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1.
Cardiol Clin ; 40(1): 45-54, 2022 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34809916

RESUMEN

It is important to recognize and treat human immunodeficiency virus-associated pulmonary arterial hypertension (HIV-PAH) because of the associated morbidity and mortality. With the introduction of antiretroviral therapies (ART), improved survival has changed the focus of treatment management from immunodeficiency-related opportunistic infections to chronic cardiovascular complications, including HIV-PAH. The 2018 6th World Symposium of Pulmonary Hypertension recommended a revised definition of PAH that might result in a greater number of patients with HIV-PAH; however, the implication of this change is not yet clear. Here, we review the current literature on the diagnosis, management, and outcomes of patients with HIV-PAH.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH , Hipertensión Pulmonar , Hipertensión Arterial Pulmonar , VIH , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Humanos , Hipertensión Pulmonar/diagnóstico , Hipertensión Pulmonar/epidemiología , Hipertensión Pulmonar/etiología
2.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 207: 114417, 2022 Jan 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34678556

RESUMEN

Analytical procedure development for quantifying 10 impurities in Tenofovir Alafenamide Fumarate (TAF) tablets was a challenge for analytical and formulation researchers. The aim of this paper was to develop a robust, regulatory-flexible, application-specific Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography (UPLC) analytical procedure using the Analytical Lifecycle Management (ALM) and the Analytical Quality by Design (AQbD) for the estimation of the TAF tablets. In this work, the Analytical Target Profile (ATP) for the analytical procedure and the Critical Analytical Attributes (CAAs) were identified. Through the risk assessment studies, the high-risk analytical conditions were found, and they were screened and optimized by the Design of Experiment (DoE) to obtain the Design Space (DS) and identify the working point. The prediction intervals were used to examine the robustness of the analytical procedure. And the procedure performance qualification and the continued procedure performance verification were used to ensure routine application of analytical procedure. Finally, the 10 impurities were separated within 20 min by UPLC. The success of this study demonstrates the usefulness of using ALM and AQbD for analytical procedure development and provides a reference for the analytical procedure development for other drugs.


Asunto(s)
Fármacos Anti-VIH , Infecciones por VIH , Adenina/uso terapéutico , Alanina , Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico , Cromatografía Liquida , Fumaratos , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Humanos , Comprimidos , Tenofovir/análogos & derivados
3.
Rev. bras. enferm ; 75(2): e20210019, 2022. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1341067

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT Objective: To verify the association between adherence to antiretroviral treatment by adults with HIV/AIDS and sociodemographic factors, social and clinical support. Methods: Cross-sectional study, with a quantitative approach. Participation of 230 patients. Questionnaires of sociodemographic characterization, social and clinical support, and assessment of adherence to antiretroviral treatment were used. Descriptive and inferential statistics were performed. Results: Adherence was classified as good/adequate. An association with sex, income, employment, and level of education was noted. In social support: having access to health services; communication with health professionals; health education; having support to allow venting/talking about issues; information on HIV/AIDS; and company for leisure. In the clinical profile: non-interruption of the drug treatment due to absence from the service or due to changes in the medical prescription. Conclusion: Adherence was classified as good/adequate and especially associated with social support factors, which should be enhanced in clinical practice.


RESUMEN Objetivo: Verificar la relación entre la adhesión al tratamiento antirretroviral de adultos con VIH/SIDA y los factores sociodemográficos, apoyo social y clínico. Método: Estudio transversal, con abordaje cuantitativo. Participaron 230 pacientes. Utilizaron encuestas de caracterización sociodemográfica, apoyo social, clínico y evaluación de la adhesión al tratamiento antirretroviral. Realizó estadística descriptiva e inferencial. Resultados: La adhesión fue clasificada como buena/adecuada. Percibió relación con el sexo, renta, empleo y nivel de instrucción. En el apoyo social: ter acceso al servicio de salud; comunicación con los profesionales de salud; educación en salud; recibir apoyo para desahogar/conversar; información sobre VIH/SIDA; y compañía para el ocio. En el perfil clínico: no dejar de tomar los medicamentos por ausencia en el servicio o por alteración en la prescripción médica. Conclusión: La adhesión fue clasificada como buena/adecuada y relacionada, especialmente, a los factores de apoyo social, los cuales deben ser potencializados en la práctica clínica.


RESUMO Objetivo: Verificar a associação entre a adesão ao tratamento antirretroviral de adultos com HIV/aids e os fatores sociodemográficos, apoio social e clínico. Métodos: Estudo transversal, com abordagem quantitativa. Participaram 230 pacientes. Utilizaram-se questionários de caracterização sociodemográfica, apoio social, clínico e avaliação da adesão ao tratamento antirretroviral. Realizou-se estatística descritiva e inferencial. Resultados: A adesão foi classificada como boa/adequada. Percebeu associação com o sexo, renda, emprego e nível de instrução. No apoio social: ter acesso ao serviço de saúde; comunicação com os profissionais de saúde; educação em saúde; receber apoio para desabafar/conversar; informação sobre HIV/aids; e companhia para o lazer. No perfil clínico: não deixar de tomar os medicamentos por ausência no serviço ou por alteração na prescrição médica. Conclusão: A adesão foi classificada como boa/adequada e associada, especialmente, aos fatores de apoio social, os quais devem ser potencializados na prática clínica.

