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1.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33591654

RESUMEN

The article presents the results of project targeted to identify specifics of transformation of domestic violence while anti-pandemic measures are in force. The sociological survey was organized on the basis of the Crisis center for women in difficult life situations (Belgorod region, Russia). The sampling consisted of 46 women aged from 20 to 45 years endured domestic violence. The primary information was collected using semi-structured interview technique. Also, semi-structured interviews of experts from among sociologists and crisis center personnel were carried out. It is established that COVID-19 pandemic significantly impacted on family relationships. The conditions of forced isolation and anti-pandemic measures observance significantly increase risk of domestic violence.


Asunto(s)
Violencia Doméstica , Adulto , Anciano , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Federación de Rusia/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
2.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(2): 611-624, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Portugués, Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605338

RESUMEN

The objective of this article was to analyze the association between physical violence in students with socioeconomic factors, family context, mental health, individual risky behaviors, and unsafe environment. Study with data from the National School Health Survey (NSHS) in 2015, with 9th graders. The outcome variable was the report of involvement in a physical struggle and the associated exposure variables used were related to socioeconomic and demographic conditions, family supervision and support, mental health, risky behaviors, and unsafe environment. Multivariate logistic regression with a hierarchical approach was used in the analyzes. The prevalence of involvement in a fight was higher in boys (30.2%; CI 29.3-31.0) than in girls (16.7%; CI 16.0-17.4). In both genders, there was a greater chance of involvement with physical violence when using drugs, missing classes, sedentary lifestyle, insomnia, loneliness and insecurity at school or in the community and, especially, when victimized by family aggression, OR 2.59 (CI 2.31-2.90) in boys and girls OR 2.42 (CI 2.17-2.71). There was a reduction in the chance of involvement in physical violence in boys because they were working and, in girls, when they study in a private school, having their problems and concerns welcomed by their parents or their participation in school activities.

3.
Sci Adv ; 7(6)2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33547077

RESUMEN

Despite numerous journalistic accounts, systematic quantitative evidence on economic conditions during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic remains scarce for most low- and middle-income countries, partly due to limitations of official economic statistics in environments with large informal sectors and subsistence agriculture. We assemble evidence from over 30,000 respondents in 16 original household surveys from nine countries in Africa (Burkina Faso, Ghana, Kenya, Rwanda, Sierra Leone), Asia (Bangladesh, Nepal, Philippines), and Latin America (Colombia). We document declines in employment and income in all settings beginning March 2020. The share of households experiencing an income drop ranges from 8 to 87% (median, 68%). Household coping strategies and government assistance were insufficient to sustain precrisis living standards, resulting in widespread food insecurity and dire economic conditions even 3 months into the crisis. We discuss promising policy responses and speculate about the risk of persistent adverse effects, especially among children and other vulnerable groups.


Asunto(s)
/economía , Países en Desarrollo/economía , Empleo/tendencias , Renta/tendencias , Pandemias/economía , Adulto , África/epidemiología , Agricultura/economía , Asia/epidemiología , Niño , Colombia/epidemiología , Violencia Doméstica , Recesión Económica , Composición Familiar , Femenino , Programas de Gobierno/economía , Humanos , Masculino , Estaciones del Año , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
4.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 20, 2021 02 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541357

