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1.
J Law Med ; 27(1): 50-54, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31682341

RESUMEN

In R (on the application of British Homeopathic Association) v National Health Service Commissioning Board [2018] EWHC 1359 (Admin) Supperstone J of the High Court of England and Wales delivered an internationally significant judgment on the processes required to be engaged in when guidance is given to medical practitioners about their involvement in homeopathic prescribing. This column explores the bases upon which the challenge by the British Homeopathic Association was lost and the repercussions of the judgment for the practice of non-evidence-based modalities, such as homeopathy.


Asunto(s)
Homeopatía , Legislación Médica , Inglaterra , Programas Nacionales de Salud , Gales
2.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 79 Suppl 3: 2-5, 2019.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31603834

RESUMEN

Phenylketonuria, also known as PKU, is the most frequent congenital inborn error of metabolism. The severe form or classic PKU untreated causes intellectual disability, although with the early detection programs in the neonatal period, diagnosis and treatment prevent the appearance of the symptoms. Despite early diagnosis and treatment we have observed some neurotoxicity in treated PKU patients. We analyzed the factors involved apart from the toxicity due to the high cerebral concentrations of phenylalanine (Phe), the defects of synthesis of neurotransmitters, the alteration of cerebral myelination, the effect of the elevation of Phe in the processes of transport and distribution of neutral amino acids with an abnormal synthesis of brain proteins, plasma and cerebral tyrosine deficiency, the neurotoxicity of Phe metabolites, the defect of cholesterol biosynthesis or the increase of oxidative stress. White matter alterations in early treated PKU patients have an important role in neurological manifestations. The treatment of PKU is for life and is based on the reduction of foods containing Phe combined with the administration of a special formula or tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4) treatment. New therapeutic options will be analyzed.


Asunto(s)
Neuronas/patología , Fenilalanina/efectos adversos , Fenilcetonurias/diagnóstico , Fenilcetonurias/terapia , Tirosina/metabolismo , Biopterina/análogos & derivados , Dietoterapia , Diagnóstico Precoz , Humanos , Fenilcetonurias/fisiopatología
4.
Prensa méd. argent ; 105(10): 686-692, oct 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1025966

RESUMEN

This paper explains the elementary law of homeopathy, the Law of Similars, on the bases of thermodynamic aspects by means of the chemical thermodynamic. Le Chatelier principle was used, to explain the re-establishment of starting biochemical equilibrium compartmentalized in individual human cells of an ill person consuming the remedy, to clarify the Law of Similars. In addition, the application of the Law of mass action during the re-establishment of the initial equilibrium in an ill person when digesting the remedy exposed the law of Similars as the strongest outcome of homeopathy


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Fenómenos Bioquímicos , Acción Farmacodinámica del Medicamento Homeopático , Fundamentos de la Homeopatía/historia , Ley de la Similitud , Homeopatía/historia
5.
Cochrane Database Syst Rev ; 9: CD009710, 2019 09 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31483486