4.
Infectio ; 25(4): 207-211, oct.-dic. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1286715

RESUMEN

Resumen Objetivo: Describir la proporción, características clínicas, demográficas y programáticas de casos fatales de coinfección TB/VIH de Cali-Colombia, en 2017. Material y Método: Estudio de corte transversal, con información de las bases de datos del programa de tuberculosis, las historias clínicas y unidades de análisis de mortalidad disponibles. Resultados: Se depuraron 257 casos fatales por TB, el 24,5% (63/257) falleció con coinfección TB/VIH. La mediana de edad fue 43 años (Rango Intercuartílico: 30-52), 73% (46/63) eran hombres, 76,2% (48/63) no pertenecían al régimen contributivo, 28,6% eran habitantes de calle. 81,2% (39/48) eran casos nuevos de TB, 76,6% (37/47), inició tratamiento; al 74,6% (47/63) se les realizó unidad de análisis de mortalidad. La presentación pulmonar fue frecuente (75,9%-44/58), en 60% de los registros se observó desnutrición (Índice de Masa Corporal <20), en 39,7% (25/63) dependencia al alcohol, tabaco o farmacodependencia. Conclusiones: La mortalidad asociada a TB/VIH es prevenible, pero en 2017 representó la cuarta parte de la mortalidad por TB en Cali. Hombres adultos con condiciones de vulnerabilidad social, diagnosticados en estados avanzados de enfermedad, fueron blanco de fatalidad. Mejorar los sistemas de información e integrar los programas de TB/VIH, deben ser estrategias prioritarias para la salud pública en Colombia.


Abstract Objective: To describe the proportion, clinical, demographic and programmatic characteristics of fatal cases of TB/HIV coinfection from Cali-Colombia, in 2017. Material and Method: Cross-sectional study, with information from the TB program databases, clinical records and mortality analysis units available. Results: 257 TB fatal cases were cleared in Cali in 2017, 24.5% (63/257) of these died with TB/HIV coinfection. The median age was 43 years (Interquartile Range: 30-52), 73% (46/63) were men, 76.2% (48/63) did not belong to the contributory health regimen, 28.6% were homeless. 81.2% (39/48) were new TB cases, 76.6% (37/47) started treatment; 74.6% (47/63) had mortality analysis register. Pulmonary presentation was frequent (75.9% -44 / 58), in 60% of the registries malnutrition was observed (Body Mass Index <20), in 39.7% (25/63), dependence on alcohol, tobacco or drug dependence was registered. Conclusions: Mortality associated with TB/HIV is preventable, but in 2017 it represented a quarter of the TB mortality in Cali. Adult men with conditions of social vulnerability, diagnosed in advanced stages of disease, were fatally targeted. Improving information systems and integrating TB/HIV programs should be priority strategies for public health in Colombia.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Tuberculosis , VIH , Índice de Masa Corporal , Infecciones por VIH , Salud Pública , Estudios Transversales , Mortalidad , Estrategias de Salud , Colombia , Vulnerabilidad Social , Desnutrición
5.
Infectio ; 25(4): 293-295, oct.-dic. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1286725

RESUMEN

Resumen La trombosis venosa cerebral (TVC) es una presentación clínica poco común del tromboembolismo venoso caracterizada por cefalea, crisis convulsivas, déficits neurológicos focales y papiledema. El diagnóstico es confirmado con Tomografía axial computarizada (TAC) de cráneo y Resonancia magnética nuclear (RMN) cerebral. La TVC tiene una relación importante con el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH), ya que los pacientes VIH positivos cursan con hiperviscosidad san guínea, alteraciones de factores anticoagulantes endógenos y riesgo de sobreinfección, entre otros; que predisponen a estados protrombóticos y lesión vascular como lo es la TVC. El tratamiento de la TVC es terapia anticoagulante, por lo general se utiliza heparina no fraccionada o heparina de bajo peso molecular para la fase aguda y anticoagulantes orales como la warfarina para el mantenimiento posterior. Reportamos el primer caso documentado de TVC en un paciente VIH positivo en Colombia.


