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1.
Rev Med Chil ; 149(4): 543-553, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34479342

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Violence against women (VAW) is a violation of women's fundamental rights and special attention must be paid during the gestational and postpartum period. AIM: To determine the prevalence of violence against women attending antenatal and postpartum controls in Primary Health Centers. MATERIAL AND METHOD: The Woman Abuse Screening Tool (WAST) for early detection of VAW was applied to 279 pregnant and 102 puerperal women attending five public primary health centers in metropolitan Santiago. RESULTS: The prevalence ofviolence against pregnant and puerperal women was 5.7 and 5.9%, respectively. In both groups, the factors associated with a greater risk of violence were being immigrants, a history of domestic violence, not having a supportive partner and alcohol consumption by the partner. CONCLUSIONS: Violence against these women is a multifactorial, complex and structural phenomenon, which involves the victim, the abuser and the entire social system. Primary health care level and health professionals can be key elements applying early detection strategies, timely referral mechanisms and bringing emotional support for victims.


Asunto(s)
Violencia Doméstica , Chile/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Periodo Posparto , Embarazo , Prevalencia
3.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34501537

RESUMEN

The global pandemic caused by a new strain of Coronavirus has brought the Italian government to adopt quarantine, isolation, and lockdown strategies as restrictive measures to reduce the virus spread. Being forced to stay at home could significantly increase the likelihood of episodes of home-based violence and could also be accompanied by a limited possibility of complaints or defense by the victim. The present study aimed to document, through the use of newspaper articles, the characteristics of domestic violence during the lockdown period related to COVID-19 in Italy (from 9 March 2020 up to 18 May 2020) and compare the results with the same period in 2019. The results showed an increase in domestic violence during the lockdown period compared to the same period the year before and highlighted the differences between the dynamics and violent behavior between the two periods examined. The results and limitations of this research are discussed with reference to the literature.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Violencia Doméstica , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Humanos , Italia/epidemiología , SARS-CoV-2
4.
BMJ Open ; 11(9): e046069, 2021 09 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34493507

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Thirty per cent of all women experience intimate partner violence (IPV) in their lifetime. The aim of this study was to examine the association between the WHO's novel R.E.S.P.E.C.T framework and IPV among women in Kenya. METHODS: We used the 2014 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey (KDHS). Only women selected for the domestic violence module and who were married/living with their partner were eligible for this study (n=3737). We created a summary score for the strategies denoted by R.E.S.P.T based on availability of questions addressing these strategies in the KDHS, and a total score that summed responses across all strategies. Each letter was assessed with Cronbach's alpha. Multiple logistic regression models were used to investigate the relationship between R.E.S.P.T scores and IPV. RESULTS: All strategies except for E lowered the odds of IPV. Decision-making (R) was negatively associated with experiencing IPV (OR=0.62 (0.53 to 0.72)). Land and property ownership (E) were positively associated with experiencing IPV (OR=1.25 (1.08 to 1.43)). Access to healthcare (S) was negatively associated with experiencing IPV (OR=0.55 (0.48 to 0.63)). Higher levels of wealth (P) were negatively associated with experiencing IPV (OR=0.47 (0.37 to 0.62)). Not justifying wife-beating in any scenario (T) was negatively associated with experiencing IPV (OR=0.39 (0.29 to 0.53)). After adjusting for demographics, a 1-unit increase in total R.E.S.P.T score was negatively associated with experiencing IPV (AOR=0.63 (0.57 to 0.70)) with a similar finding for IPV in the past 12 months (AOR=0.59 (0.53 to 0.66)). Younger women, higher education and Muslim religion were associated with decreased odds of experiencing IPV while living in a rural location and working were associated with increased odds of experiencing IPV. CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides initial evidence that by using the multistrategy R.E.S.P.E.C.T framework, countries can dramatically lower the odds of women experiencing IPV. IPV prevention strategies must have a wide approach. The DHS can be used as a tool to monitor implementation and efficacy of this novel strategy.


