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J Nanobiotechnology ; 21(1): 19, 2023 Jan 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36658575


BACKGROUND: The adoption of Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) substantially extends the life expectancy and quality of HIV-infected patients. Yet, eliminating the latent reservoirs of HIV to achieve a cure remains an unmet need. The advent of nanomedicine has revolutionized the treatment of HIV/AIDS. The present study explores a unique combination of Tenofovir (TNF) with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as a potential therapeutic approach to overcome several limitations of the current ART. RESULTS: TNF-tethered AuNPs were successfully synthesized. Cell viability, genotoxicity, haemolysis, and histopathological studies confirmed the complete safety of the preparation. Most importantly, its anti-HIV1 reverse transcriptase activity was ~ 15 folds higher than the native TNF. In addition, it exhibited potent anti-HIV1 protease activity, a much sought-after target in anti-HIV1 therapeutics. Finally, the in vivo biodistribution studies validated that the AuNPs could reach many tissues/organs, serving as a secure nest for HIV and overcoming the problem of deficient drug delivery to HIV reservoirs. CONCLUSIONS: We show that the combination of TNF and AuNPs exhibits multifunctional activity, viz. anti-HIV1 and anti-HIV1 protease. These findings are being reported for the first time and highlight the prospects of developing AuNP-TNF as a novel next-generation platform to treat HIV/AIDS.

Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida , Fármacos Anti-VIH , Infecciones por VIH , Nanopartículas del Metal , Humanos , Tenofovir/farmacología , Tenofovir/uso terapéutico , Oro/uso terapéutico , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/tratamiento farmacológico , Fármacos Anti-VIH/farmacología , Distribución Tisular , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Péptido Hidrolasas/uso terapéutico
Rev Med Suisse ; 19(N° 809-10): 66-73, 2023 Jan 18.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36660841


A selection of drugs and vaccines newly available in Switzerland is reviewed. Shingrix: recombinant shingles vaccine recommended for all patients ≥65 years and some immunosuppressed patients. Nirmaltrevir/ritonavir: oral treatment of SARS-CoV-2 with a high potential of drug-drug interactions. Tixagevimab/cilgavimab: antibody combination for pre-exposure prophylaxis of SARS-CoV-2 in subjects without vaccine response or contraindication to vaccine. Cabotegravir/rilpivirine: 1st long-acting injectable treatment for HIV. Imvanex: monkeypox vaccine for subjects most at risk. Tezepelumab: first-in-class treatment for severe asthma. Eptinezumab: another anti-CGRP antibody for the prevention of migraine. Ponesimod: multiple sclerosis treatment with the advantage of a shorter half-life than fingolimod or ozanimod.

Une sélection de nouveaux médicaments et vaccins disponibles en Suisse est passée en revue. Shingrix : vaccin recombinant du zona recommandé chez les ≥ 65 ans et certains immunosupprimés. Nirmaltrevir/ritonavir : traitement oral du SARS-CoV-2 à haut potentiel d'interactions. Tixagévimab/cilgavimab : anticorps pour la prophylaxie préexposition du SARS-CoV-2 chez des sujets sans réponse vaccinale ou avec contre-indication au vaccin. Cabotégravir/rilpivirine : premier injectable à longue durée d'action contre le VIH. Imvanex : vaccin contre la variole du singe destiné aux sujets les plus à risque. Tézépélumab : premier traitement de sa classe pour l'asthme grave. Eptinézumab : un anticorps anti-CGRP de plus pour la prévention des migraines. Ponésimod : pour traiter la sclérose en plaques, avec l'avantage d'une plus courte demi-vie que le fingolimod ou l'ozanimod.

Fármacos Anti-VIH , COVID-19 , Infecciones por VIH , Vacunas , Humanos , Rilpivirina/uso terapéutico , Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Piridonas/uso terapéutico , COVID-19/prevención & control , SARS-CoV-2
Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol ; 63: 99-117, 2023 Jan 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36662580


Modern antiretroviral therapy safely, potently, and durably suppresses human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that, if left untreated, predictably causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), which has been responsible for tens of millions of deaths globally since it was described in 1981. In one of the most extraordinary medical success stories in modern times, a combination of pioneering basic science, innovative drug development, and ambitious public health programming resulted in access to lifesaving, safe drugs, taken as an oral tablet daily, for most of the world. However, substantial challenges remain in the fields of prevention, timely access to diagnosis, and treatment, especially in pediatric and adolescent patients. As HIV-positive adults age, treating their comorbidities will require understanding the course of different chronic diseases complicated by HIV-related and antiretroviral toxicities and finding potential treatments. Finally, new long-acting antiretrovirals on the horizon promise exciting new options in both the prevention and treatment fields.

Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida , Fármacos Anti-VIH , Infecciones por VIH , Adulto , Adolescente , Humanos , Niño , Fármacos Anti-VIH/farmacología , Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/tratamiento farmacológico
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36674268


Exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) is not a norm in many communities in South Africa despite the World Health Organizations' recommendations for EBF in the first six months of infant's life. Thus, South Africa continues to observe suboptimal and poor practices of EBF. The purpose of the study was to explore the experiences of mothers who are HIV-positive and negative on EBF and examine the extent to which initiation and sustenance of EBF is influenced by cultural beliefs, societal norms, and family norms and practices in Mpumalanga Province. Three focus group discussions and twelve in-depth interviews were conducted among thirty mothers who were purposively selected during their visits to the facilities for childcare services. Interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim, and transcripts were analysed through thematic analysis using NVivo version 10. Mothers were aged between 18 and 42 years, most were unemployed and were living in poor sociodemographic backgrounds in extended family households. We found evidence of factors that influence the decision to EBF and mix feed infants among mothers. Traditional and cultural beliefs and norms that exist within their communities informed decisions mothers took to EBF. These beliefs existed alongside mothers' opinions on breastfeeding (BF) and HIV infection, as well as the fears of harming the baby through HIV infection, leading to early cessation of BF. Mothers were also advised by family members, friends, and even some healthcare workers to use traditional medicines while BF. The association of EBF with sagging breasts and weight loss as well as discomfort with public BF are personal beliefs that influenced initiation and early cessation of EBF. Breastfeeding messages ought to be context specific to improve the knowledge, understanding, acceptance and practice of EBF among HIV-positive and negative mothers. Culturally appropriate counselling messages that address the known cultural practices of the populations affected are essential to changing the beliefs and norms of the communities including extended families of EBF mothers.

Infecciones por VIH , Seropositividad para VIH , Lactante , Femenino , Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Lactancia Materna , Sudáfrica , Madres , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , Sustento , Atención Primaria de Salud
Br J Nurs ; 32(1): S12-S18, 2023 Jan 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36626260


AIMS: This study investigated the synergistic and independent effects of adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and viral load on quality of life (QoL) among people with HIV/AIDS. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 129 patients with HIV/AIDS. The WHOQOL-BREF and the Morisky Medication Adherence Scale were used to measure QoL and adherence respectively. Information on viral load and CD4 cell count was obtained from patients' records and verified by a physician. An additive interaction method was used to estimate the synergistic effect of the linear regression. FINDINGS: Patients who were adhering to ART and had an undetectable viral load had significantly higher scores on four domains of QoL - environment, physical health, social relationships and psychological - than those who were non-adherent. Moreover, ART adherence and undetectable viral load had a positive synergistic effect on QoL after controlling for covariate variables. CONCLUSION: Participants were more likely to have a good QoL if they had both undetectable viral loads and good ART adherence.

Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida , Infecciones por VIH , Humanos , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/tratamiento farmacológico , Calidad de Vida , Carga Viral , Estudios Transversales , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Antirretrovirales/uso terapéutico , Cumplimiento de la Medicación
BMJ Open ; 13(1): e068108, 2023 Jan 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36599636


INTRODUCTION: Alcohol use is a global driver of HIV infection and disease progression, mediated through risky behaviour and poor antiretroviral adherence. Most studies about the burden of alcohol use among people living with HIV (PLWH)/AIDS have been done in adult populations, but less is known about young people with HIV, especially in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs), despite the high level of alcohol use in these settings. The aim of this review is to collate evidence on the prevalence of, and factors associated with, alcohol use disorder (AUD) among young adults (aged 15-24 years) living with HIV/AIDS in LMICs. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: Two experienced librarians will conduct an independent article search in PubMed, PsycINFO, Embase and Web of Science databases, using relevant Medical Subject Headings terms and Boolean operators ('AND', 'OR'). We will include English-language articles that were published in peer-reviewed journals from 1 January 2000, to 25 July 2022, that documented the prevalence of AUD among young people (15-24 years) living with HIV in LMICs. We shall exclude systematic review articles and qualitative studies. Two independent reviewers will screen the articles for eligibility and data will be extracted onto a preset Excel spreadsheet. Data analysis will be done using Stata V.14.0. Heterogeneity will be assessed by use of the I2 statistic and data will be pooled in meta-analyses where appropriate. Publication bias will be assessed using the funnel plot. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval is not needed as this systematic review will be based on published studies. Findings from this study will be disseminated via submission for publication in a peer-reviewed journal, at conference presentations, and made available to health professionals, scientists and policy makers. Our data set can be made available on request. REGISTRATION DETAILS: PROSPERO, CRD42022308955.

Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida , Alcoholismo , Infecciones por VIH , Humanos , Adulto Joven , Adolescente , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Países en Desarrollo , Prevalencia , Revisiones Sistemáticas como Asunto
BMC Infect Dis ; 23(1): 16, 2023 Jan 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36624391


BACKGROUND: To evaluate drug use (alcohol, tobacco, cannabis and other drugs) and its association with mean CD4/CD8 T cell count ratio, a marker of chronic inflammation, in virally suppressed people living with HIV-1 (PLWH) in Nouvelle Aquitaine, France. METHODS: A multi-centric, cross-sectional analysis was conducted in 2018-19 in the QuAliV study-ANRS CO3 AQUIVIH-NA cohort. Tobacco, alcohol, cannabis, and other drug use (poppers, cocaine, amphetamines, synthetic cathinones, GHB/GBL) were self-reported. CD4 and CD8 T cell counts and viral load measures, ± 2 years of self-report, and other characteristics were abstracted from medical records. Univariable and multivariable linear regression models, adjusted for age, sex, HIV risk group, time since HIV diagnosis, and other drug use were fit for each drug and most recent CD4/CD8 ratio. RESULTS: 660 PLWH, aged 54.7 ± 11.2, were included. 47.7% [315/660] had a CD4/CD8 ratio of < 1. Their mean CD4/CD8 ratio was 1.1 ± 0.6. 35% smoked; ~ 40% were considered to be hazardous drinkers or have alcohol use disorder; 19.9% used cannabis and 11.9% other drugs. Chemsex-associated drug users' CD4/CD8 ratio was on average 0.226 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] - 0.383, - 0.070) lower than that of non-users in univariable analysis (p = 0.005) and 0.165 lower [95% CI - 0.343, 0.012] in multivariable analysis (p = 0.068). CONCLUSIONS: Mean differences in CD4/CD8 ratio were not significantly different in tobacco, alcohol and cannabis users compared to non-users. However, Chemsex-associated drug users may represent a population at risk of chronic inflammation, the specific determinants of which merit further investigation. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03296202.