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common, chronic disorder that leads to decreased health-related quality of life and work productivity. A previous version of this review was not able to draw firm conclusions about the effectiveness of homeopathic treatment for IBS and recommended that further high quality RCTs were conducted to explore the clinical and cost effectiveness of homeopathic treatment for IBS. Two types of homeopathic treatment were evaluated in this systematic review: 1. Clinical homeopathy where a specific remedy is prescribed for a specific condition; 2. Individualised homeopathic treatment, where a homeopathic remedy based on a person's individual symptoms is prescribed after a detailed consultation. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness and safety of homeopathic treatment for IBS. SEARCH METHODS: For this update we searched MEDLINE, CENTRAL, Embase, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Allied and Complementary Medicine Database (AMED), the Cochrane IBD Group Specialised Register and trials registers from inception to 31 August 2018. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs), cohort and case-control studies that compared homeopathic treatment with placebo, other control treatments, or usual care, in adults with IBS were considered for inclusion. DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: Two authors independently assessed the risk of bias and extracted data. The primary outcome was global improvement in IBS as measured by an IBS symptom severity score. Secondary outcomes included quality of life, abdominal pain, stool frequency, stool consistency, and adverse events. The overall certainty of the evidence supporting the primary and secondary outcomes was assessed using the GRADE criteria. We used the Cochrane risk of bias tool to assess risk of bias. We calculated the mean difference (MD) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for continuous outcomes and the risk ratio (RR) and 95% CI for dichotomous outcomes. MAIN RESULTS: Four RCTs (307 participants) were included. Two studies compared clinical homeopathy (homeopathic remedy, asafoetida or asafoetida plus nux vomica) to placebo for IBS with constipation (IBS-C). One study compared individualised homeopathic treatment (consultation plus remedy) to usual care for the treatment of IBS in female patients. One study was a three armed RCT comparing individualised homeopathic treatment to supportive listening or usual care. The risk of bias in three studies (the two studies assessing clinical homeopathy and the study comparing individualised homeopathic treatment to usual care) was unclear on most criteria and high for selective reporting in one of the clinical homeopathy studies. The three armed study comparing individualised homeopathic treatment to usual care and supportive listening was at low risk of bias in four of the domains and high risk of bias in two (performance bias and detection bias).A meta-analysis of the studies assessing clinical homeopathy, (171 participants with IBS-C) was conducted. At short-term follow-up of two weeks, global improvement in symptoms was experienced by 73% (46/63) of asafoetida participants compared to 45% (30/66) of placebo participants (RR 1.61, 95% CI 1.18 to 2.18; 2 studies, very low certainty evidence). In the other clinical homeopathy study at two weeks, 68% (13/19) of those in the asafoetida plus nux vomica arm and 52% (12/23) of those in the placebo arm experienced a global improvement in symptoms (RR 1.31, 95% CI 0.80 to 2.15; very low certainty evidence). In the study comparing individualised homeopathic treatment to usual care (N = 20), the mean global improvement score (feeling unwell) at 12 weeks was 1.44 + 4.55 (n = 9) in the individualised homeopathic treatment arm compared to 1.41 + 1.97 (n=11) in the usual care arm (MD 0.03; 95% CI -3.16 to 3.22; very low certainty evidence).In the study comparing individualised homeopathic treatment to usual care, the mean IBS symptom severity score at 6 months was 210.44 + 112.4 (n = 16) in the individualised homeopathic treatment arm compared to 237.3 + 110.22 (n = 60) in the usual care arm (MD -26.86, 95% CI -88.59 to 34.87; low certainty evidence). The mean quality of life score (EQ-5D) at 6 months in homeopathy participants was 69.07 (SD 17.35) compared to 63.41 (SD 23.31) in usual care participants (MD 5.66, 95% CI -4.69 to 16.01; low certainty evidence).For In the study comparing individualised homeopathic treatment to supportive listening, the mean IBS symptom severity score at 6 months was 210.44 + 112.4 (n = 16) in the individualised homeopathic treatment arm compared to 262 + 120.72 (n = 18) in the supportive listening arm (MD -51.56, 95% CI -129.94 to 26.82; very low certainty evidence). The mean quality of life score at 6 months in homeopathy participants was 69.07 (SD 17.35) compared to 63.09 (SD 24.38) in supportive listening participants (MD 5.98, 95% CI -8.13 to 20.09; very low certainty evidence).None of the included studies reported on abdominal pain, stool frequency, stool consistency, or adverse events. AUTHORS' CONCLUSIONS: The results for the outcomes assessed in this review are uncertain. Thus no firm conclusions regarding the effectiveness and safety of homeopathy for the treatment of IBS can be drawn. Further high quality, adequately powered RCTs are required to assess the efficacy and safety of clinical and individualised homeopathy for IBS compared to placebo or usual care.