Asunto(s)
Violencia Doméstica , Violencia de Pareja , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Kenia/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Parejas Sexuales
5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(9): e2122260, 2021 09 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473260

RESUMEN

Importance: Domestic violence (DV) has become a growing public health concern during the COVID-19 pandemic because individuals may be sheltering in place with abusers and facing mounting economic and health-related stresses. Objective: To analyze associations of the 2020 COVID-19 stay-at-home (SH) order with DV police reporting and resource availability, including differences by community area racial/ethnic composition. Design, Setting, and Participants: This longitudinal cohort study assessed DV police reports (January-June 2020) obtained from the Chicago, Illinois, Police Department and DV resource availability (March and August 2020) obtained from the NowPow community resource database, both for 77 community areas in Chicago. Data were analyzed July through December 2020. Exposures: The COVID-19 SH order effective March 21, 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: Monthly rates of DV police reports and DV resource availability per 100 000 persons. Results: Of 77 community areas in Chicago, 28 (36.4%) were majority Black, 19 (24.7%) majority Hispanic/Latinx, 18 (23.4%) majority White, and 12 (15.6%) a different or no majority race/ethnicity, representing an estimated population of 2 718 555 individuals. For each community area, the SH order was associated with a decrease in the rate of DV police reports by 21.8 (95% CI, -30.48 to -13.07) crimes per 100 000 persons per month relative to the same months in 2019. Compared with White majority community areas, Black majority areas had a decrease in the rate of DV police reports by 40.8 (95% CI, -62.93 to -18.75) crimes per 100 000 persons per month relative to the same months in 2019. The SH order was also associated with a decrease in DV resource availability at a rate of 5.1 (95% CI, -7.55 to -2.67) resources per 100 000 persons, with the largest decreases for mental health (-4.3 [95% CI, -5.97 to -2.66] resources per 100 000 persons) and personal safety (-2.4 [95% CI, -4.40 to -0.41] resources per 100 000 persons). The Black majority south side of Chicago had a larger decrease in resource availability (-6.7 [95% CI, -12.92 to -0.46] resources per 100 000 persons) than the White majority north side. Conclusions and Relevance: In this longitudinal cohort study, the rate of DV police reports decreased after the SH order was implemented in Chicago. This decrease was largely observed in Black majority communities, whereas there was no significant change in White majority communities. These findings may reflect decreased DV incidence but may also reflect an exacerbation of underreporting. In addition, DV resource availability decreased disproportionately on the predominantly Black south side of Chicago.


Asunto(s)
Violencia Doméstica/estadística & datos numéricos , Policia/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , COVID-19/epidemiología , Chicago/epidemiología , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/legislación & jurisprudencia , Violencia Doméstica/etnología , Femenino , Humanos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Características de la Residencia/estadística & datos numéricos , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Soins Pediatr Pueric ; 42(322): 23-25, 2021.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34489076

RESUMEN

The infant victim of shaken baby syndrome, also known as non-accidental head trauma, is, in some cases, admitted to a social nursery after hospitalisation, within the framework of a legal placement. Professionals are then in charge of accompanying him and his family, in order to lead them on the path of psychological and physical reconstruction.


Asunto(s)
Maltrato a los Niños , Síndrome del Bebé Sacudido , Niño , Familia , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Masculino , Síndrome del Bebé Sacudido/diagnóstico
7.
Soins ; 66(857): 20-22, 2021 Jul.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34366066

RESUMEN

Domestic violence has numerous consequences on the victims' health. Supporting these victims means firstly being able to recognise the warning signs. Tools exist to facilitate the role of health professionals on the front line to screen for domestic violence and identify with the victims the gravity of their situation. Depending on the risks involved, it is sometimes important to let them make their own enlightened choices to help them regain confidence and independence.


Asunto(s)
Víctimas de Crimen , Violencia Doméstica , Humanos , Mentores
8.
Soins ; 66(857): 23-25, 2021 Jul.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34366067

RESUMEN

Childhood is a period of life during which psychological construction takes place. Domestic violence has direct consequences on children. It has a major impact on their physical, mental and social health. Being exposed to violence means they are at risk of suffering repercussions throughout their whole life, affecting their relationships and behaviour. One of health professionals' missions is to detect violence in order to protect the health and future of these children.


