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1.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 23(12): e25641, 2020 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33314786

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: There have been very few randomized clinical trials of interventions for alcohol use disorders (AUD) in people living with HIV (PLWH) in African countries. This is despite the fact that alcohol use is one of the modifiable risk factors for poor virological control in PLWH on antiretroviral therapy. METHODS: Sixteen clinic clusters in Zimbabwe were selected through stratified randomization and randomized 1: 1 to Intervention and Control arms. Inclusion criteria for individual participants were being adult, living with HIV and a probable alcohol use disorder as defined by a score of 6 (women) or 7 (men) on the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). In the Intervention clusters, participants received 8 to 10 sessions of Motivational Interviewing blended with brief Cognitive Behavioural Therapy (MI-CBT). In the control clusters, participants received four Enhanced Usual Care (EUC) sessions based on the alcohol treatment module from the World Health Organisation mhGAP intervention guide. General Nurses from the clinics were trained to deliver both treatments. The primary outcome was a change in AUDIT score at six-month post-randomization. Viral load, functioning and quality of life were secondary outcomes. A random-effects analysis-of-covariance model was used to account for the cluster design. RESULTS: Two hundred and thirty-four participants (n = 108 intervention and n = 126 control) were enrolled across 16 clinics. Participants were recruited from November 2016 to November 2017 and followed through to May 2018. Their mean age was 43.3 years (SD = 9.1) and 78.6% (n = 184) were male. At six months, the mean AUDIT score fell by -6.15 (95% CI -6.32; -6.00) in the MI-CBT arm, compared to a fall of - 3.09 95 % CI - 3.21; -2.93) in the EUC arm (mean difference -3.09 (95% CI -4.53 to -1.23) (p = 0.05). Viral load reduced and quality of life and functioning improved in both arms but the difference between arms was non-significant. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions for hazardous drinking and AUD comprising brief, multiple alcohol treatment sessions delivered by nurses in public HIV facilities in low-income African countries can reduce problematic drinking among PLWH. Such interventions should be integrated into the primary care management of AUD and HIV and delivered by non-specialist providers. Research is needed on cost-effectiveness and implementation of such interventions, and on validation of cut-points for alcohol use scales in low resource settings, in partnership with those with lived experience of HIV and AUD.

2.
BJPsych Open ; 6(5): e104, 2020 Sep 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32886056

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Mental health difficulties and mental disorders are common in adolescents living with HIV or who are affected by HIV because of living in HIV-affected households in low- and middle-income (LMICs) countries, but little is known about the interventions that target these individuals and whether they are effective. AIMS: This systematic review aims to address these gaps by examining what has worked and what has not worked to support the mental health of adolescents living with HIV or affected by HIV in low- and middle-income contexts (PROSPERO Number: CRD42018103269). METHOD: A systematic literature review of online databases from the year 2000 to 2018, using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, included English-language publications of quantitative evaluations of psychosocial interventions aiming to improve mental health among adolescents living with HIV and adolescents from HIV-affected households (aged 10-24 years) in LMICs. RESULTS: Out of 2956 articles, 16 studies from 8 LMICs met the inclusion criteria. Thirteen studies focused on adolescents affected by HIV and only three studies on adolescents living with HIV. Only five studies included were from Sub-Saharan Africa. Interventions most often used a family-strengthening approach strengthening caregiver-adolescent relationships and communication and some problem-solving in groups or individually. Five studies reported statistically significant changes in adolescent and caregiver mental health or mental well-being, five among adolescents only and two among caregivers only. CONCLUSIONS: Research on what works to improve mental health in adolescents living with HIV in LMIC is in its nascent stages. Family-based interventions and economic strengthening show promise.

3.
Curr HIV/AIDS Rep ; 17(5): 529-546, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32776179

RESUMEN

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We reviewed interventions to improve uptake and adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) in African countries in the Treat All era. RECENT FINDINGS: ART initiation can be improved by facilitated rapid receipt of first prescription, including community-based linkage and point-of-care strategies, integration of HIV care into antenatal care and peer support for adolescents. For people living with HIV (PLHIV) on ART, scheduled SMS reminders, ongoing intensive counselling for those with viral non-suppression and economic incentives for the most deprived show promise. Adherence clubs should be promoted, being no less effective than facility-based care for stable patients. Tracing those lost to follow-up should be targeted to those who can be seen face-to-face by a peer worker. Investment is needed to promote linkage to initiating ART and for differentiated approaches to counselling for youth and for those with identified suboptimal adherence. More evidence from within Africa is needed on cost-effective strategies to identify and support PLHIV at an increased risk of non-adherence across the treatment cascade.

4.
Int J Ment Health Syst ; 14: 66, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817758

RESUMEN

Background: There are substantial gaps in our knowledge regarding the aetiology of mental, neurological and substance use disorders in sub-Saharan Africa, and the cost-effectiveness and scalability of interventions to reduce the burden of these conditions on the continent. To address these gaps, international investment has focussed on building research capacity, including funding doctoral students in African countries, to support development of high quality, contextually relevant interventions. Absent, however, is an understanding of how capacity building feeds into research careers. Methods: Within a broader mental health research capacity-building initiative (African Mental Health Research Initiative), we conducted 52 qualitative interviews with early-career researchers, policymakers, academics, and service users from four African countries (Ethiopia, Malawi, South Africa, and Zimbabwe) and with international funders of mental health research. The interview guide focused on the research context, planning, and priorities and how respondents perceive research careers and funding. Thematic analysis was applied to the transcribed interviews. Results: Five components of a research career emerged: (i) research positions; (ii) research skills; (iii) funding; (iv) research commitment from African countries; and (v) advocacy. All stakeholders wanted more high-impact African researchers, but few saw a clear, replicable track for developing their careers within universities or their Ministries of Health in their African countries. This stemmed, in part, from the lack of support for infrastructure that enables high-quality research: grants administration, mentorship, university leadership, research culture, and open communication between policymakers and researchers. Conclusions: This study highlights the importance of developing research infrastructure alongside capacity-building efforts. International funders should invest in grant management at African universities which would place them at the centre of research initiatives. African universities should prioritise the creation of a research culture by developing and promoting well-defined research tracks for both clinicians and academics, investing in grant management, and raising the profile of research within their institutions.