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There is little information on care-seeking patterns for sexual assault and domestic violence during the COVID-19 pandemic. The objective of this study was to examine the changes in emergency department (ED) admissions for sexual assault and domestic violence since the COVID-19 pandemic was declared. METHODS: Observational ED admissions data from The Ottawa Hospital were analyzed from March 4 to May 5 (62 days) in 2020 (COVID-19 period) and compared to the same period in 2018 (pre-COVID-19). Total and mean weekly admissions were calculated for all-cause ED admissions and for sexual and domestic violence cases. A Poisson regression (without offset term) was used to calculate the weekly case count ratio and 95% confidence intervals (CI) between the two time periods. Case characteristics were compared using chi-square tests, and percent differences were calculated. RESULTS: Compared to pre-COVID-19, total ED admissions dropped by 1111.22 cases per week (32.9% reduction), and the Sexual Assault and Domestic Violence Program cases dropped 4.66 cases per week. The weekly case count ratio for sexual assault cases was 0.47 (95% CI 0.79-0.27), equivalent of 53.49% reduction in cases, and 0.52 (95% CI 0.93-0.29), equivalent to a 48.45% reduction in physical assault cases. The characteristics of presenting cases were similar by age (median 25 years), sex (88.57% female), assault type (57.14% sexual assault, 48.57% physical assault), and location (31.43% patient's home, 40.00% assailant's home). There was a significant increase in psychological abuse (11.69% vs 28.57%) and assaults occurring outdoors (5.19% vs 22.86%). CONCLUSION: This study found a decrease in ED admissions for sexual assault and domestic violence during COVID-19, despite societal conditions that elevate risk of violence. Trends in care-seeking and assault patterns will require ongoing monitoring to inform the provision of optimal support for individuals experiencing violence, particularly as countries begin to re-open or lock-down again.


Asunto(s)
/epidemiología , Violencia Doméstica/tendencias , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital/tendencias , Pandemias , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud , Delitos Sexuales/tendencias , Adulto , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/tendencias , Violencia Doméstica/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Ontario/epidemiología , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud/psicología , Delitos Sexuales/psicología , Adulto Joven
5.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33562467

RESUMEN

Introduction: Children are widely recognized as a vulnerable population during disasters and emergencies. The COVID-19 pandemic, like a natural disaster, brought uncertainties and instability to the economic development of the society and social distancing, which might lead to child maltreatment. This study aims to investigate whether job loss, income reduction and parenting affect child maltreatment. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional online survey of 600 randomly sampled parents aged 18 years or older who had and lived with a child under 10 years old in Hong Kong between 29 May to 16 June 2020. Participants were recruited from a random list of mobile phone numbers of a panel of parents. Of 779 recruited target parents, 600 parents completed the survey successfully via a web-based system after obtaining their online consent for participating in the survey. Results: Income reduction was found significantly associated with severe (OR = 3.29, 95% CI = 1.06, 10.25) and very severe physical assaults (OR = 7.69, 95% CI = 2.24, 26.41) towards children. Job loss or large income reduction were also significantly associated with severe (OR= 3.68, 95% CI = 1.33, 10.19) and very severe physical assaults (OR = 4.05, 95% CI = 1.17, 14.08) towards children. However, income reduction (OR = 0.29, 95% CI = 0.15, 0.53) and job loss (OR = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.28, 0.76) were significantly associated with less psychological aggression. Exposure to intimate partner violence between parents is a very strong and significant factor associated with all types of child maltreatment. Having higher levels of difficulty in discussing COVID-19 with children was significantly associated with more corporal punishment (OR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.05, 1.34), whereas having higher level of confidence in managing preventive COVID-19 behaviors with children was negatively associated with corporal punishment (OR = 0.87, 95% CI = 0.76, 0.99) and very severe physical assaults (OR = 0.74, 95% CI = 0.58, 0.93). Conclusions: Income instability such as income reduction and job loss amplified the risk of severe and very severe child physical assaults but protected children from psychological aggression. Also, confidence in teaching COVID-19 and managing preventive COVID-19 behaviors with children was significantly negatively associated with corporal punishment during pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Maltrato a los Niños/estadística & datos numéricos , Renta , Pandemias , Abuso Físico/estadística & datos numéricos , Niño , Estudios Transversales , Hong Kong/epidemiología , Humanos , Responsabilidad Parental , Castigo , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
7.
Rev Bras Enferm ; 74Suppl 1(Suppl 1): e20200631, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés, Portugués | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33533806