Asunto(s)
Víctimas de Crimen , Violencia Doméstica , Niño , Personal de Salud , Humanos
9.
Soins ; 66(857): 26-27, 2021 Jul.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34366068

RESUMEN

Social workers play a pivotal role in the care of domestic violence victims. Their support consists in facilitating access to housing, health services, justice and helping the victims obtain suitable assistance. Social services are present in hospitals and across the territories. One of the social worker's missions is to guarantee the protection of children.


Asunto(s)
Violencia Doméstica , Atención de Enfermería , Niño , Humanos , Trabajadores Sociales
10.
Soins ; 66(857): 28-31, 2021 Jul.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34366069

RESUMEN

Concern about the issue of violence against women emerged in society in the second half of the 20th century. The development of networks of associations favours the creation of laws to defend women's rights on a national level and to respond to the European convention. While it is not easy for victims to assert their rights, a protection order is a key tool for protecting women. Through their actions, health professionals can facilitate the use of existing mechanisms.


Asunto(s)
Violencia Doméstica , Derechos de la Mujer , Violencia Doméstica/prevención & control , Femenino , Humanos , Violencia
11.
Soins ; 66(857): 32-34, 2021 Jul.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34366070

RESUMEN

Nurses provide care to victims of intrafamily violence in accordance with their competencies and their ethical code. Systematic screening is put in place in an atmosphere of trust and respect of the victim. Their referral takes their preferences into account and involves multiple disciplines. Knowledge of the services concerned is essential to ensure the care pathway is smooth and the objectives are met.


Asunto(s)
Violencia Doméstica , Enfermeras y Enfermeros , Femenino , Humanos , Derivación y Consulta , Violencia
12.
Soins ; 66(857): 35-37, 2021 Jul.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34366071

RESUMEN

Alès-Cévennes hospital identifies within each of its departments health professionals to lead the care of users concerned by intrafamily violence. They act as a sentinel within their units and facilitate the coordination of the care pathway. The emergency department plays a leading role in structuring the project. The maternity unit offers consultations designed specifically for victims. The aim is to put in place personalised care matching as closely as possible the needs of each user in a systemic approach to their pathway.


Asunto(s)
Violencia Doméstica , Violencia , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital , Femenino , Personal de Salud , Humanos , Embarazo , Derivación y Consulta
13.
Soins ; 66(857): 40-41, 2021 Jul.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34366073

RESUMEN

Every year in France, thousands of victims file a complaint for violence against their partner. These acts of violence are committed in the family environment, behind closed doors. Through her practice, the home care nurse can be a witness, support or a resource.


Asunto(s)
Víctimas de Crimen , Violencia Doméstica , Servicios de Atención de Salud a Domicilio , Enfermeros de Salud Comunitaria , Violencia Doméstica/prevención & control , Femenino , Francia , Humanos , Relaciones Interpersonales , Violencia
14.
Soins ; 66(857): 42-43, 2021 Jul.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34366074

RESUMEN

In forensic emergency departments, complainants are examined by a doctor who assesses the physical and/or psychological injuries on the request of the police or courts. The nurse is involved in the admission and care of victims. She also acts as a liaison between the different parties: police services, doctors, psychologists, legal professionals, associations, etc.


Asunto(s)
Violencia Doméstica , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital , Femenino , Medicina Legal , Humanos
15.
BMC Womens Health ; 21(1): 286, 2021 08 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34353318