Fármacos Anti-VIH , Cannabis , Infecciones por VIH , Drogas Ilícitas , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias , Humanos , Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico , Recuento de Linfocito CD4 , Linfocitos T CD8-positivos , Estudios Transversales , Etanol , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Inflamación/complicaciones , Trastornos Relacionados con Sustancias/complicaciones , Tabaco , Carga Viral , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano
BMC Health Serv Res ; 23(1): 40, 2023 Jan 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36647104


BACKGROUND: Uganda's current guidelines recommend immediate initiation of Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ART) for persons living with HIV in order to reduce HIV/AIDS related morbidity and mortality. However, not all eligible PLHIV initiate ART within the recommended time following HIV diagnosis. We assessed the prevalence and factors associated with delayed ART initiation among PLHIV referred for ART initiation, five years since rolling out the test and treat guidelines. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we enrolled adult patients referred to Mulago Immune Suppressive Syndrome (Mulago ISS) clinic for ART initiation from January 2017 to May 2021. We collected data on socio-demographics, HIV diagnosis and referral circumstances, and time to ART initiation using a questionnaire. The outcome of interest was proportion of patients that delayed ART, defined as spending more than 30 days from HIV diagnosis to ART initiation. We performed multivariable logistic regression and identified significant factors. RESULTS: A total of 312 patients were enrolled of which 62.2% were female. The median (inter-quartile range [IQR]) age and baseline CD4 count of the patients were 35 (28-42) years and 315 (118.8-580.5) cells/µL respectively. Forty-eight (15.4%) patients delayed ART initiation and had a median (IQR) time to ART of 92 (49.0-273.5) days. The factors associated with delayed ART initiation were; 1) having had the HIV diagnosis made from a private health facility versus public, (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.4 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-5.5); 2) initial denial of positive HIV test results, aOR = 5.4 (95% CI: 2.0-15.0); and, 3) having not received a follow up phone call from the place of HIV diagnosis, aOR = 2.8 (95% CI: 1.2-6.8). CONCLUSION: There was significant delay of ART initiation among referred PLHIV within 5 years after the rollout of test and treat guidelines in Uganda. Health system challenges in the continuity of HIV care services negatively affects timely ART initiation among referred PLHIV in Uganda.

Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida , Fármacos Anti-VIH , Infecciones por VIH , Humanos , Adulto , Femenino , Masculino , Estudios Transversales , Uganda/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Terapia Antirretroviral Altamente Activa , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/tratamiento farmacológico , Recuento de Linfocito CD4 , Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0277571, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36649273


INTRODUCTION: Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV prevention has been implemented in several countries. Previous literature has shown that its cost-effectiveness (and, under some specifications, cost-saving character) is dependent on the reduction in price due to generics, the time-horizon and its effectiveness. The intervention has never been studied in Catalonia after the approval of the PrEP, a territory with extensive implementation. METHODS: Economic evaluation of the implementation of HIV pre-exposition prophylaxis using administrative data from Men who have Sex with Men (MSM) who receive the treatment (at the generic price) compared with non-implementation. A deterministic compartmental model and a social perspective with a micro-costing approach over the time horizon 2022-2062 are used. A baseline 86% effectiveness of PrEP is assumed. RESULTS: Daily oral PrEP is found to be cost-saving: discounted savings in costs are attained after 16 years, and after 40 years they reach 81 million euros. In terms of health indicators, 10,322 additional discounted QALYs are generated by the intervention. Results are sensitive to sexual behavioral patterns among MSM, the price of PrEP (reduced if offered on-demand), its effectiveness and the discount rate. CONCLUSIONS: The use and promotion of PrEP in Catalonia is predicted to result in substantial health and monetary benefits because of reductions in HIV infections. Short-term investments in the promotion of PrEP will result in important cost-savings in the long term.