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: to know the strategies to cope with domestic violence against women disseminated by digital media at the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: a documentary study with a qualitative approach. The search took place from March 11 to April 30, 2020, from four sources: newspapers and online portals, social network, official government pages and third sector portals. Thematic content analysis of the findings was performed. RESULTS: seventy-seven strategies were identified in the journalistic press, 93 in the social network, 45 in government portals and 40 in third sector organizations. From analysis, three empirical categories emerged: Strategies for communication with women; Strategies adopted by customer service; Strategies to inform the population. FINAL CONSIDERATIONS: most of strategies were adaptations of existing services, centered on the reporting of violence by women.


Asunto(s)
Adaptación Psicológica , Comunicación , Violencia Doméstica/psicología , Difusión de la Información/métodos , Internet/estadística & datos numéricos , Medios de Comunicación Sociales/estadística & datos numéricos , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Brasil/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias
9.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 70(2): 115-133, 2021 Feb.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33565950

RESUMEN

Working with Fathers to Prevent Child Abuse. A Pilot Evaluation of the Caring Dads Program in Germany Selective and indicated prevention programs for fathers at high risk of (repeated) child maltreatment are lacking within early childhood intervention and child protection. The Canadian Caring Dads Program has been started in Germany in 2008. The aim of this study was to examine fathers who participated in a Caring Dads program in Düsseldorf, Hanover or Groß-Gerau until 2016. The study of n = 60 fathers and n = 34 mothers included the longitudinal examination of self-reported aggression, parenting behaviors and co-parenting in fathers as well as quality of life and co-parenting in mothers, the comparison of fathers participating in the program in Germany and Canada (n = 59/64) and a postal catamnesis (n = 20). Results have shown mean improvements in paternal aggression (d = .39) and parenting behaviors (d = .80, categorized: φ = .46) as well as maternal co-parenting (d = .46) and paternal behavior toward the partner (d = .47). In one-fourth to one-third of fathers at risk-levels, improvements controlled for measurement errors by the Reliable Change Index were clinically significant. German fathers reported higher motivation for change (t1/t2: d = 1.37/1.59) and verbal aggression (t1/t2: d = 1.29/1.36) compared to Canadian fathers. The catamnesis showed subjectively significant improvements in family relationships and parenting from the paternal point of view. The evaluation does not provide any evidence of culturally induced barriers of implementing Caring Dads in Germany.


Asunto(s)
Maltrato a los Niños/prevención & control , Padre/psicología , Canadá , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Alemania , Humanos , Masculino , Responsabilidad Parental/psicología , Proyectos Piloto , Calidad de Vida
10.
Psico (Porto Alegre) ; 51(3): 33346, 21 jan. 2021.
Artículo en Español | LILACS | ID: biblio-1147701

RESUMEN

El presente estudio ha tenido como objetivo realizar una revisión sistemática y meta-análisis sobre alteraciones en funciones cognitivas en mujeres maltratadas. Se ha contado con una muestra inicial de 643 registros obtenidos de las bases de datos: Medline, ERIC, PsycInfo, CNAIL, Proquest y Scielo. Su análisis llevó a la retención de 12 artículos sobre los que se ha centrado el estudio. Los resultados de la síntesis cualitativa indican que la atención, lenguaje, memoria, habilidades visoespaciales, función ejecutiva, velocidad motora y rendimiento educativo se encuentran alteradas en las mujeres maltratadas, con mayor evidencia de deterioro en las áreas de atención, memoria y funciones ejecutivas. Los resultados del meta-análisis sugieren presencia de daño cerebral en estas mujeres y una especial afectación de la memoria y funciones ejecutivas. Estos resultados avalan la existencia de alteraciones en funciones cognitivas en las mujeres que han sido víctimas de maltrato.