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Intimate partner violence (IPV) is an important public health problem with health and socioeconomic consequences and is endemic in Namibia. Studies assessing risk factors for IPV often use logistic and Poisson regression without geographical location information and spatial effects. We used a Bayesian spatial semi-parametric regression model to determine the risk factors for IPV in Namibia; assess the non-linear effects of age difference between partners and determine spatial effects in the different regions on IPV prevalence. METHODS: We used the couples' dataset of the 2013-2014 Namibia Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) obtained on request from Measure DHS. The DHS domestic violence module included 2226 women. We generated a binary variable measuring IPV from the questions "ever experienced physical, sexual or emotional violence?" Covariates included respondent's educational level, age, couples' age difference, place of residence and partner's educational level. All estimation was done with the full Bayesian approach using R version 3.5.2 implementing the R2BayesX package. RESULTS: IPV country prevalence was 33.3% (95% CI = 30.1-36.5%); Kavango had the highest [50.6% (95% CI = 41.2-60.1%)] and Oshana the lowest [11.5% (95% CI = 3.2-19.9%)] regional prevalence. IPV prevalence was highest among teenagers [60.8% (95% CI = 36.9-84.7%)]). The spatial semi-parametric model used for adjusted results controlled for regional spatial effects, respondent's age, age difference, respondent's years of education, residence, wealth, and education levels. Women with higher education were 50% less likely to experience IPV [aOR: 0.46, 95% CI = 0.23-0.87]. For non-linear effects, the risk of IPV was high for women ≥ 5 years older or ≥ 25 years younger than their partners. Younger and older women had higher risks of IPV than those between 25 and 45 years. For spatial variation of IPV prevalence, northern regions had low spatial effects while western regions had very high spatial effects. CONCLUSION: The prevalence of IPV among Namibia women was high especially among teenagers, with higher educational levels being protective. The risk of IPV was lower in rural than urban areas and higher with wide partner age differences. Interventions and policies for IPV prevention in Namibia are needed for couples with wide age differences as well as for younger women, women with lower educational attainment and in urban and western regions.


Asunto(s)
Violencia Doméstica , Violencia de Pareja , Adolescente , Anciano , Teorema de Bayes , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Encuestas Epidemiológicas , Humanos , Namibia/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Parejas Sexuales
16.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1522, 2021 08 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362316

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Antenatal psychosocial vulnerability is a main concern in today's perinatal health care setting. Undetected psychosocially vulnerable pregnant women and their unborn child are at risk for unfavourable health outcomes such as poor birth outcomes or mental state. In order to detect potential risks and prevent worse outcomes, timely and accurate detection of antenatal psychosocial vulnerability is necessary. Therefore, this paper aims to develop a screening tool 'the Born in Brussels Screening Tool (ST)' aimed at detecting antenatal psychosocial vulnerability. METHODS: The Born in Brussels ST was developed based on a literature search of existing screening tools measuring antenatal psychosocial vulnerability. Indicators and items (i.e. questions) were evaluated and selected. The assigned points for the answer options were determined based on a survey sent out to caregivers experienced in antenatal (psychosocial) vulnerability. Further refinement of the tool's content and the assigned points was based on expert panels' advice. RESULTS: The Born in Brussels ST consists of 22 items that focus on 13 indicators: communication, place of birth, residence status, education, occupational status, partner's occupation, financial situation, housing situation, social support, depression, anxiety, substance use and domestic violence. Based on the 168 caregivers who participated in the survey, assigned points account between 0,5 and 4. Threshold scores of each indicator were associated with adapted care paths. CONCLUSION: Generalied and accurate detection of antenatal psychosocial vulnerability is needed. The brief and practical oriented Born in Brussels ST is a first step that can lead to an adequate and adapted care pathway for vulnerable pregnant women.


Asunto(s)
Violencia Doméstica , Mujeres Embarazadas , Ansiedad , Niño , Femenino , Humanos , Tamizaje Masivo , Embarazo , Atención Prenatal , Factores de Riesgo , Apoyo Social
17.
BMJ Open ; 11(8): e048689, 2021 08 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34353801

RESUMEN

AIM: To identify the common factors in serious case reviews (SCRs) where a child has died of a medical cause. DESIGN: Qualitative thematic analysis. BACKGROUND: SCRs take place when neglect or abuse results in children dying or being seriously harmed. Known key factors within SCRs include parental substance misuse, mental health problems and domestic abuse. To date, there has been no investigation of children who die of a medical cause where there are concerns about child maltreatment. DATA SOURCES: A list of SCRs relating to deaths through medical causes was provided from previous coded studies and accessed from the National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children National Case Review Repository. Twenty-three SCRs with a medical cause of death from 1 April 2009 to 31 March 2017 were sourced. RESULTS: 20 children died of an acute condition and 12 of a chronic condition; 20 of the deaths were unexpected and maltreatment contributed to the deaths of 18 children. Most children were aged either <1 year or >16 years at the time of death. Many parents were caring for a child with additional vulnerabilities including behavioural issues (6/23), learning difficulties (6/23), mental health issues (5/23) or a chronic medical condition (12/23). Common parental experiences included domestic violence/abuse (13/23), drug/alcohol misuse (10/23), mental ill health or struggling to cope (7/23), criminal history (11/23) and caring for another vulnerable individual (8/23). Most children lived in a chaotic household characterised by missed medical appointments (18/23), poor school attendance (11/23), poor physical home environment (7/23) and disguised compliance (12/23). All 23 SCRs reported elements of abusive or neglectful parenting. In most, there was an evidence of cumulative harm, where multiple factors contributed to their premature death. At the time of death, 11 children were receiving social care support. CONCLUSION: Although the underlying medical cause of the child's death was often incurable, the maltreatment that often exacerbated the medical issue could have been prevented.