Abstract Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a rare clinical presentation of venous thromboembolism characterized by headache, seizures, neurological deficits and papi lledema. The diagnosis is confirmed using computed tomography scan (CT scan) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain. CVT has an important relationship with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) given that HIV-positive patients may present with blood hyperviscosity, irregular levels of endogenous anticoagulation factors and risk of sepsis among others, that predispose to prothrombotic states and vascular injury such as CVT. The treatment of CVT is anticoagulant therapy, generally unfractionated heparin or low molecular weight heparin for the early phase and oral anticoagulants such as warfarin for the late phase. This case reports the first documented case of CVT in an HIV positive patient in Colombia.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Adulto , Tromboembolia Venosa , Cráneo , Encéfalo , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , VIH , Cefalea , Hepatitis B
6.
Braz. j. oral sci ; 20: e210699, jan.-dez. 2021. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, BBO - Odontología | ID: biblio-1253172

RESUMEN

Aim: To evaluate orthodontists' knowledge and clinical practices regarding the treatment of patients with HIV/AIDS. Methods: Cross-sectional study performed with 655 Brazilian orthodontists based on a previously calculated sample size. Self-administered questionnaires were sent to orthodontists to collect information on knowledge and clinical conduct regarding the care of patients with HIV/AIDS. The study evaluated the awareness of possible risk factors for contamination, oral manifestations of HIV, need for more information on the care of HIV-positive patients, whether orthodontic treatment is indicated in HIV-positive patients, and whether they had knowingly performed orthodontic treatment in HIV-positive patients. Simple regression models were adjusted, and crude Odds Ratios estimated the associations with 95% confidence intervals. The variables with P < 0.20 in the crude analysis were tested in multiple logistic regression models, and those with P ≤ 0.05 were maintained in the final model. Magnitudes were estimated by adjusted Odds Ratios values, with 95% confidence intervals. Results: Orthodontists who were aware of the oral manifestations of HIV/AIDS, those having work experience of more than 20 years, and those who believed that orthodontic treatment could be indicated for these patients were 3.30 (1.79-6.10), 2.74 (1.36-5.52) and 1.92 (1.13-3.24) times more likely to perform orthodontic treatment in HIV-positive patients, respectively. Most orthodontists (92.9%) reported they needed to obtain more information about orthodontic care in patients with HIV/AIDS. Conclusion: Although orthodontists reported feeling able and qualified to provide dental care to patients with HIV/AIDS, gaps in their knowledge need to be addressed with further training


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Ortodoncia , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida , VIH , Síndromes de Inmunodeficiencia
7.
Univ. salud ; 23(3): 228-239, sep.-dic. 2021. tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1341769

RESUMEN

Resumen Introducción: El Virus de Inmunodeficiencia Humana (VIH) afecta la vida de las personas, y tiene implicaciones en las dimensiones personales y familiares. Las relaciones se vuelven cruciales en la experiencia de cuidado y aún no se conoce como ellas se desarrollan. Objetivo: Construir el planteamiento teórico que describa y explique los procesos de las relaciones persona a persona en los sujetos con Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida (VIH/SIDA). Materiales y métodos: Estudio cualitativo con la aplicación de la teoría fundamentada. Los participantes fueron 25 personas con VIH de la República de El Salvador. Resultados: El proceso social básico contiene cuatro variables: reconociendo riesgos compartidos y retorno a la familia, conociendo y compartiendo con otros, transitando entre el sufrimiento y el cambio y armonizando mi vida y relaciones. Conclusiones: La experiencia de tener VIH/SIDA evidencia la capacidad del ser humano de hacer uso de su libertad y tomar decisiones en medio de los ritmos alternantes de sufrimiento, que les posibilita en un periodo de tiempo indeterminado iniciar a encontrar el significado de vida.


Abstract Introduction: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) unexpectedly affects the daily lives of people and has an impact on their personal and family dimensions. Relationships become crucial in the caregiving experience and it is not yet known how they exist. Objective: To construct the theoretical approach that describes and explains the processes of person-to-person relationships in people with HIV/AIDS. Materials and methods: A quantitative study that applies grounded theory was carried out with 25 HIV patients from the Republic of El Salvador. Results: The basic social process has four variables: (i) recognizing shared risks and return to the family; (ii) knowing and sharing with others; (iii) moving between suffering and change; and (iv) harmonizing life and relationships. Conclusions: The experience of having HIV/AIDS demonstrates the capacity of human beings to make use of their freedom and make decisions in the midst of the alternating rhythms of suffering, which allows them to begin to find the meaning of life in an indeterminate period of time.

8.
Infectio ; 25(4): 276-283, oct.-dic. 2021. tab, graf
Artículo en Español | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1286722