O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar uma revisão sistemática e meta-análise das alterações nas funções cognitivas em mulheres agredidas. Para arealização do estudo, foi utilizada uma amostra inicial de 643 registos nas bases de dados: Medline, ERIC, PsycInfo, CNAIL, Proquest e Scielo. O procedimentode seleção levou à retenção de 12 artigos nos quais o estudo se centrou. Os resultados da síntese qualitativa indicam que a atenção, a linguagem, a memória, as habilidades visuoespaciais, a função executiva, a velocidade motora e o desempenho educacional estão alterados em mulheres agredidas, com maior evidência de deterioração nas áreas de atenção, memória e funções executivas.Os resultados da meta-análise sugerem a presença de dano cerebral nessas mulheres e um comprometimento especial da memória e das funções executivas. Estes resultados sustentam a existência de alterações nas funções cognitivas das mulheres vítimas de abuso.


The present study aimed to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis on alterations in cognitive functions in battered women. We selected an initial sample of 643 records obtained from the databases: Medline, ERIC,PsycInfo, CNAIL, Proquest and Scielo. Following the study selection procedureled to the retention of 12 articles on which the study has focused. The results of the qualitative synthesis indicate that attention, language, memory, visuospatial skills, executive function, motor speed and educational performance are altered in battered women, with greater evidence of deterioration in the areas of attention, memory and executive functions. The results of the meta-analysis suggest presence of brain damage in these women and a special affectation of the memory and executive functions. These results support the existence of alterations in cognitive functions in women who have been victims of abuse.


Asunto(s)
Cognición , Mujeres Maltratadas , Mujeres/psicología , Violencia Doméstica
11.
Prax Kinderpsychol Kinderpsychiatr ; 70(1): 6-23, 2021 Jan.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33459215

RESUMEN

Legal Aspects of Child Protection Several legal codes (e. g. family, social and criminal law) are of importance in child protection cases in Germany. The intention of legal codes differs between family law (relations between family members), social law (support for families) and criminal law (penal aspects). Mental health professionals have to know the prevailing legal norms concerning child-welfare. Collaborative work between medicine and youth welfare and child protection services (CPS) requires a weighing of data protection issues and the risk for the child. German child protection law provides a stepped model for health care professionals to inform CPS. This includes a careful weighing of the risk for child abuse and own competences to provide support. Medical personnel should be aware of several further legislative regulations concerning child protection issues.


Asunto(s)
Maltrato a los Niños/legislación & jurisprudencia , Maltrato a los Niños/prevención & control , Servicios de Protección Infantil/legislación & jurisprudencia , Bienestar del Niño/legislación & jurisprudencia , Niño , Familia , Alemania , Humanos
12.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 88, 2021 Jan 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33509103

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, pregnant women bear considerable physical and psychological stress because of their special conditions, which combined with other stress factors such as violence, makes their situation even more critical. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence of domestic violence and its relationship with quality of life in pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This cross-sectional study was performed with the participation of 250 pregnant women in the obstetrics clinic of 29-Bahman Hospital, Tabriz city. Using a three-part questionnaire consisting of the socio-demographic and obstetrics information, the domestic violence questionnaire developed by WHO, and the SF-12 quality of life questionnaire, the required information was collected. A general linear model was then used to determine the relationship between domestic violence and quality of life, while adjusting the socio-demographic and obstetrics information. RESULTS: According to the data, more than one-third of pregnant women (35.2 %) had experienced domestic violence. The most common type of violence experienced was emotional violence (32.8 %), followed by sexual violence (12.4 %), and physical violence (4.8 %). The mean score of the physical health department of quality of life in the group of women exposed to violence (50.21) was lower compared to the unexposed group (53.45), though there was no significant difference between them (P = 0.25). However, the mean score of the mental health department of quality of life in women exposed to violence (46.27) was significantly lower compared to unexposed women (61.17) (P < 0.001). Based on the general linear model, the mean score for quality of life in the mental health dimension was significantly higher among unexposed women compared to those exposed to violence (ß = 9.3, 95 %CI: 3.5 to 15.0, P = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study indicate a high prevalence of domestic violence and its relationship with a low quality of life during the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, the findings signify the importance of screening pregnant women in terms of domestic violence in respective centers as well as the necessity of conducting proper interventions to address domestic violence to improve the quality of life in women.