Fármacos Anti-VIH , Infecciones por VIH , Profilaxis Pre-Exposición , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Masculino , Humanos , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Homosexualidad Masculina , Profilaxis Pre-Exposición/métodos , Análisis Costo-Beneficio , Medicamentos Genéricos/uso terapéutico
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0280447, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36649337


INTRODUCTION: Dual contraception is a method used to prevent sexually transmitted infections (STIs) including Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and unintended pregnancies. Prevention of unintended pregnancy in people living with HIV (PLHIV) and ART given to pregnant women to suppress viral load prevent transmission of HIV to children. Counseling and provision of dual contraceptive methods is a very cost-effective method to tackle this double burden among women living with HIV. However, little has been known about utilization of dual methods among HIV positive women in Bishoftu town and its surroundings. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess dual contraception method utilization and associated factors among reproductive age women who were on antiretroviral therapy in public health facilities of Bishoftu town. METHODS: A facility based cross- sectional study was conducted from November 01 to December 30, 2020. The study participants were selected by using simple random sampling technique. Data were collected using a pretested and structured questionnaire through a face to face interview. Data were processed and analyzed using SPSS version 20. Frequencies and percentages were used to describe characteristics of participants. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to identify variables which had an independent association with the dependent variable. The degree of association between dependent and independent variables were measured using odds ratio with 95% confidence interval. Level of significance was set at a p-value less than 0.05. RESULTS: The Magnitude of dual contraceptive utilization of women living with HIV in Bishoftu town was 56.9% (95% Cl (51.6, 62.1). Being married (AOR = 4.33; 95% Cl (1.67, 11.27), not getting pregnant since the start of chronic care follow up (AOR = 2.19; 95% Cl (2.90, 3.70), having a partner positive for HIV (AOR = 2.67; 95% Cl (1.34, 5.32) and having a partner negative for HIV (AOR = 2.38; 95% Cl (1.09, 5.20) were factors independently associated with dual method contraceptive use. CONCLUSION: The study showed that use of dual contraceptive methods was low; factors like marital status, partner HIV status, and pregnancy after chronic HIV care follow up were found to be significantly associated with dual contraceptive method use. In addition to ART, use of dual contraceptive methods utilization may play a role in prevention of HIV infection in children and is important in the prevention of unintended pregnancy.

Infecciones por VIH , Niño , Humanos , Femenino , Embarazo , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Servicios de Planificación Familiar , Etiopía/epidemiología , Instalaciones Públicas , Anticoncepción , Anticonceptivos , VIH , Conducta Anticonceptiva
OMICS ; 27(1): 15-23, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36648422


Tuberculosis (TB) among patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a major global health burden and contributes to a high mortality rate due to HIV-mediated immunosuppression and subsequent susceptibility to TB. It is imperative to understand the pathogenesis of the association between HIV and TB for therapeutic innovation and preventive medicine. In the present study, we employed transcriptomic and bioinformatic analyses of differential gene expression data obtained from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) of the National Center for Biotechnology Information. The expression data of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-infected macrophages and blood samples from TB patients (GSE54992, GSE52819, and GSE19435) and blood samples from HIV patients (GSE30310) were accessed for identification of differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Data from 20 healthy subjects and 19 patients with TB and 16 healthy subjects and 16 patients with HIV were analyzed. We report here the DEGs shared by HIV and TB infection. Moreover, HIV and TB host-pathogen interaction data were collected from BIOGRID, v 4.4.210, for identifying significantly modulated genes' targets and their interactions with the host. Host targets, including PLSCR1 (phospholipid scramblase 1), STAT1 (signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 alpha/beta), FBXO6 (F-box only protein 6), ITGAL (integrin alpha-L), and APP (amyloid beta precursor protein), are commonly modulated in both diseases. The function of these targets was screened from and reconciled with the literature to understand their role in the pathogenesis of HIV and TB. Overall, the study results suggest that these targets may potentially be important contributors to the pathogenesis of this comorbidity. Further experimental work is needed for evaluating these new observations, with a view to future therapeutic innovation for patients with HIV and TB.

Infecciones por VIH , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculosis , Humanos , Péptidos beta-Amiloides/genética , Péptidos beta-Amiloides/uso terapéutico , VIH/genética , Infecciones por VIH/genética , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Tuberculosis/tratamiento farmacológico
AIDS Patient Care STDS ; 37(1): 31-52, 2023 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36626156


People living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS; PLWHA) frequently encounter antiretroviral (ARV) therapy-related problems. Clinical pharmacists with specialized training in ARV stewardship play an important role in managing these problems. However, there is a paucity of evidence to clarify the impact of clinical pharmacists' interventions on managing ARV therapy-related problems in PLWHA. Therefore, we aim to systematically review the literature to determine the nature and impact of pharmacists' interventions on managing medication-related problems in PLWHA. The review protocol was registered on International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO; CRD42020173078). Relevant records were identified from six electronic bibliographic databases (PubMed, Embase, EBSCOhost, ProQuest, Scopus, and the Cochrane Central Register) from their inception until September 2022. We included all randomized and nonrandomized interventional studies that were published in English. After the abstract and full-text screening, data were extracted from the selected studies, and the quality of the studies was assessed. The electronic database search and citation tracking identified two thousand and three citations. The review included 21 of these studies, involving 2998 PLWHA, published between 2014 and 2022. Pharmacists' interventions, working alone or in a multi-disciplinary team, comprised ARV medication review, management of adverse drug reactions (ADRs), therapeutic drug monitoring, prevention of drug interactions, and provision of drug information to PLWHA or the health care team. The pharmacist-involved interventions significantly reduced incorrect/incomplete ARV regimens, drug interactions, incorrect dosages, duplicate therapy, polypharmacy, administration errors, missing medication, wrong formulation, ADRs, and prescribing errors. Most studies reported that physicians usually accept more than 90% of the pharmacists' recommendations. ARV medication-related problems remain highly prevalent in PLWHA. Pharmacist-led interventions and stewardship significantly reduce ARV therapy-related problems in PLWHA and are widely accepted by physicians. Dedicated pharmacists with specialized training and credentialing in infectious diseases or HIV/AIDS have a great potential to improve health outcomes in PLWHA.

Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida , Infecciones por VIH , Humanos , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Farmacéuticos , Polifarmacia , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados no Aleatorios como Asunto
Enferm. infecc. microbiol. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 41(1): 24-28, Ene. 2023. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-214212


Introducción: La profilaxis preexposición (PrEP) es una intervención biomédica dirigida a prevenir la infección por el VIH en personas seronegativas con alto riesgo de contraer la infección. Esta estrategia fue aprobada por el Ministerio de Salud de España en octubre de 2019. Objetivo: Presentar la experiencia inicial de la PrEP en la Unidad de VIH del Hospital Clínic de Barcelona, poniendo especial atención en el análisis de los factores de vulnerabilidad de la cohorte. Materiales y métodos: Estudio retrospectivo, descriptivo. Se analizan las características epidemiológicas, sociodemográficas y clínicas basales de los usuarios incluidos en el programa durante el primer año de funcionamiento, prestando particular atención a las infecciones, las prácticas de riesgo y el consumo de sustancias. Resultados: Se incluyeron 190 individuos, 177 hombres y 12 mujeres transexuales con una edad media de 35 años (8DE). El 70% tenía estudios superiores y la mitad nacionalidad española. Informaron de tener 10 parejas de media al trimestre y el 60% de practicar sexo anal desprotegido. El 31% presentó al menos una PCR positiva para ITS, siendo la N. gonorrhoeae el germen más prevalente (51%) y la muestra rectal la más afectada (21%). El 63% reportó el uso de chemsex, el 19% policonsumo y el 8% slamming. La mitad expresó su preocupación por el consumo y/o prácticas sexuales y un 25% la necesidad de ayuda. Conclusiones: El perfil del usuario de PrEP visitado en nuestra unidad hospitalaria justifica la creación de equipos multidisciplinares que permitan prestar una atención holística de la vida sexual de estas personas.(AU)

Introduction: Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) is a biomedical intervention to prevent HIV infection in seronegative people at high risk of becoming infected. This strategy was endorsed in October 2019 by the Spanish Ministry of Health. Objective: To present the PrEP initial experience in the HIV Unit of the Hospital Clínic of Barcelona, paying special attention to the analysis of the vulnerability factors in the cohort. Materials and methods: Retrospective, descriptive study. The epidemiological, sociodemographic, and clinical characteristics of the users included in the program during the first year are analyzed, paying particular attention to Infections, risky practices, and substance use. Results: 190 individuals were included, 177 men and 12 trans women with a mean age of 35 years (8 SD). 70% had higher education, and half had Spanish nationality. An average of 10 couples per trimester and 60% reported unprotected anal sex. 31% had at least one positive PCR for STIs, with N. gonorrhoeae being the most prevalent microorganism (51%) and the rectal sample the most affected (21%). 63% reported chemsex use, 19% polydrug use, and 8% “slamming”. Half expressed concern about consumption and/or sexual practices and 25% the need for help. Conclusions: The PrEP user profile attended in our Hospital Unit justifies the creation of multidisciplinary teams that allow us to provide holistic attention to the sexual life of these people.(AU)

Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , VIH , Profilaxis Pre-Exposición , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual , Enfermedades Transmisibles , España
Enferm. glob ; 22(69): 384-397, ene. 2023. ilus, tab
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-EMG-504


Objetivo: Describir el proceso de validación de la apariencia, claridad y pertinencia del contenido del instrumento titulado: "Consumo de medios sexuales en línea y prácticas de riesgo de VIH/SIDA".Materiales y método: Estudio metodológico desarrollado a partir de la técnica Delphi. La evaluación fue realizada por jueces y siguió tres fases: la adaptación del instrumento original al contexto de los medios sexuales en línea, la validación del contenido del instrumento adaptado y la verificación semántica. Los datos fueron procesados en el software IBM® SPSS® con análisis estadístico descriptivo. Resultados: El IVC fue satisfactorio para los dominios de salud sexual (93,4%) y prácticas sexuales (94,2%), mientras que los ítems relacionados con el consumo de medios sexuales explícitos obtuvieron un IVC del 100,0% para ambos criterios. Conclusiones: Se obtuvieron índices de validez y positividad de alto contenido, indicando que el instrumento validado "Consumo de medios sexuales y prácticas de riesgo de VIH/SIDA" nos permite analizar de manera confiable y de calidad la influencia del consumo de medios sexuales en las prácticas de riesgo de VIH. (AU)

Objetivo: Descrever o processo de validação de aparência, clareza e relevância do conteúdo do instrumento intitulado: “Consumo de mídias sexuais online e as práticas de risco ao HIV/Aids”. Materiais e método: Estudo metodológico desenvolvido a partir da técnica Delphi. A avaliação foi realizada por juízes e seguiu três fases: a adaptação do instrumento original para o contexto das mídias sexuais online, a validação de conteúdo do instrumento adaptado e a verificação semântica. Os dados foram processados no software IBM® SPSS® com análise estatística descritiva. Resultados: O IVC foi satisfatório para os domínios de saúde sexual (93,4%) e práticas sexuais (94,2%), enquanto os itens referentes ao consumo de mídias sexuais explícitas obtiveram IVC de 100,0% para ambos os critérios. Conclusão: Obteve-se elevados índices de validade de conteúdo e de positividade indicando que o instrumento “Consumo de mídias sexuais e as práticas de risco ao HIV/Aids” validado permite analisar com confiabilidade e qualidade a influência do consumo das mídias sexuais nas práticas de risco para HIV. (AU)