Asunto(s)
Homeopatía/métodos , Síndrome del Colon Irritable/terapia , Fitoterapia/métodos , Estreñimiento/etiología , Estreñimiento/terapia , Fibras de la Dieta/uso terapéutico , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Calidad de Vida , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto
6.
Altern Ther Health Med ; 25(5): 30-38, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31550680

RESUMEN

Context: Small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) has gained popularity on the internet in addition to certain clinical and research circles. This interest has expanded awareness of important new dietary, nutraceutical, and pharmaceutical treatments in addition to laboratory evaluation assessment options. Concomitantly, there appears a loss of parsimony regarding how to use these tools resulting in an untenable degree of testing and treatment for this condition. Objectives: A balanced review of the data regarding SIBO testing, treatment, and management with the goal of establishing non-biased best practices. Design: Non-systematic review. Results: The results for the review fall into two categories. Ineffective Action: Treat only SIBO labs; Treat for SIBO if no symptoms are exhibited; Recommending eating or avoiding foods because they might be good or bad for SIBO; Recommending treatments that are non-validated. Effective Action: Use SIBO breath results, in addition to history and current symptoms, to determine the best treatment; Find foods that work for patients based on dietary elimination and reintroduction; Apply validated treatment for SIBO and IBS in a logical 'step-up' like treatment approach. Conclusions: Testing and treating for SIBO can offer patients clinically significant relief. However, these tests and treatments must be applied with circumspection to prevent over-testing, over-treatment, squandering resources, or creating a fear around certain foods.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones Bacterianas/diagnóstico , Enfermedades Intestinales/microbiología , Intestino Delgado/microbiología , Síndrome del Colon Irritable/microbiología , Infecciones Bacterianas/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones Bacterianas/microbiología , Pruebas Respiratorias , Dietoterapia , Fármacos Gastrointestinales , Humanos , Enfermedades Intestinales/diagnóstico , Enfermedades Intestinales/terapia
7.
Recurso de Internet en Español | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-46739

RESUMEN

Hablando de Homeopatía nace como UNA RESPUESTA A LA DEMANDA CRECIENTE DE INFORMACIÓN FIABLE, VERAZ Y RIGUROSA SOBRE LA HOMEOPATÍA por parte de profesionales y pacientes.


Asunto(s)
Homeopatía , Terapéutica Homeopática , Clínica Homeopática
8.
Recurso Educacional Abierto en Portugués | ID: oer-3851

RESUMEN

Telessaúde Brasil Redes Mato Grosso do Sul

9.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 46(4): 460-468, ago. 2019. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1013811

RESUMEN

RESUMEN Una baja ingesta de calcio se ha asociado con mayor prevalencia de sobrepeso y obesidad. El objetivo fue evaluar el efecto de una intervención dietoterapéutica con diferentes aportes de calcio dietario sobre el estado nutricional, en estudiantes universitarias con sobrepeso. El diseño fue cuasi-experimental (n= 18) en dos grupos intervenidos durante 8 semanas. El grupo 1 (n= 10) restringió su consumo de lácteos a <3 porciones, mientras que el grupo 2 (n= 8) consumieron 5 porciones diarias (leche fluida UHT descremada). La intervención consideró, para ambos grupos, una restricción de 500 kcal/día respecto de su gasto energético total. Se evaluó el estado nutricional por IMC (kg/m2), circunferencia de cintura (CC) y porcentaje de masa grasa (%MG). Como resultados se obtuvo que, la ingesta de calcio dietario, aumentó en 916,4 mg/día en el grupo de "5 porciones de lácteos", pero disminuyó en −28,9 mg/día en el grupo de "3 porciones de lácteos". Al comparar los grupos, ambos redujeron significativamente (p< 0.05) su peso corporal (-3,6 vs. −3,4 kg), IMC (-1,45 vs. −1,31 kg/m2), CC (-4,5 vs. −6,2 cm) y %MG (-2,5 vs. −2,7 %). Estos resultados sugieren que aumentar el consumo de lácteos a 5 porciones diarias no presenta beneficios adicionales para la mejora del estado nutricional después de 8 semanas de intervención.


ABSTRACT A low intake of calcium has been associated with greater risk of overweight and obesity. This work aimed to evaluate the effect of different levels of calcium intake on the nutritional status of overweight female university students. This 8-week intervention included two groups who restricted their calcium intake to <3 portions or 5 portions of dairy products per day (nonfat ultra-high temperature processed milk). Height, weight, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and body fat percentage (BF) were measured at baseline and post-intervention. The intervention considered for both groups a 500 kcal/day restriction based on their total energy expenditure. The main result of this study showed that dietary calcium intake increased to 916.4 mg/day in the group consuming 5 portions per day but decreased (-28.9 mg/day) in the group consuming 3 daily portions. Both the 3 and 5 portion intake groups significantly reduced their body weight (-3.6 vs. −3.4 kg), BMI (-1.45 vs. −1.31 kg/m2), WC (-4.5 vs. −6.2 cm) and BF (-2.5 vs. −2.7%). These findings suggest that 5 dairy portions per day compared to 3 does not have additional benefits for improved nutritional status.