RESUMEN

Resumen Objetivo: Describir la supervivencia a siete años y los principales factores asociados a esta, en las personas con VIH que fueron atendidas en el sistema de salud colombiano entre 2011 a 2018. Métodos: Análisis de supervivencia de una cohorte de 64 039 personas diagnosticadas con VIH en Colombia. Se aplicó el método de Kaplan-Meier para estimar la probabilidad de supervivencia a partir de la fecha del diagnóstico. Se ajustó un modelo de supervivencia paramétrico flexible de Royston Parmar. Resultados: La estimación de la supervivencia global a 7 años fue de 94,8% (IC 95%: 94,5-95,2). El mayor riesgo de muerte se presentó en los hombres (HR: 1,2; IC 95%: 1,1-1,4; p: 0,010); en personas ≥50 años de edad (HR: 3,1; IC 95%: 1,6-6,3; p: 0,002); en el régimen subsidiado (HR: 2,2; IC 95%: 1,9-2,5; p: <0,001); en la etapa sida (HR: 2,8; IC 95%: 2,1-3,7; p: <0,001); en quienes presentaron la última carga viral detectable (HR: 7,1; IC 95%: 6,0-8,3; p: <0,001); y en quienes mostraron conteo de linfocitos T CD4+ <350 células/μL (HR: 1,9; IC 95%: 1,4-2,4; p: <0,001). Conclusión: La probabilidad de la supervivencia de las personas que viven con VIH aumenta al ser diagnosticados en edades jóvenes, en quienes presenten un recuento de linfocitos T CD4+ ≥350 células/μL, una carga viral indetectable (< 50 copias/mL) y no se encuentren en etapa sida.


Summary Objective: to describe the seven-year survival and predictors of mortality among people with HIV who were treated in the Colombian health system between 2011 and 2018. Methods: 64 039 people diagnosed with HIV in Colombia were included. Kaplan-Meier analysis estimated the probability of survival from the date of diagnosis. A Royston Parmar flexible parametric survival model was fitted. Results: The overall survival at 7 years was 94.8% (95% CI: 94.5-95.2). Survival was related to sex (men, HR: 1.2; 95% CI: 1.1-1.4; p: 0.010); people ≥50 years of age (HR: 3.1; 95% CI: 1.6-6.3; p: 0.002); subsidized regime (HR: 2.2; 95% CI: 1.9-2.5; p: <0.001); AIDS stage (HR: 2.8; 95% CI: 2.1-3.7; p: <0.001); a detectable viral load (HR: 7.1; 95% CI: 6.0-8.3; p: <0.001); and a CD4+ Lymphocyte count <350 cells/μL (HR: 1.9; 95% CI: 1.4-2.4; p: <0.001). Conclusion: The probability of survival of people living with HIV increases when they are diagnosed at a young age, in those with a CD4+ T Lymphocyte count ≥350 cells/μL, an undetectable viral load (<50 copies/mL) and are not in the AIDS stage.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adolescente , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Análisis de Supervivencia , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida , Sexo , Linfocitos T , Probabilidad , VIH , Colombia , Recuento de Linfocitos , Carga Viral , Supervivencia
9.
Infectio ; 25(4): 250-255, oct.-dic. 2021. tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1286718

RESUMEN

Resumen Introducción: Las alteraciones de la bioquímica hepática son frecuentes en los pacientes con infección por VIH, la etiología es variada, la esteatosis hepática es frecuente con una prevalencia estimada del 60% Objetivos: Caracterizar las alteraciones hepáticas en una serie de pacientes con infección por VIH en un centro de investigación de Bogotá Colombia durante el periodo 2009 - 2019. Materiales y Métodos: Estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo, observacional de pacientes con infección por VIH que asistieron a un centro de investigación durante los años 2009-2019. Resultados: 94% fueron hombres y 6% mujeres con edad promedio de 44 años, 92,5% de los pacientes presentaba uso de terapia antiretroviral. Las principales hepatopatías fueron la coinfección VIH-Hepatitis C y el hígado graso en iguales porcentajes, 31,3%. El promedio del indice HOMA fue de 2,58. Discusión: Las enfermedades hepáticas son una causa importante de morbimortalidad en pacientes con infección por VIH, las coinfecciones virales y el hígado graso pueden ser muy frecuentes en nuestro medio a diferencia de otros estudios Conclusiones: Este es el primer estudio a nivel local en describir las alteraciones hepáticas en pacientes con VIH, las comorbilidades no SIDA, juegan un papel importante dentro de la enfermedad. La hepatitis C continúa siendo una coinfección frecuente en la población VIH.


Abstract Introduction: Alterations in liver biochemistry are frequent in patients with HIV infection, the etiology is varied and includes multiple causes, liver steatosis is one of the most frequent with an estimated prevalence of 60% after the appearance of antiretroviral treatment Objectives: To characterize liver disorders in a series of patients with HIV infection at a research center in Bogotá Colombia during the period 2009-2019. Materials and Methods: Descriptive, retrospective, observational study of patients with HIV infection who attended a disease research center during the years 2009-2019. Results: 67 clinical histories were reviewed, 94% were men and 6% women with an average age of 44 years, 92.5% of the patients had use of anti-retroviral therapy and the diagnosis of HIV was known 11.7 years ago on average. The main liver diseases were HIV-Hepatitis C coinfection and fatty liver in equal percentages, 31.3%. The average HOMA index was 2.58. Discussion: Liver diseases are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with HIV infection. Viral coinfections and fatty liver can be very frequent in our setting, unlike other studies. Conclusions: This is the first study locally to describe the liver disorders in patients with HIV, non-AIDS comorbidities, including fatty liver, play an important role in the disease and could behave like the general population. Hepatitis C continues to be a frequent coinfection in the HIV population.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Infecciones por VIH , Hepatopatías , Terapéutica , Prevalencia , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida , Hepatitis C , Colombia , Hígado Graso , Hígado
10.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 42(4): 632-637, 2021 Apr 10.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34814442