Objective: To describe the process of validation of appearance, clarity and relevance of the content of the instrument entitled: "Consumption of online sexual media and HIV/AIDS risk practices".Materials and Method: Methodological study developed from the Delphi technique. The evaluation was performed by judges and followed three phases: the adaptation of the original instrument to the context of online sexual media, the content validation of the adapted instrument and semantic verification. The data were processed in IBM® SPSS® software with descriptive statistical analysis. Results: CVI was satisfactory for the domains of sexual health (93.4%) and sexual practices (94.2%), while the items related to the consumption of explicit sexual media obtained CVI of 100.0% for both criteria. Conclusions: High content validity and positivity indexes were obtained, indicating that the validated instrument "Consumption of sexual media and HIV/AIDS risk practices" allows us to reliably and quality analyze the influence of sexual media consumption on HIV risk practices. (AU)

Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Conducta Sexual , VIH , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida , Brasil , Recursos Audiovisuales
Enferm. glob ; 22(69): 610-620, ene. 2023. ilus
Artículo en Español | IBECS | ID: ibc-EMG-510


Introducción: En los últimos años el Virus de la Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida (VIH) se ha convertido en un gran desafío para la sociedad debido a la magnitud y extensión de los daños que ocasiona a las poblaciones, en especial a los adolescentes.Objetivo: Analizar los aspectos contextuales del cuidado de enfermería a adolescentes en situación de vulnerabilidad al VIH.Método: Se trata de una revisión bibliográfica narrativa con búsqueda realizada en las bases de datos Elsevier SciVerse Scopus, Scientific Electronic Library Online, Latin American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences y Google Scholar, en el periodo del 20 de diciembre de 2020 al 20 de enero de 2021 El material fue analizado de acuerdo con el aporte teórico propuesto por Hinds, Chaves y Cypress, que señala cuatro capas de relaciones contextuales interrelacionadas que mejor comprenden el fenómeno: inmediata, específica, general y metacontextual.Resultados: Se seleccionaron ocho estudios, categorizados en subtemas según cada contexto: adolescentes en situación de vulnerabilidad al VIH/SIDA (contexto inmediato); la inserción de adolescentes vulnerables al VIH/SIDA en la Atención Primaria de Salud (contexto específico); atención de enfermería a adolescentes en situación de vulnerabilidad al VIH/SIDA en la Atención Primaria de Salud (contexto general); y políticas públicas dirigidas a adolescentes en situación de vulnerabilidad al VIH/SIDA (metacontexto).Conclusión: Se puede concluir que la comprensión de los fenómenos permite una mayor reflexión sobre la realidad estudiada para mejorar la atención de enfermería frente a los problemas encontrados. (AU)

Introdução: Nos últimos anos o Vírus da Imunodeficiência Adquirida (HIV) tornou-se um grande desafio para a sociedade pela magnitude e extensão dos danos causados às populações, em especial aos adolescentes.Objetivo: Analisar os aspectos contextuais da assistência de enfermagem aos adolescentes em situação de vulnerabilidade ao HIV. Método: Trata-se de uma revisão narrativa de literatura com busca realizada nas bases de dados Elsevier SciVerse Scopus, Scientific Electronic Library Online, Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde e Google Scholar, no período de 20 de dezembro de 2020 a 20 de janeiro de 2021. O material foi analisado em acordo com o aporte teórico proposto por Hinds, Chaves e Cypress, que indica quatro camadas de relações contextuais inter-relacionadas que melhor compreendem o fenômeno: imediata, específica, geral e metacontextual. Resultados: Foram selecionados oito estudos categorizados em subtemas seguindo cada contexto: adolescente em situação de vulnerabilidade ao HIV/Aids (contexto imediato); a inserção do adolescente vulnerável ao HIV/Aids na Atenção Primária à Saúde (contexto específico); assistência de enfermagem a adolescentes em situação de vulnerabilidade ao HIV/Aids na Atenção Primária à Saúde (contexto geral); e políticas públicas voltadas para adolescentes em situação de vulnerabilidade ao HIV/Aids (metacontexto). Conclusão: Pode-se concluir que compreender os fenômenos permite uma maior reflexão sobre a realidade estudada com o intuito de melhorar a assistência de enfermagem diante dos problemas encontrados. (AU)

Introduction: In recent years the Acquired Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) has become a major challenge for society due to the magnitude and extent of the damage caused to populations, especially adolescents. Objective: To analyze the contextual aspects of nursing care for adolescents in situations of vulnerability to HIV. Method: This is a narrative literature review with a search carried out in the databases Elsevier SciVerse Scopus, Scientific Electronic Library Online, Latin American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences and Google Scholar, in the period of December 20, 2020 to January 20, 2021. The material was analyzed in accordance with the theoretical contribution proposed by Hinds, Chaves and Cypress, which indicates four layers of interrelated contextual relationships that better understand the phenomenon: immediate, specific, general and metacontextual. Results: Eight studies were selected, categorized into sub-themes according to each context: adolescents in a situation of vulnerability to HIV/Aids (immediate context); the insertion of adolescents vulnerable to HIV/Aids in Primary Health Care (specific context); nursing care for adolescents in situations of vulnerability to HIV/Aids in Primary Health Care (general context); and public policies aimed at adolescents in situations of vulnerability to HIV/Aids (metacontext). Conclusion: It can be concluded that understanding the phenomena allows for greater reflection on the reality studied in order to improve nursing care in the face of the problems encountered. (AU)