Asunto(s)
Femenino , Estudiantes , Calcio en la Dieta , Estado Nutricional , Educación Superior , Dietoterapia , Sobrepeso , Pérdida de Peso , Chile
10.
Recurso de Internet en Español | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-46651

RESUMEN

La Asamblea Nacional de Homeopatía (ANH) es la entidad que agrupa y representa a las sociedades médicas, veterinarias y farmacéuticas de nuestro país ante otras asociaciones nacionales e internacionales, instituciones y poderes públicos. informacion@homeopatiasuma.com


Asunto(s)
Homeopatía
11.
Clin Obes ; 9(5): e12328, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31267667

RESUMEN

Hyperthyroidism causes weight loss in the majority, but its effect is variable and 10% of patients gain weight. Its treatment usually leads to weight gain and some studies have reported an excess weight regain. However, there is considerable inter-individual variability and a differential effect on body weight by different treatments, with some studies reporting more weight increase with radioiodine, and perhaps surgery, compared with anti-thyroid drugs. The excess weight regain may relate to treatment-induced hypothyroidism. Furthermore, the transition from hyperthyroidism to euthyroidism may unmask, or exacerbate, the predisposition that some patients have towards obesity. Other risk factors commonly implicated for such weight increase include the severity of thyrotoxicosis at presentation and underlying Graves' disease. Conflicting data exist whether lean body mass or fat mass or both are increased post-therapy and whether such increments occur concurrently or in a sequential manner; this merits clarification. In any case, clinicians need to counsel their patients regarding this issue at presentation. Limited data on the effect of dietary interventions on weight changes with treatment of hyperthyroidism are encouraging in that they cause significantly lesser weight gain compared to standard care. More research is indicated on the impact of the treatment of hyperthyroidism on various anthropometric indices and the predisposing factors for any excessive weight gain. Regarding the impact of dietary management or other weight loss interventions, there is a need for well-designed and, ideally, controlled intervention studies.


Asunto(s)
Hipertiroidismo/terapia , Aumento de Peso , Antitiroideos/uso terapéutico , Composición Corporal , Dietoterapia , Femenino , Enfermedad de Graves/terapia , Humanos , Hipotiroidismo/etiología , Hipotiroidismo/fisiopatología , Radioisótopos de Yodo/uso terapéutico , Masculino , Obesidad/epidemiología , Obesidad/etiología , Factores de Riesgo , Tiroidectomía , Tirotoxicosis/terapia
13.
An Pediatr (Barc) ; 91(4): 272.e1-272.e5, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31302060

RESUMEN

Currently, there are some therapies that are being practiced without adjusting to the available scientific evidence. The terminology is confusing, encompassing terms such as "alternative medicine", "natural medicine", "complementary medicine", "pseudoscience" or "pseudo-therapies". The Medicines Committee of the Spanish Association of Paediatrics considers that no health professional should recommend treatments not supported by scientific evidence. Also, diagnostic and therapeutic actions should be always based on protocols and clinical practice guidelines. Health authorities and judicial system should regulate and regularize the use of alternative medicines in children, warning parents and prescribers of possible sanctions in those cases in which the clinical evolution is not satisfactory, as well responsibilities are required for the practice of traditional medicine, for health professionals who act without complying with the "lex artis ad hoc", and for the parents who do not fulfill their duties of custody and protection. In addition, it considers that, as already has happened, Professional Associations should also sanction, or at least reprobate or correct, those health professionals who, under a scientific recognition obtained by a university degree, promote the use of therapies far from the scientific method and current evidence, especially in those cases in which it is recommended to replace conventional treatment with pseudo-therapy, and in any case if said substitution leads to a clinical worsening that could have been avoided.

