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1.
J Infect Chemother ; 26(1): 13-17, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31519395

RESUMEN

Since its invention in 2000, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) has attracted great interest from researchers and has been used as a simple and rapid diagnostic tool for detection of infectious and non-infectious diseases. Here we review the recent circumstances and outcomes of these applications of LAMP to show the potential of LAMP as a tool for achieving universal health coverage (UHC). A future application of LAMP, such as in an automated multiplex format, is also discussed.

2.
Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; : 107931, 2019 Nov 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31794806

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Previous studies of diabetes in Eastern Mediterranean Region (EMRO) did not assess the prevalence of either unknown diabetes or prediabetes. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate the prevalence of undiagnosed type 2 diabetes and prediabetes as well as variations by region in EMRO, using the relevant publications since 2000. METHODS: We carried out a comprehensive electronic search on electronic databases from January 1, 2000 to March 1, 2018. We selected cross-sectional and cohort studies reporting the prevalence of undiagnosed type 2 diabetes, prediabetes, or both. Two independent reviewers initially screened the eligible articles; then, synthesized the target data from full papers. Random or fixed effects model, subgroup analysis on Human Development Index (HDI), and publication year and sensitivity analysis to minimize the plausible effect of outliers were used. RESULTS: Among 849 identified citations, 55 articles were entered into meta-analysis, involving 567025 individuals. The forest plots estimated 5.46% (confidence intervals [CI]: 4.77-6.14) undiagnosed diabetic and 12.19% (CI: 10.13-14.24) prediabetics in EMRO. Low HDI countries and high HDI countries had the highest (7.25%; CI: 4.59-9.92) and the lowest (3.98%; CI: 3.11-4.85) undiagnosed diabetes prevalence, respectively. Very high HDI countries and low HDI countries had the highest (13.50%; CI: 8.43-18.57) and the lowest (7.45%; 1.20-13.71) prediabetes prevalence, respectively. In addition, meta-regression analysis showed a statistically significant association between publication year and prevalence of prediabetes (Reg Coef = 0.059, P = 0.014). But such finding was not observed for undiagnosed diabetes and publication year (Reg Coef = 0.034, P = 0.124), prediabetes and HDI (Reg Coef = 0.128, P = 0.31) and undiagnosed diabetes and HDI (Reg Coef = - 0.04, P = 0.96). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of undiagnosed diabetes and prediabetes was high and increasing. The notion of universal health coverage is a priority; that is the integration of the primary, secondary and tertiary health levels, as well as employing the available action plans. Therefore, future studies, using identical screening tool and diagnostic criteria, are warranted to make an accurate picture of diabetes in EMRO.

3.
Eur J Prev Cardiol ; : 2047487319890777, 2019 Dec 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31795763
4.
Lancet ; 2019 Nov 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785827

RESUMEN

Corruption is embedded in health systems. Throughout my life-as a researcher, public health worker, and a Minister of Health-I have been able to see entrenched dishonesty and fraud. But despite being one of the most important barriers to implementing universal health coverage around the world, corruption is rarely openly discussed. In this Lecture, I outline the magnitude of the problem of corruption, how it started, and what is happening now. I also outline people's fears around the topic, what is needed to address corruption, and the responsibilities of the academic and research communities in all countries, irrespective of their level of economic development. Policy makers, researchers, and funders need to think about corruption as an important area of research in the same way we think about diseases. If we are really aiming to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals and ensure healthy lives for all, corruption in global health must no longer be an open secret.

5.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31788851

RESUMEN

The demand for voluntary private health insurance (VPHI) in universal coverage health systems in Europe raises some questions. The aim of this paper is to determine the factors that explain the decision to purchase VPHI, to analyse the role of individual risk attitudes and self-assessed health (SAH) in purchasing VPHI, to explore the factors that explain individual risk preferences, and to test how SAH relates to those preferences. To achieve this aim, two recursive simultaneous probits are estimated using data collected by SHARE, wave 6. The main results indicate that people who are more satisfied with the health system coverage are more likely to buy VPHI; SAH is negative correlated with VPHI, but being a risk taker contributes to that decision; however, being a risk taker is positively influenced by good health status. This paper contributes to the discussion on the role of SAH and risk preferences in the decision to buy VPHI. It brings new insights for the health insurance companies and for health policy makers.