Humanos , Adolescente , VIH , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida , Vulnerabilidad en Salud , Atención de Enfermería
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0279077, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36652442


BACKGROUND: Adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) in Nigeria are especially at risk of HIV in Nigeria. Their vulnerability to HIV is linked to multiple concurrent sexual relationships, transgenerational sex, and transactional sex, amongst other factors. These factors have sociocultural contexts that vary across a multi-cultural country like Nigeria. The aim of this study was to use an innovative collaborative approach to develop a minimum HIV prevention package for AGYW which is responsive to sociocultural settings and based on combination HIV prevention. METHODS: We conducted action research to develop and implement actionable HIV prevention intervention models that address AGYW's vulnerabilities to HIV in three Nigerian States and the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) Abuja. The action research adopted the breakthrough series (BTS) collaborative, which accelerates improvement through mutual learning. The BTS implementation involved rapid Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) cycles: an iterative process to plan and implement a basket of interventions. Problems or problematic situations, termed change topics, for which interventions could be carried out were identified in each study location. Using participatory approaches during a series of meetings called learning sessions, specific and innovative interventions, termed change ideas, were developed. These learning sessions were conducted with young women groups and other stakeholders. The change ideas were tested, studied, adapted, adopted, or discarded at each participating site. Exposure to and uptake of the implemented interventions was assessed in the study areas using a household survey with 4308 respondents, 53 focus group discussions, and 40 one-on-one interviews in intervention and control study sites. RESULTS: Five categories of interventions were collaboratively developed, namely: Parental communication; Peer to peer interventions; Facilitator-led interventions; Non-traditional outlets for condoms, and Social media-based interventions. A good reach of the interventions was demonstrated as 77.5% of respondents reported exposure to at least one type of intervention. Nearly half of the respondents reported being exposed to the parental communication interventions, while 45.1% reported being exposed to the youth facilitator-driven interventions. Social media interventions had the lowest penetration. Also, there was between 15 to 20 positive percentage point difference between intervention and control for the uptake of HIV testing, and between 5 to 9 positive percentage point difference for uptake of male condoms. These differences were statistically significant at p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions developed through participatory approaches with young people and well-tailored to local realities can improve the acceptability and accessibility of programs that are able to reduce the risk of HIV infection among AGYW.

Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida , Infecciones por VIH , Humanos , Masculino , Adolescente , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Conducta Sexual , Nigeria/epidemiología , Grupos Focales , Investigación sobre Servicios de Salud
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0280568, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36652466


GSK2838232 (GSK232) is a novel maturation inhibitor that blocks the proteolytic cleavage of HIV-1 Gag at the junction of capsid and spacer peptide 1 (CA/SP1), rendering newly-formed virions non-infectious. To our knowledge, GSK232 has not been tested against HIV-2, and there are limited data regarding the susceptibility of HIV-2 to other HIV-1 maturation inhibitors. To assess the potential utility of GSK232 as an option for HIV-2 treatment, we determined the activity of the compound against a panel of HIV-1, HIV-2, and SIV isolates in culture. GSK232 was highly active against HIV-1 isolates from group M subtypes A, B, C, D, F, and group O, with IC50 values ranging from 0.25-0.92 nM in spreading (multi-cycle) assays and 1.5-2.8 nM in a single cycle of infection. In contrast, HIV-2 isolates from groups A, B, and CRF01_AB, and SIV isolates SIVmac239, SIVmac251, and SIVagm.sab-2, were highly resistant to GSK232. To determine the role of CA/SP1 in the observed phenotypes, we constructed a mutant of HIV-2ROD9 in which the sequence of CA/SP1 was modified to match the corresponding sequence found in HIV-1. The resulting variant was fully susceptible to GSK232 in the single-cycle assay (IC50 = 1.8 nM). Collectively, our data indicate that the HIV-2 and SIV isolates tested in our study are intrinsically resistant to GSK232, and that the determinants of resistance map to CA/SP1. The molecular mechanism(s) responsible for the differential susceptibility of HIV-1 and HIV-2/SIV to GSK232 require further investigation.