Asunto(s)
/psicología , Violencia Doméstica/psicología , Mujeres Embarazadas/psicología , Calidad de Vida , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Irán , Salud Mental , Abuso Físico/psicología , Embarazo , Complicaciones del Embarazo/psicología , Prevalencia , Delitos Sexuales/psicología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
13.
Reprod Health ; 18(1): 10, 2021 Jan 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33461593

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: The Covid-19 pandemic affects maternal health both directly and indirectly, and direct and indirect effects are intertwined. To provide a comprehensive overview on this broad topic in a rapid format behooving an emergent pandemic we conducted a scoping review. METHODS: A scoping review was conducted to compile evidence on direct and indirect impacts of the pandemic on maternal health and provide an overview of the most significant outcomes thus far. Working papers and news articles were considered appropriate evidence along with peer-reviewed publications in order to capture rapidly evolving updates. Literature in English published from January 1st to September 11 2020 was included if it pertained to the direct or indirect effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the physical, mental, economic, or social health and wellbeing of pregnant people. Narrative descriptions were written about subject areas for which the authors found the most evidence. RESULTS: The search yielded 396 publications, of which 95 were included. Pregnant individuals were found to be at a heightened risk of more severe symptoms than people who are not pregnant. Intrauterine, vertical, and breastmilk transmission were unlikely. Labor, delivery, and breastfeeding guidelines for COVID-19 positive patients varied. Severe increases in maternal mental health issues, such as clinically relevant anxiety and depression, were reported. Domestic violence appeared to spike. Prenatal care visits decreased, healthcare infrastructure was strained, and potentially harmful policies implemented with little evidence. Women were more likely to lose their income due to the pandemic than men, and working mothers struggled with increased childcare demands. CONCLUSION: Pregnant women and mothers were not found to be at higher risk for COVID-19 infection than people who are not pregnant, however pregnant people with symptomatic COVID-19 may experience more adverse outcomes compared to non-pregnant people and seem to face disproportionate adverse socio-economic consequences. High income and low- and middle-income countries alike faced significant struggles. Further resources should be directed towards quality epidemiological studies. The Covid-19 pandemic impacts reproductive and perinatal health both directly through infection itself but also indirectly as a consequence of changes in health care, social policy, or social and economic circumstances. The direct and indirect consequences of COVID-19 on maternal health are intertwined. To provide a comprehensive overview on this broad topic we conducted a scoping review. Pregnant women who have symptomatic COVID-19 may experience more severe outcomes than people who are not pregnant. Intrauterine and breastmilk transmission, and the passage of the virus from mother to baby during delivery are unlikely. The guidelines for labor, delivery, and breastfeeding for COVID-19 positive patients vary, and this variability could create uncertainty and unnecessary harm. Prenatal care visits decreased, healthcare infrastructure was strained, and potentially harmful policies are implemented with little evidence in high and low/middle income countries. The social and economic impact of COVID-19 on maternal health is marked. A high frequency of maternal mental health problems, such as clinically relevant anxiety and depression, during the epidemic are reported in many countries. This likely reflects an increase in problems, but studies demonstrating a true change are lacking. Domestic violence appeared to spike. Women were more vulnerable to losing their income due to the pandemic than men, and working mothers struggled with increased childcare demands. We make several recommendations: more resources should be directed to epidemiological studies, health and social services for pregnant women and mothers should not be diminished, and more focus on maternal mental health during the epidemic is needed.