6.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31792552

RESUMEN

Immunization represents one of the most cost-effective means to improve the health and well-being of populations and contribute to sustainable development. Since the inception of the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) in 1974, considerable gains have been made in improving access to vaccination in all countries. However, the full potential of vaccination is yet to be tapped.Health system weaknesses have prevented universal access to vaccination and are a limitation for sustainable use of the increasing array of new vaccines. Fortunately, solutions exist and opportunities are available to strengthen immunization systems and to implement strategies to achieve the vision of universal access to vaccines. National immunization programmes are responsible for the management of immunization at the country level and cover a range of functions from establishing evidence-based policies to financing and procurement of vaccines, vaccine management and logistics, delivery of vaccination services and collection, as well as analysis and use of immunization data. Well-functioning immunization programmes that deliver high-quality services using tailored strategies to meet the needs of different population groups can reap the health benefits of high and equitable coverage with vaccines.

7.
F1000Res ; 8: 795, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31354948

RESUMEN

Background: Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in the world. During infectious disease outbreaks, such as the Ebola virus disease outbreak in West Africa from 2014-2015, the health system is often strained, and diagnosis, management and care of NCDs may be compromised. This study assessed numbers and distribution of NCDs in all health facilities in the Western-Area District, Sierra Leone, in the post-Ebola period (June-December 2015) comparing findings with the pre-Ebola (June-December 2013) and Ebola outbreak (June-December 2014) periods. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study using secondary data from routine records of aggregate monthly NCD reports. Data were analysed using Open EPI and comparisons were made between the post-Ebola and pre-Ebola/Ebola periods using the chi square test. Results: There were 10,011 people reported with NCDs during the three six-month periods, with 6194 (62%) presenting at peripheral health units (PHU). Reported NCDs decreased during Ebola and increased post-Ebola, but did not recover to pre-Ebola levels. Hypertension cases remained fairly constant throughout being mainly managed at PHU. Numbers with diabetes mellitus generally stayed the same except for a significant post-Ebola increase in tertiary hospitals. Small numbers were reported with mental health disorders across all facilities in all time periods. Conclusion: NCD reporting is recovering in the immediate post-Ebola period. Decentralization of NCD care is welcome and is an effective strategy for management as evidenced by hypertension. To be successful, this must be supported by strengthening other elements of the health system such as training of health workers, robust information and referral systems and reliable medicine supply chains.

8.
Health Syst Reform ; : 1-12, 2019 Nov 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31684816

RESUMEN

Collective financing, in the form of either public domestic revenues or pooled donor funding, at the country level is necessary to finance common goods for health, which are population-based functions or interventions that contribute to health and have the characteristics of public goods. Financing of common goods for health is an important part of policy efforts to move towards Universal Health Coverage (UHC). This paper builds from country experiences and budget documents to provide an evidence-based argument about how government and donor financing can be reorganized to enable more efficient delivery of common goods for health. Issues related to fragmentation of financing-within the health sector, across sectors, and across levels of government-emerge as key constraints. Effectively addressing fragmentation issues requires: (i) pooling funding and consolidating governance structures to repackage functions across programs; (ii) aligning budgets with efficient delivery strategies to enable intersectoral approaches and related accountability structures; and (iii) coordinating and incentivizing investments across levels of government. This policy response is both technical in nature and also highly political as it requires realigning budgets and organizational structures.

9.
Int J Tuberc Lung Dis ; 23(11): 1191-1197, 2019 Nov 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718755

RESUMEN

SETTING: Seventeen health care facilities that report to the national tuberculosis (TB) programme in Timor-Leste. Participants were TB patients.OBJECTIVE: To determine the proportion of TB patients who experienced catastrophic costs due to their TB diagnosis and care, and the magnitude and composition of these costs.DESIGN: This was a cross-sectional health facility-based survey, conducted in 17 DOTS centres between October 2016 and March 2017. TB patients were interviewed by trained nurses using a standardised questionnaire.RESULTS: Among the 457 TB patients who participated (response rate 96.6%), the median age was 32 years; 39.2% were from the capital, Dili. The patient was the main income earner in 26.3% of households. Annual individual and household incomes before and after TB diagnosis decreased by respectively 30.4% and 31.1%. Using a cut-off of 20% of annual household income, 83.0% of patients experienced catastrophic costs related to their TB diagnosis and care. Income loss and nutritional supplementation accounted for respectively 40.7% and 37.9% of these costs.CONCLUSION: Four of five TB patients in Timor-Leste experienced catastrophic costs related to TB diagnosis and care. Financial and social protection to mitigate against these costs are urgently needed, in addition to universal health coverage.