RESUMEN

Objective: To explore the changing trends and influencing factors of AIDS-related and non-AIDS-related deaths after receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) among HIV-positive individuals in Dehong Dai Jingpo autonomous prefecture (Dehong) from 2010 to 2019. Methods: Based on the Chinese National treatment database, HIV patients who initiated ART from 2010 to 2019 were included in the analysis. The cumulative incidence function was used to estimate the cumulative incidence of AIDS-related death and non-AIDS-related death, respectively. The Fine-Grey model was used to compare the differences between AIDS-related and non-AIDS-related deaths and analyze its influencing factors. Results: A total of 7 068 HIV-positive individuals were included, of which 388 were AIDS-related deaths and 570 were non-AIDS-related deaths. The cumulative mortality rate at years 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 7 and 9 after receiving ART were 2.27%, 3.46%, 4.47%, 5.03%, 5.84%, 6.61%, 7.40% for AIDS-related deaths, and 1.63%, 3.11%, 4.68%, 6.02%, 7.42%, 10.49%, 12.75% for non-AIDS-related deaths, respectively. In the Fine-Grey model, older age at ART initiation, male, unmarried, injection drug use as the transmission route, lower baseline BMI, lower baseline CD4+ T cell counts, baseline FIB-4 score >3.25, and baseline anemia were risk factors for AIDS-related death. In contrast, age at ART initiation ≥45 years, male, Dai, and Jingpo minority ethnicities, unmarried, injection drug use as the transmission route, lower baseline BMI, baseline FIB-4 score >3.25, baseline eGFR <60 ml·min-1·1.73 m-2, and baseline anemia were risk factors for non-AIDS-related deaths. Conclusions: The cumulative mortality rate was low among HIV-positive individuals after receiving ART in Dehong during 2010-2019. The mortality of non-AIDS-related deaths was higher than that of AIDS-related deaths. There were also differences in the factors influencing AIDS-related and non-AIDS-related deaths and interventions should be intensified to target the influencing factors for non-AIDS-related deaths.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida , Infecciones por VIH , Abuso de Sustancias por Vía Intravenosa , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/tratamiento farmacológico , Anciano , Grupos Étnicos , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino
11.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 42(4): 668-671, 2021 Apr 10.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34814448

RESUMEN

Objectives: To explore the HIV prevalence and related factors among MSM aged 50 and above and provide evidence on the prevention and control of HIV/AIDS. Methods: Based on an MSM social application software Blued 7.1.6, we recruited participants through online convenience sampling to collect demographic variables, behavioral and self-reported HIV infection status, etc. Univariate χ2 test and multivariate logistic regression were used to analyze the related factors of self-reported HIV infection. Results: Self-reported HIV infection rate was 17.6%(126/714) among the participants. In multivariable analysis, participants who got divorced or widowed had a 2.07(95%CI: 1.34-3.21) times greater risk of self-reported HIV-positive than those who were married. Participants unaware of HIV-related knowledge showed a 1.92(95%CI:1.21-3.04) times greater risk of self-reported HIV-positive than those with better HIV-related knowledge. Participants who have ever been diagnosed with sexually transmitted disease (STD) showed a 3.17(95%CI:2.09-4.83) times greater risk of self-reported HIV-positive than those without STD infection history. Conclusion: Our findings indicated that the self-reported HIV infection rate was high among MSM aged 50 and above. Being divorced or widowed, being unaware of HIV-related knowledge and STD infection history was proved related with self-reported HIV infection.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida , Infecciones por VIH , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Enfermedades de Transmisión Sexual , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Homosexualidad Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Conducta Sexual
12.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 42(4): 695-699, 2021 Apr 10.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34814453

RESUMEN

Objective: To understand the willingness to accept peer-referral strategies for promoting HIV testing and related factors in men who have sex with men (MSM) in Shijiazhuang. Methods: A total of 544 MSM were recruited using convenient sampling and sharing two-dimensional code of online questionnaire througth MSM social organizations in Shijiazhuang from August to September in 2018. The anonymous online survey were taken by login through the website "jinshuju.com" (https://im.jinshuju.com/users/sign_in). The information collected included: the demographic and behavioral characteristics, the attitude to HIV testing for partners, and the willingness to accept peer-referral strategies for promoting HIV testing. The socio-demographic characteristics were analyzed by χ2 test. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify the related factors associated with willingness. The SAS 9.4 software was used for statistical analysis. Results: A total of 521 MSM completed the survey. Among them 59.50% (310/521) were willing to advise their partners to receive HIV testing, and 90.02% (469/521) were willing to accept the partners' advice of HIV testing. Higher HIV testing frequency for once a year (aOR=2.72,95%CI:1.42-5.20); for once a half year (aOR=5.72, 95%CI:2.97-11.02); for ≥1 time a quarter (aOR=8.76,95%CI:4.56-16.83), enquiring their partners' HIV status (aOR=1.94, 95%CI: 1.15-3.28) and STD history of their partners (aOR=1.83, 95%CI:1.06-3.14) before having sex were the factors positively associated with the willingness to advise partners to receive HIV testing. Discussing HIV testing with partners (aOR=4.43,95%CI:1.87-10.54) was the factor positively associated with the desire to accept the advice of HIV testing from partners, but feeling emotional hurt by the suggestion of HIV testing (aOR=0.35,95%CI:0.15-0.82) was the factor negatively associated with the willingness to accept the advice of HIV testing from partners. Conclusion: To improve the willingess of MSM to advise their partners to receive HIV testing and strengthen self-protection awareness and equal communication skills are essential for the success of peer-referral strategies for promoting HIV testing among MSM.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Prueba de VIH , Homosexualidad Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Derivación y Consulta , Conducta Sexual
13.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 42(5): 886-890, 2021 May 10.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34814483