Asunto(s)
Servicios de Salud Materna , Salud Materna , Pandemias , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo , Lactancia Materna , Parto Obstétrico , Violencia Doméstica , Femenino , Equidad de Género , Humanos , Salud Mental , Embarazo
14.
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS-Express | LILACS, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1136756

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT Objective: Social isolation is currently identified as the best way to prevent the infection by the new coronavirus. However, for some social groups, such as children and adolescents, this measure carries a contradiction: the home, which should be the safest place for them, is also a frequent environment of a sad aggravation: domestic violence. This study aims to evaluate the notifications of interpersonal/self-inflicted violence available in the Information System for Notifiable Diseases in the State of Santa Catarina (southern Brazil), for the juvenile age group, before and during the new coronavirus pandemics. Methods: Cross-sectional, descriptive study of violence against children and adolescents (from 0 to 19 years) notified by health professionals by completing and entering the occurrence in the Information System for Notifiable Diseases of the State of Santa Catarina in 11 weeks in which the social isolation measure was instituted as mandatory, comparing with the same period before this measure. Results: During the study period, 136 municipalities in Santa Catarina made 1,851 notifications. There was a decrease of 55.3% of them in the isolation period, and the difficulties encountered in seeking protection and assistance institutions were listed. Conclusions: The society needs to be aware of possible cases of violence in the children and adolescent population. It is important to provide accessible, effective, and safe ways for complaints and notifications, as well as a quick response to the cases, aiming at protecting victims and minimizing damages to prevent the perpetuation of the violence.


RESUMO Objetivo: O isolamento social é identificado, no momento, como a melhor forma para evitar o contágio pelo novo coronavírus. Porém, para alguns grupos sociais, como crianças e adolescentes, essa medida carrega uma contradição: o lar, que deveria ser o local mais seguro para eles, é também um ambiente frequente de um triste agravo, a violência doméstica. Este estudo visou avaliar e comparar as notificações compulsórias de violências interpessoais/autoprovocadas disponíveis no Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação do Estado de Santa Catarina, pré e pós-pandemia do novo coronavírus. Métodos: Estudo transversal, descritivo e analítico das violências contra crianças e adolescentes (de 0 a 19 anos de idade completos) notificadas pelos profissionais de saúde mediante o preenchimento e a inserção das ocorrências no Sistema de Informação de Agravos de Notificação do Estado de Santa Catarina, no período de 11 semanas em que foi instituída como obrigatória a medida de isolamento social, comparando tais eventos com os de igual período anterior a essa medida. Resultados: No período estudado, 136 municípios catarinenses realizaram 1.851 notificações. Houve diminuição de 55,3% destas no período de isolamento, listando-se possíveis dificuldades encontradas para a procura de instituições de proteção e assistência. Conclusões: Alerta-se para a necessidade de a sociedade estar atenta para a suspeita e evidência dos casos de violência na população infantojuvenil, e ressalta-se a importância de que sejam propiciadas formas acessíveis, eficazes e seguras, como incentivo para as denúncias, a notificação e o rápido atendimento dos casos, visando à proteção das vítimas, à minimização dos danos e, assim, ao impedimento da perpetuação da violência.

16.
Estud. Psicol. (Campinas, Online) ; 38: e190088, 2021. tab
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, Index Psicología - Revistas técnico-científicas | ID: biblio-1133861

RESUMEN

Physical punishment - corporal punishment - of children/adolescents is highly prevalent. The objective of this study was to verify if, in a sample of parents/caregivers, there would be subgroups that would differentiate themselves regarding the behavior of physically punishing the children, in terms of modalities, frequency, body parts of the child affected, and presence of parental anger in the act of punishing, denoting severity levels associated with differences in the psychosocial variables pointed out in the literature as risk factors for physical abuse. A quantitative approach was adopted, with a cross-sectional design and cluster method. The study included 87 parents/caregivers who practice physical punishment. The analyses indicated the existence of three clusters that differed in the level of severity of corporal punishment and some of the psychosocial variables, denoting the importance of developing services/programs to cope with violence against children/adolescents and specific psychosocial intervention strategies.