Fármacos Anti-VIH , Seropositividad para VIH , Triterpenos , Humanos , Replicación Viral , VIH-2/genética , Triterpenos/farmacología , Productos del Gen gag del Virus de la Inmunodeficiencia Humana/genética , Proteínas de la Cápside/genética , Péptidos/farmacología , Fármacos Anti-VIH/farmacología
J Glob Health ; 13: 06003, 2023 Jan 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36655920


Background: COVID-19-related lockdowns and other public health measures may have differentially affected the quality of life (QOL) of older people with and without human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in rural Uganda. Methods: The Quality of Life and Aging with HIV in Rural Uganda study enrolled people with and without HIV aged over 49 from October 2020 to October 2021. We collected data on COVID-19-related stressors (behavior changes, concerns, interruptions in health care, income, and food) and the participants' QOL. We used linear regression to estimate the associations between COVID-19-related stressors and QOL, adjusting for demographic characteristics, mental and physical health, and time before vs after the lockdown during the second COVID-19 wave in Uganda. Interaction between HIV and COVID-19-related stressors evaluated effect modification. Results: We analyzed complete data from 562 participants. Mean age was 58 (standard deviation (SD) = 7); 265 (47%) participants were female, 386 (69%) were married, 279 (50%) had HIV, and 400 (71%) were farmers. Those making ≥5 COVID-19-related behavior changes compared to those making ≤2 had worse general QOL (estimated linear regression coefficient (b) = - 4.77; 95% confidence interval (CI) = -6.61, -2.94) and health-related QOL (b = -4.60; 95% CI = -8.69, -0.51). Having access to sufficient food after the start of the COVID-19 pandemic (b = 3.10, 95% CI = 1.54, 4.66) and being interviewed after the start of the second lockdown (b = 2.79, 95% CI = 1.30, 4.28) were associated with better general QOL. Having HIV was associated with better health-related QOL (b = 5.67, 95% CI = 2.91,8.42). HIV was not associated with, nor did it modify the association of COVID-19-related stressors with general QOL. Conclusions: In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic in an HIV-endemic, low-resource setting, there was reduced QOL among older Ugandans making multiple COVID-19 related behavioral changes. Nonetheless, good QOL during the second COVID-19 wave may suggest resilience among older Ugandans.

COVID-19 , Infecciones por VIH , Humanos , Femenino , Anciano , Persona de Mediana Edad , Masculino , Calidad de Vida , VIH , Estudios Transversales , Uganda/epidemiología , Pandemias , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , COVID-19/complicaciones , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 102(2): e32638, 2023 Jan 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36637942


Serum amylase is a direct reflection of pancreatic injury. Several clinical studies have indicated that antiretroviral therapy may be the main cause of increased serum amylase in people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLWH). However, other probable causes including direct human immunodeficiency virus infection, opportunistic infections and neoplasms, alcohol abuse, and use of illicit drugs, which can also affect pancreatic amylase levels were not considered in these studies. In our study, we collected clinical data from newly diagnosed PLWH who had not received antiretroviral therapy, and examined the association between serum amylase levels and CD4 cell counts. Between November 2018 and September 2021, a total of 344 newly diagnosed PLWH and 344 healthy controls were recruited at Ningbo Yinzhou No 2 Hospital. Serum amylase levels, CD4 cell counts and other clinical features were measured. Relationships between serum amylase levels and clinical parameters were evaluated using correlation analysis. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to identify the independent risk factors. Newly diagnosed PLWH had lower CD4 cell counts and higher serum amylase levels than healthy controls (P < .05). Serum amylase levels were negatively correlated with CD4 cell counts (r = -0.506, P < .001). In multiple linear regression analyses, CD4 cell counts (ß = -0.327, 95% confidence interval = -0.051--0.022, P < .001) were independently associated with serum amylase levels. CD4 cell counts were independently associated with serum amylase levels in newly diagnosed PLWH. Thus, close monitoring of serum amylase may be significant in preventing opportunistic infections of PLWH, since low CD4 cell counts are associated with an increased risk of opportunistic infections.

Infecciones por VIH , Infecciones Oportunistas , Humanos , VIH , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Recuento de Linfocito CD4 , Infecciones Oportunistas/complicaciones , Amilasas
Trials ; 24(1): 32, 2023 Jan 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36647092


BACKGROUND: Of the 8 million people in South Africa living with HIV, 74% of persons living with HIV are on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and 65% are virally suppressed. Detectable viral load results in HIV-associated morbidity and mortality and HIV transmission. Patient barriers to care, such as missed wages, transport costs, and long wait times for clinic visits and ART refills, are associated with detectable viral load. HIV differentiated service delivery (DSD) has simplified ART delivery for clients who achieve viral suppression and engage in care. However, DSD needs adaptation to serve clients who are not engaged in care. METHODS: A Sequential Multiple Assignment Randomized Trial will be undertaken in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, to test adaptive ART delivery for persons with detectable viral load and/or who are not engaged in care. The types of differentiated service delivery (DSD) which will be examined in this study are clinic-based incentives, community-based smart lockers, and home delivery. The study plans to enroll up to 900 participants-people living with HIV, eligible for ART, and who are not engaged in care. The study aims to assess the proportion of ART-eligible persons living with HIV who achieve viral suppression at 18 months. The study will also evaluate the preferences of clients and providers for differentiated service delivery and evaluate the cost-effectiveness of adaptive HIV treatment for those who are not engaged in care. DISCUSSION: To increase population-level viral suppression, persons with detectable viral load need responsive DSD interventions. A Sequential Multiple Assignment Randomized Trial (SMART) design facilitates the evaluation of a stepped, adaptive approach to achieving viral suppression with "right-sized" interventions for patients most in need of effective and efficient HIV care delivery strategies. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT05090150. Registered on October 22, 2021.

Fármacos Anti-VIH , Infecciones por VIH , Humanos , Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico , Sudáfrica , Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Atención a la Salud/métodos , Instituciones de Atención Ambulatoria , Carga Viral