14.
Acta Vet Scand ; 61(1): 30, 2019 Jul 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300066

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Veterinary remedies are intended to support animals in their recovery from diseases. Treatment outcome depends not only on the general effectiveness of the remedies themselves, but also on other prerequisites. This is true for antibiotics, but even more so for treatments with homeopathic products which are characterised by their individualised approach. While the effectiveness of homeopathy has been addressed in various clinical control trials, the practical conditions under which homeopathic products are used on dairy farms have not yet been investigated. This study provides an initial insight into the existing prerequisites on dairy farms for the use of homeopathy (i.e. the consideration of homeopathic principles) and on homeopathic treatment procedures (including anamnesis, clinical examination, diagnosis, selection of a remedy, follow-up checks, and documentation) on 64 dairy farms in France, Germany and Spain. The use of homeopathy was assessed via a standardised questionnaire during face-to-face interviews. RESULTS: The study revealed that homeopathic treatment procedures were applied very heterogeneously and differed considerably between farms and countries. Farmers also use human products without veterinary prescription as well as other prohibited substances. CONCLUSIONS: The subjective treatment approach using the farmers' own criteria, together with their neglecting to check the outcome of the treatment and the lack of appropriate documentation is presumed to substantially reduce the potential for a successful recovery of the animals from diseases. There is, thus, a need to verify the effectiveness of homeopathic treatments in farm practices based on a lege artis treatment procedure and homeopathic principles which can be achieved by the regular monitoring of treatment outcomes and the prevailing rate of the disease at herd level. Furthermore, there is a potential risk to food safety due to the use of non-veterinary drugs without veterinary prescription and the use of other prohibited substances.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de los Bovinos/terapia , Industria Lechera/estadística & datos numéricos , Homeopatía/veterinaria , Animales , Bovinos , Femenino , Francia , Alemania , Homeopatía/estadística & datos numéricos , España , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
15.
Prev Vet Med ; 169: 104709, 2019 Aug 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31311634

RESUMEN

Reproductive management practices that use hormones, sociosexual biostimulation, nutritional management, or abiotic factors are used to induce the resumption of reproduction in anestrous does. However, their overall efficacy remains uncertain; therefore, the identification of evidence-based management recommendations to manipulate anestrous in goats is important. Electronic databases were searched to retrieve reports on studies using interventions based on hormonal, sociosexual, nutritional, and abiotic factors. Only experimental studies in which a group of anestrous does was treated and compared against an untreated group were included. Estrus, ovulation, and pregnancy were primary outcomes, whereas the onset of estrus after treatment, the ovulation rate, and the number of anovulatory days were secondary outcomes. Odds ratio (OR) and mean differences were used to synthesize pooled data, and random effects models were used to calculate them. Seventy studies involving 3974 goats met the inclusion criteria. Unclear risk of bias for random sequence generation and allocation concealment predominated across studies. Pooled data for hormonal, sociosexual, and abiotic interventions showed a significant, though variable, increase in estrus (OR range 7.15-144.80), ovulation (OR range 6.08-56.95), and pregnancy (OR range 3.94-30.8). Hormonal treatments significantly reduced the onset of estrus, whereas abiotic interventions failed to reduce the number of anovulatory days. Secondary outcomes were not assessed in trials using sociosexual approaches. Finally, except for pregnancy, no significant efficacy was observed for studies using nutritional management. In conclusion, reproductive management practices using sociosexual approaches showed the highest efficacy for restoring reproductive activity in anestrous does.