RESUMEN

Objective: To understand influencing factors on the deaths of HIV/AIDS patients receiving antireviral treatment in Butuo county of Liangshan Yi Autonomous Prefecture (Liangshan) from 2010 to 2019, to provide data for drug replacement and sustainable antiviral treatment strategy. Methods: A matched case-control study was used to collect basic and follow-up information on AIDS death patients receiving antiviral treatment in Butuo county of Liangshan from 2010 to 2019. The control group was formed by sampling twice the number of cases. The logistic regression model was used to analyze the risk factors affecting mortality. Results: In 3 355 patients of HIV/AIDS treated with antiviral therapy, 1 179 cases in the death group and 2 176 cases in the control group. Including 81.34% were 30-49 years old, 69.09%males, 99.55% Yi nationality, 91.12% were married or cohabitated, 95.77% had junior high school education or below, and 88.41% peasants. Amultivariate logistic stepwise regression model showed that among the death risk factors, age ≥50 years old was 5.08 times (95%CI:3.05-8.48) that of the 18-29, female was 0.70 times (95%CI: 0.52-0.94) than male, the transmission rate of intravenous drug use was 1.43 times (95%CI: 1.06-1.91) that of heterosexual transmission, CD4+T lymphocyte (CD4) count ≥350 cells/µl before treatment was 0.38 times (95%CI: 0.30-0.48) that of CD4 <200 cells/µl before treatment, the most recent antiviral treatment regimen containing LPV/r was 0.04 times (95%CI: 0.01-0.18) than that of stavudine (d4T) + lamivudine (3TC) + nevirapine (NVP)/efavirenz (EFV) regimen, drug resistance was 3.40 times (95%CI: 2.13-5.42) of non-drug resistance, non-viral load and non-drug resistance test results were 12.98 times (95%CI: 10.28-16.40) of non-drug resistance. Conclusions: Age, gender, transmission route, CD4 before treatment, the latest antiviral treatment program, and drug resistance test after antiviral therapy were the influencing factors of HIV/AIDS death in Butuo county. It is necessary to expand the coverage of viral load and drug resistance test to change the antiviral therapeutic schedule scientifically and carry out publicity and education on the compliance of patients with antiviral treatment and medical staff training in order to reduce the mortality of patients with antiviral treatment.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida , Fármacos Anti-VIH , Infecciones por VIH , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/tratamiento farmacológico , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nevirapina/uso terapéutico
14.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 42(6): 1124-1127, 2021 Jun 10.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34814519

RESUMEN

Objective: To understand the capacity building needs on social organizations providing HIV prevention and treatment services for female sex workers (FSW). Methods: Questionnaires and interview were conducted with the heads of social organizations participating in China AIDS Fund for Non-Governmental Organizations (CAFNGO) project 2017-2018. Data from the CAFNGO's information system were compiled and analyzed using Excel 2016 and SPSS 25.0 software. The distribution of social organizations, availability of funds, and social organizations' needs for capacity building were analyzed. Results: Nationwide, 184 social organizations were involved in project '2017-2018 CAFNGO's FSW field work'. Out of which, 156 answers were valid. Social organizations that participated in the implementation of fund projects were mainly concentrated in the western region, accounting for 44.0% (81/184), with Sichuan, Guangxi, and Yunnan being the majority. However, the eastern part received the most financial support. Social organizations expressed the highest demand for project data collection and analysis, accounting for 68.6% (107/156). Items on risk analysis, response, and quality control project ranked the second, accounting for 64.1% (100/156). Results showed that statistically significant differences were seen on capacity building needs among social organization leaders with different levels of training on management of planning and finance of the project (χ2=5.78,P=0.016;χ2=8.99,P=0.003). Conclusions: Currently, the number of social organizations and the related fund provision concerning HIV prevention and control among FSWs were not consistent in China. Thus, it is necessary to encourage, guide, and support the development of social organizations and satisfy social organizations' needs on capacity-building and planning.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida , Infecciones por VIH , Trabajadores Sexuales , Creación de Capacidad , China , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Humanos
15.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 42(8): 1518-1522, 2021 Aug 10.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34814577