10.
Vaccine ; 2019 Nov 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31718899

RESUMEN

Vaccine hesitancy has been increasingly reported in Brazil. We describe secular trends and socioeconomic disparities from 1982 to 2015, using data from four population-based birth cohorts carried out in the city of Pelotas. Full immunization coverage (FIC) was defined as having received four basic vaccines (one dose of BCG and measles, and three doses of polio and DTP) scheduled for the first year of life. Information on income was collected through standardized questionnaires, and the slope index of inequality (SII) was calculated to express the difference in percent points between the rich and poor extremes of the income distribution. Full immunization coverage was 80.9% (95% CI 79.8%; 82.0%) in 1982, 97.2% (96.1%; 98.0%) in 1993, 87.8% (86.7%; 88.8%) in 2004 and 77.2% (75.8%; 78.4%) in 2015. In 1982 there was a strong social gradient with higher coverage among children from wealthy families (SII = 25.0, P < 0.001); by 2015, the pattern was inverted with higher coverage among poor children (SII = -6.0; P = 0.01). Vertical immunization programs in the 1980s and creation of the National Health Services in 1980 eliminated the social gradient that had been present up to the 1980s, to reach near universal coverage. The recent decline in coverage is likely associated with the growing complexity of the vaccination schedule and underfunding of the health sector. In addition, the faster decline observed among children from wealthy families is probably due to vaccine hesitancy.

11.
BMJ ; 367: l6198, 2019 Nov 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719040
12.
Diabetes Care ; 2019 Nov 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719054

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To assess weight and HbA1c changes in the Healthier You: National Health Service Diabetes Prevention Program (NHS DPP), the largest DPP globally to achieve universal population coverage. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: A service evaluation assessed intervention effectiveness for adults with nondiabetic hyperglycemia (HbA1c 42-47 mmol/mol [6.0-6.4%] or fasting plasma glucose 5.5-6.9 mmol/L) between program launch in June 2016 and December 2018, using prospectively collected, national service-level data in England. RESULTS: By December 2018, 324,699 people had been referred, 152,294 had attended the initial assessment, and 96,442 had attended at least 1 of 13 group-based intervention sessions. Allowing sufficient time to elapse, 53% attended an initial assessment, 36% attended at least one group-based session, and 19% completed the intervention (attended >60% of sessions). Of the 32,665 who attended at least one intervention session and had sufficient time to finish, 17,252 (53%) completed: Intention-to-treat analyses demonstrated a mean weight loss of 2.3 kg (95% CI 2.2, 2.3 kg) and an HbA1c reduction of 1.26 mmol/mol (1.20, 1.31 mmol/mol) (0.12% [0.11, 0.12%]); completer analysis demonstrated a mean weight loss of 3.3 kg (3.2, 3.4 kg) and an HbA1c reduction of 2.04 mmol/mol (1.96, 2.12 mmol/mol) (0.19% [0.18, 0.19%]). Younger age, female sex, Asian and black ethnicity, lower socioeconomic status, and normal baseline BMI were associated with less weight loss. Older age, female sex, black ethnicity, lower socioeconomic status, and baseline overweight and obesity were associated with a smaller HbA1c reduction. CONCLUSIONS: Reductions in weight and HbA1c compare favorably with those reported in recent meta-analyses of pragmatic studies and suggest likely future reductions in participant type 2 diabetes incidence.

