity was located to viral nonstructural genes. Thus, two live-attenuated YF vaccine viruses are genetically stable even under intense mutagenic pressure, suggesting that attenuation of live-attenuated YF vaccines is due, at least in part, to fidelity of the replication complex resulting in high genetic stability.IMPORTANCE Live-attenuated viral vaccines are highly safe and efficacious but represent complex and often multigenic attenuation mechanisms. Most of these vaccines have been generated empirically by serial passaging of a wild-type (WT) virus in cell culture. One of the safest and most effective live-attenuated vaccines is yellow fever (YF) virus strain 17D, which has been used for over 80 years to control YF disease. The availability of the WT parental strain of 17D, Asibi virus, and large quantities of clinical data showing the effectiveness of the 17D vaccine make this WT parent/vaccine pair an excellent model for investigating RNA virus attenuation. Here, we investigate a mechanism of 17D attenuation and show that the vaccine virus is resistant to the antiviral compound ribavirin. The findings suggest that attenuation is in part due to a low probability of reversion or mutation of the vaccine virus genome to WT, thus maintaining a stable genotype despite external pressures.

SELECCIÓN DE REFERENCIAS
DETALLE DE LA BÚSQUEDA