RESUMEN

HIV infection among foreign personnel is one of the nonnegligible issues to control the epidemic of HIV/AIDS in China. It is necessary for HIV infection among foreign personnel to be taken effective measures in China. This paper consists of information about epidemic characteristics among foreign personnel with HIV in China, including influence on the overall infection, geographical distribution, and prevention status, referencing more effective AIDS knowledge and health education and behavior intervention.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida , Emigrantes e Inmigrantes , Infecciones por VIH , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/epidemiología , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/prevención & control , China/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Educación en Salud , Humanos
16.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 42(9): 1601-1606, 2021 Sep 10.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34814590

RESUMEN

Objective: To understand the epidemiological characteristics and transmission routes of newly reported HIV/AIDS cases with non-martial and non-commercial (NMNC) heterosexual behaviors in Zhejiang province. Methods: A retrospective survey was conducted among HIV/AIDS cases that had NMNC heterosexual behavior history and diagnosed with HIV infection in Zhejiang between January 1st, 2017 and September 30th, 2019. The multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) was used to explore the association of social demographic characteristics with NMNC heterosexual partner types in the cases. Results: A total of 406 participants with NMNC heterosexual behaviors before HIV diagnoses were recruited in this study. Most of them were males (67.2%, 273/406), aged 25-49 years at HIV diagnoses (59.1%, 240/406). Prior to HIV infection confirmation, 36.0% (146/406) participants only had casual sexual partners, 52.0% (211/406) only had regular sexual partners, and 12.0% (49/406) had both. Statistical differences in marital status, occupation and income level were found among participants with different types of NMNC heterosexual partners (all P<0.05). Result of MCA indicted that monthly income ≤3 000 yuan RMB, self-employed, being married were only associated with casual NMNC heterosexual partner; working in service industry, education level of junior high school were only associated with regular heterosexual partner; working in enterprise, high school education level or above, monthly income ≥5 000 yuan RMB were associated with both casual and regular sexual partner. Conclusion: The HIV/AIDS cases with NMNC heterosexual behaviors before HIV diagnoses accounted for a large proportion in Zhejiang province during 2017-2019. Active intervention efforts should be made to improve the health awareness of the public to reduce the risk behaviors for HIV transmission.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida , Infecciones por VIH , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Heterosexualidad , Humanos , Masculino , Estudios Retrospectivos , Conducta Sexual
17.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 42(10): 1823-1828, 2021 Oct 10.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34814618

RESUMEN

Objective: To understand the characteristics and the first CD4+T lymphocytes (CD4) test of newly-reported HIV/AIDS cases aged 50 years and above in the third round of China comprehensive AIDS response (CARES) program. Methods: The data of newly-reported HIV/AIDS cases aged 50 years and above from 2014 to 2018 were collected from the National Information system for HIV/AIDS Control and Prevention of Chinese System for Disease Control and Prevention. The Cochran-Armitage trend test and multivariate logistic regression were used for statistical analysis. Results: There were 8 288, 9 512, 11 315, 13 091, and 14 673 newly-reported cases of HIV/AIDS aged 50 years and above in the third round of China CARES in 2014, 2015, 2016, 2017, and 2018, respectively, for a total of 56 879 cases. The majority of cases were male (75.7%). The main route of transmission was heterosexual transmission (87.8%). Most of the cases were diagnosed by medical institutions (68.6%). 69.6% of HIV/AIDS cases completed the first CD4 test within 10 working days after the diagnosis of HIV infection. Among the 29 078 HIV/AIDS cases who had their first CD4 test immediately after diagnosis of HIV infection, the proportions of CD4 cell count <200 cells/µl and <500 cells/µl were 66.5% and 93.8%, respectively. The results of logistic regression analysis of the factors related to the first CD4 test immediately showed that, compared to cases with an education level of elementary school and below, OR (95%CI) values for timely CD4 testing of cases with an education level of junior high school, high school or technical secondary school and junior college or above were 1.113 (1.063-1.166), 1.205 (1.128-1.289) and 1.277 (1.160-1.406) respectively. Compared to cases aged 50-59 years, OR (95%CI) values for timely CD4 testing of cases aged 70-79 years and ≥80 years were 0.864 (0.816-0.914) and 0.612 (0.554-0.676), respectively. Compared to cases diagnosed by HIV voluntary counseling and testing, OR (95%CI) value for timely CD4 testing of cases diagnosed by medical institutions was 0.750 (0.714-0.788). Conclusions: The number of newly reported HIV/AIDS cases aged 50 and above was increasing year by year in the third round of China CARES, with a predominance of men and previous infections. The proportion of timely CD4 tests was drastically increasing. The factors associated with timely CD4 test included primary school or below education level, ≥70 years old, and cases diagnosed by medical institutions. The third round of China CARES should focus on strengthening the prevention of AIDS and early detection of HIV/AIDS cases among the elderly.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida , Infecciones por VIH , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/diagnóstico , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/epidemiología , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/prevención & control , Anciano , Recuento de Linfocito CD4 , China/epidemiología , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/prevención & control , Humanos , Masculino , Linfocitos T
18.
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi ; 42(10): 1835-1839, 2021 Oct 10.
Artículo en Chino | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34814620