13.
Niger J Clin Pract ; 22(11): 1516-1529, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31719273

RESUMEN

Background: A Free Maternal and Child Health program (FMCHP) was implemented in 12 states in Nigeria by the National Health Insurance Scheme (NHIS), between 2009 and 2015, using funds from the debt relief gains. It was called the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) NHIS-MDG FMCHP. The program ended with the termination of the MDG in 2015. With the creation of the Basic Health Care Provision Fund (BHCPF) in Nigeria, this study sought to examine the past implementation experiences of the NHIS-MCH project with a view to identifying the enabling and constraining factors to program implementation, and the opportunities for adaptation and program scale-up in Nigeria using the BHCPF. Methods: The study was undertaken in the Federal Capital Territory, Abuja, and involved review of relevant documents and in-depth interviews with 21 key informants. The program was assessed in themes from the conceptual framework. Interviews were transcribed and analyzed using thematic analysis. Results: The program enrolled about 1.5 million pregnant women and children during the period of implementation in the country. The respondents perceived the program as pro-poor, efficient, and effective, and led to marked improvement in the functionality of the facilities, availability of services and reduced out-of-pocket expenditure, which led to increased demand and utilization of MCH services. There was inadequate stakeholder consultation, alleged corrupt practices, challenges with registration, issues with counterpart funding and public financing management issues identified. Most respondents supported the idea of using the new fund (BHCPF) to revitalize/scale-up the Free MCH program. Conclusion: This study highlights the key lessons and implementation challenges identified by the respondents. The NHIS-MDG FMCHP had positive impact on the target population though it was not sustained following the conclusion of the MDG program. The findings will inform policy decisions about the appropriateness of sustaining the program and the feasibility of extending healthcare coverage using the proposed BHCPF. The new fund (BHCPF) can be used to reactivate and scale-up the Free MCH program, but the current level of funding will not assure universal health coverage for the target beneficiaries as realized from the costing aspect of this study.

14.
Int Nurs Rev ; 66(4): 549-552, 2019 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31721197

RESUMEN

AIM: The aim of the study was to test a nurse-led intervention to enhance lifestyle modification and improve hypertension outcomes. BACKGROUND: Hypertension is the leading modifiable contributor to non-communicable disease morbidity and mortality affecting more than 25% of adults in Uganda. METHODS: A mixed-method study was conducted to evaluate nurse-led interventions for hypertension. Group education and support with text message follow-up was the bundled interventions implemented in an outpatient clinical setting. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS: The statistically favourable outcomes of the nurse-led interventions support a cost-effective approach to, with policy support, sustainably improve practice outcomes.

15.
J Nepal Health Res Counc ; 17(3): 388-393, 2019 Nov 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31735937

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Health care financial burden on households is high in Nepal. High health care expenditure is a major obstacle in achieving universal health coverage. The health insurance is expected to reduce healthcare expenditure. However, only small segments of the population are covered by health insurance in Nepal.This study assessed the factors affecting enrollment in government health insurance program in the first piloted district, Kailali, Nepal. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 1048 households located in 26 wards of Kailali district after 21 months of the implementation of social health insurance program, Nepal. The sample was selected in two stages, first stage being the selection of wards and second, being the households. RESULTS: The higher level of household economic status was associated with increased odds of enrollment in health insurance program (ORs=4.99, 5.04, 5.13, 8.05, for second, third, fourth, and the highest quintile of households, respectively). A higher level of head's education was associated with increased odds of health insurance enrollment (ORs = 1.58, 1.78, 2.36, for primary, secondary, tertiary education, respectively). Presence of chronic illness in the household was positively associated with increased odds of health insurance enrollment (OR= 1.29). CONCLUSIONS: The poor and low educated groups were less benefited by social health insurance program in Kailali district, Nepal. Hence, policymakers should focus to implement income-based premium scheme for ensuring equal access to healthcare.Since household with chronic illness leads to high odds of being enrolled, a compulsory health insurance scheme can make the program financially sustainable.

16.
BMJ Qual Saf ; 2019 Oct 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31666304

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Inappropriate visits to emergency departments (EDs) could represent from 20% to 40% of all visits. Inappropriate use is a burden on healthcare costs and increases the risk of ED overcrowding. The aim of this study was to explore socioeconomic and geographical determinants of inappropriate ED use in France. METHOD: The French Emergency Survey was a nationwide cross-sectional survey conducted on June 11 2013, simultaneously in all EDs in France and covered characteristics of patients, EDs and counties. The survey included 48 711 patient questionnaires and 734 ED questionnaires. We focused on adult patients (≥15 years old). The appropriateness of the ED visit was assessed by three measures: caring physician appreciation of appropriateness (numeric scale), caring physician appreciation of whether or not the patient could have been managed by a general practitioner and ED resource utilisation. Descriptive statistics and multilevel logistic regression were used to examine determinants of inappropriate ED use, estimating adjusted ORs and 95% CIs. RESULTS: Among the 29 407 patients in our sample, depending on the measuring method, 13.5% to 27.4% ED visits were considered inappropriate. Regardless of the measure method used, likelihood of inappropriate use decreased with older age and distance from home to the ED >10 km. Not having a private supplementary health insurance, having universal supplementary health coverage and symptoms being several days old increased the likelihood of inappropriate use. Likelihood of inappropriate use was not associated with county medical density. CONCLUSION: Inappropriate ED use appeared associated with socioeconomic vulnerability (such as not having supplementary health coverage or having universal coverage) but not with geographical characteristics. It makes us question the appropriateness of the concept of inappropriate ED use as it does not consider the distress experienced by the patient, and segments of society seem to have few other choices to access healthcare than the ED.