Asunto(s)
Anestro , Enfermedades de las Cabras/terapia , Inducción de la Ovulación/veterinaria , Anestro/efectos de los fármacos , Anestro/fisiología , Crianza de Animales Domésticos/métodos , Animales , Dietoterapia/veterinaria , Ambiente , Estro , Femenino , Cabras , Hormonas/uso terapéutico , Ovario , Ovulación , Inducción de la Ovulación/métodos , Fotoperiodo , Embarazo , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Reproducción , Conducta Sexual Animal , Resultado del Tratamiento
16.
Recurso de Internet en Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud, LIS-bvsms | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-46613

RESUMEN

O campo das práticas integrativas e complementares contempla os sistemas médicos complexos e os recursos terapêuticos, também chamado de medicina tradicional e complementar/alternativa (MT/MCA) pela Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS). Tais sistemas e recursos envolvem abordagens que buscam estimular os mecanismos naturais de prevenção de agravos e recuperação da saúde por meio de tecnologias eficazes e seguras, com ênfase na escuta acolhedora, no desenvolvimento do vínculo terapêutico e na integração do ser humano com o meio ambiente e a sociedade. Com a publicação da Política Nacional de Práticas Integrativas e Complementares (PNPIC), a homeopatia, as plantas medicinais e fitoterápicas, a medicina tradicional chinesa/acupuntura, a medicina antroposófica e o termalismo social-crenoterapia foram institucionalizados no Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS).


Asunto(s)
Terapias Complementarias , Política de Salud
17.
Rev. int. med. cienc. act. fis. deporte ; 19(74): 181-195, jun. 2019. graf, tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-183686

RESUMEN

El objetivo de este estudio fue describir las características antropométricas, la composición corporal y el somatotipo de una muestra internacional de jugadores de pádel de alto nivel de ambos sexos. En el estudio participaron 29 jugadores (15 varones y 14 mujeres) de categoría absoluta. Un total de 16 variables antropométricas fueron evaluadas. Se encontraron diferencias entre sexos en las variables masa, talla e IMC (p<0,001); en los pliegues tricipital, muslo, pierna (p<0,001) y en el sumatorio de 6 pliegues; en los perímetros brazo, muslo (p<0,001) y pierna (p<0,03); y en todos los diámetros analizados (p<0,001). Asimismo se encontraron diferencias en los componentes endomórfico (p<0,01), mesomórfico (p<0,001) y ectomórfico (p<0,05) del somatotipo. Los jugadores presentan un somatotipo mesomórfico-endomórfico y las jugadoras endo-mesomórfico. Esta investigación aporta datos biotipológicos actualizados de referencia para el pádel de élite


Paddle is one of the racket sports that has grown the most in recent years. However, there are few or very limited studies that address the biotype of this discipline, especially in the elite paddle. The aim was to describe the anthropometric characteristics, body composition and somatotype of an international sample of high level paddle players. 29 subjects national top level (15 male and 14 female) participated in this study. 16 anthropometric variables were evaluated. Differences were found between sexes in the variables weight, height and BMI (p <0.001); in triceps, thigh and leg folds (p <0.001); in the arm, thigh (p <0.001) and leg (p <0.03) perimeters; and in all diameters analysed (p <0.001). Differences were also found between men and women in the endomorphic (p <0.01), mesomorphic (p <0.001) and ectomorphic (p <0.05) components of the somatotype. Male players present a mesomorphic-endomorphic somatotype while female players are preferably endo-mesomorphic. This research provides up-to-date reference data for somatotype in elite paddle players


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Antropometría , Proyectos Piloto , Biotipología , Composición Corporal/fisiología , Deportes de Raqueta/fisiología , Somatotipos/fisiología , Deportes de Raqueta/clasificación , Índice de Masa Corporal , Intervalos de Confianza , Grosor de los Pliegues Cutáneos
18.
Mycorrhiza ; 29(4): 341-349, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31190279

RESUMEN

The extraradical mycelium (ERM) produced by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi is fundamental for the maintenance of biological fertility in agricultural soils, representing an important inoculum source, together with spores and mycorrhizal root fragments. Its viability and structural traits, such as density, extent and interconnectedness, which are positively correlated with the growth and nutrition of host plants, may be affected by different agronomic practices, including the use of pesticides and by different mycorrhizospheric communities. This work, carried out using a whole-plant experimental model system, showed that structural traits of ERM, such as length and density, were strongly decreased by the herbicides dicamba and glufosinolate and the fungicides benomyl and fenhexamid, while anastomosis frequency and hyphal branching were differentially modulated by singly inoculated mycorrhizospheric bacteria, depending on their identity.