RESUMEN

Objective: To analysis the characteristics and trends of non-martial and non-commercial heterosexual transmission of HIV/AIDS cases in Henan province between 2015 and 2020. Methods: Information of newly reported HIV/AIDS through non-martial and non-commercial heterosexual transmission was collected from National Comprehensive HIV/AIDS Information system, using SPSS 22.0 to analyze the characteristics and tend of cases. Results: During 2015-2020, a total of 10 877 HIV/AIDS cases infected by non-martial and non-commercial heterosexual transmission were newly reported in Henan province. This mode of infection increased from 32.6% in 2015 to 35.5% in 2020 (trend χ2=81.880,P<0.01). The male to female ratio was 1.9∶1 (7 105∶3 772). The mean age was (45.5±15.8) years, increasing annually (F=5.184,P<0.01). For female cases, the proportion of aged 15-50 years group was decreased annually (trend χ2=69.888, P<0.01). Most HIV/AIDS cases were distributed in the early HIV epidemic areas and Zhengzhou city, the same as the cases of the first CD4+T cells counts (CD4) below 200 cells/µl. The median (P25, P75) first CD4 count was 298 (143, 462) cells/µl. The proportion of the first CD4<200 cells/µl was no significant change annually, while the proportion of the first CD4≥500 cells/µl was decreasing annually (trend χ2=18.961,P<0.01). Conclusions: The reported cases through non-martial and non-commercial heterosexual transmission increased, with most of them were male, married, junior, farmer, migrant laborer, and aged 40-59 years. It is needed to focus on the rural district and the middle-aged population, combined with biological and social factors to control the prevalence of AIDS through comprehensive prevention and control measures.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida , Infecciones por VIH , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/epidemiología , Adulto , Recuento de Linfocito CD4 , Femenino , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Heterosexualidad , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
19.
Einstein (Sao Paulo) ; 19: eAO5800, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34817033

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To characterize the sociodemographic profile of the population undergoing antiretroviral treatment in the state of Paraná, Brazil, to investigate the proportion of people undergoing treatment among all those diagnosed, and to analyze the proportion of patients with suppressed viral load in different regions of the state. METHODS: Observational descriptive and analytical study carried out with information referring to the period from January 2018 to January 2019. Data were obtained from the Sistema Informatizado de Monitoramento Clínico das Pessoas Vivendo com HIV/AIDS [Computerized System for Clinical Monitoring of People Living with HIV/AIDS] and Sistema de Controle Logístico de Medicamentos[Drug Supply Control System]. The proportion of people on antiretroviral treatment in the state and the proportion of patients with viral load ≤1,000 copies/mL and ≤50 copies/mL were calculated. The results were compared with the corresponding parameters of the World Health Organization goal 90-90-90. RESULTS: The state of Paraná managed to reach the second and third parameters of the 90-90-90 goal of the World Health Organization. Among those diagnosed, 93.12% were on antiretroviral treatment, and 90.0% of them had a viral load below 50 copies of viral RNA/mL of blood, indicating virologic success. CONCLUSION: The health policy aimed at the population living with HIV/AIDS, and the health services available in Paraná have been successful in parameters relevant to the control of the epidemic. However, it is necessary to ensure the diagnosis of people infected with HIV in the population.


Asunto(s)
Fármacos Anti-VIH , Infecciones por VIH , Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico , Antirretrovirales/uso terapéutico , Terapia Antirretroviral Altamente Activa , Brasil , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Humanos , ARN Viral , Carga Viral
20.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2021-11-16.
No convencional en Inglés | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-55194

RESUMEN

This regional report on the situation of tuberculosis (TB) in the Americas contains information from 2019, provided by the countries of the Region through the World Health Organization TB data collection system. These data have been consolidated and analyzed at the regional level. In addition to presenting the epidemiological and programmatic situation of TB in the Americas, the report aims to raise awareness and to motivate and encourage all stakeholders in the prevention and control of this disease, to accelerate efforts towards TB elimination in the Region, and to achieve the targets of the End TB Strategy. The report records the Region's achievements, but also the gaps in the work being carried out in diagnosis, treatment, comorbidities, vulnerable populations, risk factors, and funding, among other issues. Based on the information presented, specific recommendations are provided for further progress.


Asunto(s)
Tuberculosis , Epidemiología , Mortalidad , VIH , Poblaciones Vulnerables , Pueblos Indígenas , Salud de Poblaciones Indígenas , Factores de Riesgo , Adolescente , Salud del Adolescente , Niño , Salud del Niño , Américas
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