17.
BMJ Open ; 9(11): e031957, 2019 Nov 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31685510

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer rates are higher in low-resourced countries than high, partly due to lower rates of screening. Incidence in Thailand is nearly three times higher than in the USA (16.2 vs 6.5 age-standardised incidence), even with Thailand's universal health coverage, which includes screening, suggesting that alternative methods are needed to reduce the burden. We investigated barriers to screening, as well as acceptability of self-collection human papillomavirus (HPV) testing as a primary form of cervical cancer screening among Buddhist and Muslim communities in Southern Thailand. METHODS: 267 women from the Buddhist district of Ranot and Muslim district of Na Thawi, Songkhla were recruited to complete a survey assessing knowledge and risk factors of HPV and cervical cancer. Participants were offered an HPV self-collection test with a follow-up survey assessing acceptability. Samples were processed at Prince of Songkhla University and results were returned to participants. RESULTS: 267 women participated in the study (132 Buddhist, 135 Muslim), 264 (99%) self-collecting. 98% reported comfort and ease, and 70% preferred it to doctor-facilitated cytology. The main predictor of prior screening was religion (92% Buddhist vs 73% Muslim reporting prior Pap). After adjustment with multivariate logistic models, Muslim women had an OR of prior Pap of 0.30 compared with Buddhist (95% CI: 0.12 to 0.66). CONCLUSIONS: Self-collection HPV testing was highly acceptable across religious groups, suggesting that it could be beneficial for cervical cancer reduction in this region. Focus should be put into educating women from all backgrounds about the importance of screening to further improve screening rates among Thai women.

18.
BMJ Open ; 9(11): e032062, 2019 Nov 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31722950

RESUMEN

​OBJECTIVES: To assess the impact of lower socioeconomic status on the outcome of major torso trauma patients under the single-payer system by the National Health Insurance (NHI) in Taiwan. ​DESIGN: A nationwide, retrospective cohort study. ​SETTING: An observational study from the NHI Research Database (NHIRD), involving all the insurees in the NHI. ​PARTICIPANTS: Patients with major torso trauma (injury severity score ≥16) from 2003 to 2013 in Taiwan were included. International Classification of Disease, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes were used to identify trauma patients. A total of 64 721 patients were initially identified in the NHIRD. After applying the exclusion criteria, 20 009 patients were included in our statistical analysis. ​PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome measure was in-hospital mortality, and we analysed patients with different income levels and geographic regions. Multiple logistic regression was used to control for confounding variables. ​RESULTS: In univariate analysis, geographic disparities and low-income level were both risk factors for in-hospital mortality for patients with major torso trauma (p=0.002 and <0.001, respectively). However, in multivariate analysis, only a low-income level remained an independent risk factor for increased in-hospital mortality (p<0.001). ​CONCLUSION: Even with the NHI, wealth inequity still led to different outcomes for major torso trauma in Taiwan. Health policies must focus on this vulnerable group to eliminate inequality in trauma care.

20.
Global Health ; 15(Suppl 1): 0, 2019 11 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31775785

RESUMEN

In many African countries, hundreds of health-related NGOs are fed by a chaotic tangle of donor funding streams. The case of Mozambique illustrates how this NGO model impedes Universal Health Coverage. In the 1990s, NGOs multiplied across post-war Mozambique: the country's structural adjustment program constrained public and foreign aid expenditures on the public health system, while donors favored private contractors and NGOs. In the 2000s, funding for HIV/AIDS and other vertical aid from many donors increased dramatically. In 2004, the United States introduced PEPFAR in Mozambique at nearly 500 million USD per year, roughly equivalent to the entire budget of the Ministry of Health. To be sure, PEPFAR funding has helped thousands access antiretroviral treatment, but over 90% of resources flow "off-budget" to NGO "implementing partners," with little left for the public health system. After a decade of this major donor funding to NGOs, public sector health system coverage had barely changed. In 2014, the workforce/ population ratio was still among the five worst in the world at 71/10000; the health facility/per capita ratio worsened since 2009 to only 1 per 16,795. Achieving UHC will require rejection of austerity constraints on public sector health systems, and rechanneling of aid to public systems building rather than to NGOs.

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