Asunto(s)
Fenómenos Fisiológicos Bacterianos , Achicoria/microbiología , Fungicidas Industriales/farmacología , Glomeromycota/efectos de los fármacos , Glomeromycota/crecimiento & desarrollo , Herbicidas/farmacología , Micelio/crecimiento & desarrollo , Micorrizas/efectos de los fármacos , Bacterias/genética , Bacterias/aislamiento & purificación , Benomilo/farmacología , Achicoria/crecimiento & desarrollo , Dicamba/farmacología , Hifa/efectos de los fármacos , Hifa/crecimiento & desarrollo , Micelio/efectos de los fármacos , Micorrizas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Raíces de Plantas/crecimiento & desarrollo , Raíces de Plantas/microbiología , Esporas Bacterianas/genética , Esporas Bacterianas/aislamiento & purificación , Esporas Bacterianas/fisiología
19.
Eur J Epidemiol ; 34(9): 837-852, 2019 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31201670

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to assess the effects of different dietary approaches on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and triglyceride (TG) levels in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D) by applying network meta-analysis (NMA). Systematic electronic and hand searches were conducted until January 2018. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with an intervention period of ≥ 12 weeks, focussing on adults with T2D, and comparing dietary approaches regarding LDL, HDL or TGs, were included. For each outcome measure, random effects NMA was performed in order to determine the effect of each dietary approach compared to every other dietary intervention. Mean differences (MDs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated, and for the ranking, the surface under the cumulative ranking curves (SUCRA) was determined. Additionally, the credibility of evidence was evaluated. 52 RCTs (44 for LDL, 48 for HDL and 52 for TGs) comparing nine dietary approaches (low fat, vegetarian, Mediterranean, high protein, moderate carbohydrate, low carbohydrate, control, low glycaemic index/glycaemic load and Palaeolithic diet) enrolling 5360 T2D patients were included. The vegetarian diet most effectively reduced LDL levels [MD (95% CI): - 0.33 (- 0.55, - 0.12) mmol/L; compared to the control diet]. The Mediterranean diet beneficially raised HDL [MD (95% CI): 0.09 (0.04, 0.15) mmol/L] and decreased TG levels [MD (95% CI): - 0.41 (- 0.72, - 0.10) mmol/L] compared to the control diet. The Mediterranean diet was the most effective dietary approach to manage diabetic dyslipidaemia altogether (SUCRA: 79%). The overall findings are mainly limited by low credibility of evidence.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/dietoterapia , Dietoterapia/métodos , Dieta Mediterránea , Lípidos/sangre , Metaanálisis en Red , Triglicéridos/sangre , Glucemia/análisis , Colesterol/sangre , HDL-Colesterol/sangre , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/sangre , Humanos , Lipoproteínas LDL/sangre , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto
20.
Sultan Qaboos Univ Med J ; 19(1): e4-e10, 2019 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31198588

RESUMEN

This review aimed to examine the literature related to non-medical strategies used to improve pregnancy outcomes of women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and to determine the risk of bias of the selected studies. Treatment for GDM is changing due to the increased prevalence of GDM-related maternal and neonatal complications. A growing body of evidence suggests that early detection, aggressive monitoring and management of GDM using non-medical strategies can greatly improve outcomes for pregnant women and their babies. PubMed® (National Library of Medicine, Bethesda, Maryland, USA), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature® (EBSCO Information Services, Ipswich, Massachusetts, USA), SCOPUS® (Elsevier, Amsterdam, Netherlands) and other electronic databases were searched for relevant literature published between 2005-2015. A total of 15 studies on women with GDM that met the inclusion criteria were included in this review and assessment of risk of bias was performed for each study. The results of the studies were consistent with findings of significant improvement in maternal and neonatal outcomes when diet was combined with moderate exercise, self-monitoring of blood glucose and individualised health education. Future intervention studies in this area should be focussed on identifying and implementing factors that enhance and encourage adherence to the healthy behaviours mentioned above.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Gestacional/terapia , Complicaciones del Embarazo/prevención & control , Resultado del Embarazo , Diabetes Gestacional/psicología , Dietoterapia/psicología , Ejercicio/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Embarazo , Complicaciones del Embarazo/psicología , Complicaciones del Embarazo/terapia
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