A punição física - castigos corporais - de crianças/adolescentes é altamente prevalente. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar se em uma amostra de pais/cuidadores existiriam subgrupos que se diferenciariam quanto ao comportamento de punir/castigar fisicamente os filhos. As modalidades analisadas foram de frequência com que a punição ocorria, de partes do corpo da criança que se punia e de presença de sentimento de irritação/raiva durante o castigo físico, denotando níveis de gravidade associados a diferenças em variáveis psicossociais apontadas como fatores de risco para os abusos físicos. Adotou-se uma abordagem quantitativa, com delineamento transversal e método de clusterização. Participaram 87 pais/cuidadores adeptos a práticas de punição física. As análises indicaram a existência de três agrupamentos que se diferenciaram no tocante à gravidade da punição corporal e em algumas das variáveis psicossociais, denotando a importância de os serviços/programas voltados ao enfrentamento da violência contra as crianças/adolescentes considerarem estratégias de intervenção psicossocial distintas e específicas a cada grupo.


Asunto(s)
Castigo , Servicio Social , Maltrato a los Niños , Relaciones Familiares
18.
Texto & contexto enferm ; 29: e20180396, Jan.-Dec. 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS, BDENF - Enfermería | ID: biblio-1059154

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT Objective: to unveil the strategies used by women for confronting marital violence. Method: a qualitative research using the Straussian orientation of the Data Grounded Theory as a theoretical-methodological framework and two Justice Courts for Peace at Home as its scenario. Data was collected through individual interviews and analyzed in the coding process in three interdependent stages: open, axial and selective coding. Results: to elucidate the "Strategy" component, the following categories emerged: Finding support in family; Being part of groups of women in situations of violence; and Experiencing legal-police support. Conclusion: given the difficulty women find in breaking with a relationship permeated by violence, it is urgent that the professionals in various areas of care for women be prepared not only to recognize the problem but also to guide them as to the prominence of these resources for exiting from violence situation process and perhaps enable access to these one.


RESUMEN Objetivo: revelar las estrategias que utilizan las mujeres para hacer frente a la violencia conyugal. Método: investigación cualitativa en la que se utilizó la vertiente Straussiana de la Teoría Fundamentada en los Datos como referencial teórico-metodológico y que tuvo escenario dos Tribunales de Justicia para la Paz en el Hogar. Los datos se recolectaron por medio de entrevistas individuales y se los analizó en el proceso de codificación en tres etapas independientes: codificación abierta, axial y selectiva. Resultados: para elucidar el componente "Estrategia", surgieron las siguientes categorías: Encontrar apoyo en la familia; Integrarse a grupos de mujeres en situación de violencia y Recurrir al apoyo jurídico-policial. Conclusión: frente a la dificultad que tienen las mujeres en salir de una relación permeada por la violencia, urge que los profesionales de las diversas áreas de atención a las mujeres estén preparados no solo para reconocer la agresión sino también para orientarlas en cuanto a la prominencia de esos recursos para el proceso de salir de esa situación y, quizás, viabilizarles el acceso a dichos recursos.


RESUMO Objetivo: desvelar as estratégias de enfrentamento da violência conjugal utilizadas por mulheres. Método: pesquisa qualitativa que se utilizou da vertente Straussiana da Teoria Fundamentada nos Dados como referencial teórico-metodológico e que teve como cenário duas Varas de Justiça pela Paz em Casa. Os dados foram coletados por meio de entrevistas individuais e analisados no processo de codificação em três etapas interdependentes: codificação aberta, axial e seletiva. Resultados: para a elucidação do componente "Estratégia", emergiram as seguintes categorias: Encontrando apoio na família; Inserindo-se em grupos de mulheres em situação de violência; e Experienciando o suporte jurídico-policial. Conclusão: diante da dificuldade feminina em romper com a relação permeada pela violência, urge que os profissionais das diversas áreas de atendimento a mulheres estejam preparados não apenas para reconhecer o agravo como também para orientá-las quanto à saliência desses recursos para o processo de saída desta situação e quiçá viabilizar o acesso a estes.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Femenino , Familia , Enfermería , Estrategias , Violencia contra la Mujer , Teoría Fundamentada
19.
Suma psicol ; 27(2): 116-124, jul.-dic. 2020. tab
Artículo en Español | LILACS-Express | LILACS, Index Psicología - Revistas técnico-científicas | ID: biblio-1145121