Asunto(s)
Maltrato a los Niños , Violencia Doméstica , Anciano , Causas de Muerte , Niño , Familia , Humanos , Padres
18.
Medicina (Kaunas) ; 57(8)2021 Jul 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34440991

RESUMEN

Background and Objectives: The purpose of this study is to evaluate dental medical students' opinions concerning domestic violence from a social and medical standpoint and from the perspective of the moral values of the physician-patient relationship. Materials and Methods: We performed an observational study with 4- and 5-year dental medical students at the UMF "Carol Davila" in Bucharest from October 2020-May 2021, using a questionnaire containing 20 items on domestic violence (DV). The questionnaire was uploaded online on the e-learning platform where the students have access. To collect the data, we used Microsoft Excel 365, and the statistical analysis was performed using Jamovi. Results: Of the 600 students enrolled, 415 answered the questionnaire, the answering rate being 69.16%. A total of 215 (53.1%) personally knew victims of DV, 4 (1.0%) considered that violence within a couple is necessary for certain situations, 401 (99.0%) considered that domestic violence is a fundamental problem in today's society, and 170 (41.5%) felt that in domestic violence situations, the blame lies solely with the partner who resorts to physical violence. Regarding the role of the physician, 220 (56%) considered that the physician should breach confidentiality and report cases when patients state they are a victim of DV, 337 (88.2%) thought that free medical treatment should be provided for DV victims who have a dire financial situation, and 212 (56.7%) considered that victims of DV are non-compliant patients. Conclusions: Domestic violence is a phenomenon well-known to stomatology students, which creates the premise of an excellent physician-patient relationship with them, aiding in proper management of ethical issues such as a potential need to breach confidentiality or evaluate the potential conflicts between autonomy and beneficence.


Asunto(s)
Violencia Doméstica , Estudiantes de Medicina , Humanos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444004

RESUMEN

High treatment attrition and limited reach of mental health services for at-risk families remains an important problem in order to effectively address the global concern of child maltreatment and child disruptive behavior problems. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a home-based and time-limited adaptation of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT). Twenty families with children (70% boys) aged between three and seven years were randomly assigned to an immediate treatment group (IT, n = 10) or a waitlist control group (WL, n = 10). After receiving treatment and compared to mothers in the WL group, mothers in the IT group reported fewer child behavior problems and more improved parenting skills. Although initial analyses revealed no significant differences, additional analyses showed a significant decrease in the primary outcome of the study, namely child abuse potential, between the baseline and follow-up assessment for the total treated sample. A low treatment attrition rate (15%) was found, indicating higher accessibility of treatment for families. Findings suggest that the brief home-based PCIT is a potentially effective intervention to prevent child maltreatment and disruptive behavior problems in at-risk families. Results also reinforce the importance of addressing the specific needs of these families to increase treatment effectiveness.


Asunto(s)
Maltrato a los Niños , Problema de Conducta , Niño , Maltrato a los Niños/prevención & control , Crianza del Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Madres , Relaciones Padres-Hijo , Responsabilidad Parental
20.
Soins ; 66(858): 46-50, 2021 Sep.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34462070

RESUMEN

The death of a parent is a form of extreme violence which has an effect on the child and on the adults around him/her, often leaving them powerless. There are risks of avoidance, of silence about the event and the figure of the deceased, to which can be added a lack of identification of the child's difficulties and the absence of responses adapted to his or her needs, at each stage of development. A better knowledge of their needs could reduce the risk of being negligent, or even ill-treating them, and allow them to grow up, better assured in their filiation and their personal identity.


Asunto(s)
Padres , Violencia , Familia , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Autoimagen
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