RESUMEN

Resumen Los delincuentes crónicos resultan ser los responsables de la mayor parte de la actividad criminal, además de ser los más persistentes y violentos. Existe escasa evidencia longitudinal que permita conocer cómo se manifiesta la cronicidad en agresores de violencia doméstica. El objetivo de esta investigación es identificar el criterio más adecuado para diferenciar a los hombres crónicos y establecer la relación que existe entre cronicidad, violencia, versatilidad y duración de la carrera criminal en 10 505 hombres chilenos detenidos por delitos de violencia en el ámbito familiar en el 2007, con base en todas las nuevas detenciones producidas los siguientes diez años. El diseño es longitudinal pseudoprospectivo, tal como si correspondiera a un estudio longitudinal prospectivo. Los resultados muestran que tres o más delitos bastan para identificar adecuadamente carreras criminales crónicas, y que un 12.7% del total de hombres pueden considerarse graves, violentos y crónicos, al presentar una trayectoria criminal de entre ocho y diez años, ser responsables de más del 37% del total de las reincidencias, alcanzar un promedio de delitos significativamente alto y versátiles, así como una elevada prevalencia en delitos violentos.


Abstract Chronical criminals turn out to be responsible of most of the criminal activity, in addition to being the most persistent and violent. There exists limited longitudinal evidence that allows knowing how chronicity manifests itself in domestic violence aggressors. The objective of this investigation is to identify the most appropriate criteria to differentiate chronic men and establish the relationship between chronicity, violence and duration of the criminal career in 10 505 Chilean men arrested for domestic violence crimes in 2007, based on all new arrests produced the next 10 years. The design is a longitudinal pseudo-prospective, as if it corresponded to a prospective longitudinal study. The results show that three or more crimes are enough to properly identify chronic criminal careers, and that 12.7% of all men can be considered as serious, violent and chronic, presenting a criminal trajectory between eight and ten years, being responsible for more than 37% of total recidivism, reach a significantly high average of crimes and high prevalence of violent crimes.

20.
Rev Colomb Psiquiatr ; 49(4): 262-270, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés, Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33328019

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Traumatic events and violence are widespread public health problems. They do not have limits related to age, sex or socioeconomic level. The prevalence of mental disorders and sociodemographic characteristics were compared in the context of traumatic events and types of violence in the general population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Observational prevalence study with a secondary information source, in the general population aged 13 to 65 years, selected at random. The interview was conducted using the Compositum International Diagnosis Interview which generates psychiatric diagnoses according to the DSM-IV. The variables included were traumatic events grouped into five categories: related to armed conflict, sexual violence, interfamily violence, other types of violence, traumas and some mental disorders. The prevalence of mental disorders was compared in the five categories of traumatic events. Statistical significance was defined as a p value of <0.05. RESULTS: Sexual and interfamily violence were more prevalent in women (p <0.05). In those under age 13, major depression related to armed conflict had a prevalence of 48.3%, with a significant difference from the other trauma groups (p=0.015). All prevalences for childhood-onset disorders showed significantly different prevalences compared with the group for violence related to armed conflict (p <0.05) and suicidal ideation was higher in the sexual violence group (p=0.006). DISCUSSION: High prevalences of mental disorders were found in people who had been exposed to traumatic events and violence. In those who experienced traumatic events related to armed conflict and sexual violence, higher prevalences of certain mental disorders were detected.

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