5.
EClinicalMedicine ; 23: 100333, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32637890

RESUMEN

Background: There is a lack of data from low- and middle-income countries on whether anxiety independently predicts a more chronic course for depression. Methods: We undertook secondary data analysis of a cluster randomised controlled trial in Zimbabwe which had tested the effectiveness of the Friendship Bench intervention for common mental disorders compared to enhanced usual care. Inclusion for the current study was participants from the trial who had probable major depression at baseline, defined as scoring => 11 on the locally validated Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ9). This emerged to be 354 of the original 573 (61.78%) of the original trial sample. Anxiety was measured using the locally validated cut-point on the Generalised Anxiety Disorder scale (GAD-7). Persistent depression was defined as scoring => 11 on the PHQ-9 at six-months follow-up. Analysis in Stata 15 used random-effects logistic regression to adjust for clustering by clinic. Outcomes: Of the 354 participants who were eligible for treatment, 329 (92·9%) completed 6-month follow-up assessment. 37% of the trial sample had persistent depression at 6-months follow-up; 59% in the control arm and 17% in the intervention arm. Co-morbid anxiety present at trial baseline was independently associated with persistent depression after adjusting for age, gender and baseline depression severity (adjusted OR = 2·83, 95% CI 1·32-6·07). There was no evidence of effect modification by trial arm. Baseline depression severity also predicted persistent depression. Interpretation Treatment for depression in low and middle-income countries (LMIC) should be directed towards those with greatest need. This includes people with co-morbid anxiety and greater depression severity at initial assessment who are less likely to remit at six months. Advice on coping with anxiety, psychological treatments which target common anxiety symptoms such as fear, avoidance, excessive worry and intrusive thoughts, and Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs) should be made more widely available in LMIC and offered to those with persistent mixed depression and anxiety.

6.
Ann Glob Health ; 86(1): 40, 2020 04 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32322538

RESUMEN

Background: Career development skills are widely advocated as part of research capacity building and strengthening efforts. However, there is a gap in knowledge on their acceptability in low- and middle-income countries. Objective: This study aimed to examine how a group of 16 early-career researchers in sub-Saharan Africa experienced a career development skills course and how they perceived the utility of the course. Methods: Sixteen early-career researchers registered at universities in Ethiopia, Zimbabwe, Malawi, and South Africa took part in the year-long Academic Competencies Series (ACES) course. ACES comprised ten modules covering mentoring skills, work-life balance, career strategy, teamwork, presentation skills, teaching, academic writing, engaging policy makers, grant-writing, and digital media. ACES was delivered through face-to-face workshops and via webinar as part of a broader mental health research capacity-building programme. In-depth interviews following a topic guide were conducted with participants. Interviews were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data were analysed using Thematic Analysis. Findings: All ACES participants were interviewed (9 male, 7 female). Participants were PhD students (14) and post-docs (2). The main themes identified throughout the course were 1) Growth, in both personal and professional life; 2) Application of training, often in innovative ways but with notable constraints and obstacles; and 3) Connection with colleagues, where researchers learnt from each other and from experts, building confidence in their new skills. Participants described how face-to-face contact enhanced the perceived quality of their learning experience. Barriers included logistical obstacles to applying training, such as limited resources and being at an early career stage. Conclusions: We found that research career development skills training was highly acceptable for early-career researchers in four African countries, and was perceived as having facilitated their personal and professional growth. Our findings suggest that courses like ACES can be applied successfully and innovatively in low-income settings.

7.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32346483

RESUMEN

Mental, neurological and substance use (MNS) disorders are a leading, but neglected, cause of morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. The treatment gap for MNS is vast with only 10% of people with MNS disorders in low-income countries accessing evidence-based treatments. Reasons for this include low awareness of the burden of MNS disorders and limited evidence to support development, adaptation and implementation of effective and feasible treatments. The overall goal of the African Mental Health Research Initiative (AMARI) is to build an African-led network of MNS researchers in Ethiopia, Malawi, South Africa and Zimbabwe, who are equipped to lead high quality mental health research programs that meet the needs of their countries, and to establish a sustainable career pipeline for these researchers with an emphasis on integrating MNS research into existing programs such as HIV/AIDS. This paper describes the process leading to the development of AMARI's objectives through a theory of change workshop, successes and challenges that have been faced by the consortium in the last 4 years, and the future role that AMARI could play in further building MNS research capacity by brining on board more institutions from low- and middle-income countries with an emphasis on developing an evidence-based training curriculum and a research-driven care service.

8.
Cogn Behav Pract ; 27(1): 84-92, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32153343

RESUMEN

HIV is prevalent in Sub-Saharan Africa, and depression frequently co-occurs. Depression is one of the most important predictors of poor adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART). Little has been done to develop integrated interventions that are feasible and appropriate for task-shifting to nonspecialists that seek to address both depression and barriers to ART adherence in Sub-Saharan Africa. This case series describes an integrated intervention for depression and ART adherence delivered by a lay adherence counselor and supervised by a local psychologist. The 6-session intervention was based on problem-solving therapy for depression and for barriers to adherence (PST-AD), with stepped care for those whose depression did not recover with PST-AD. Primary outcomes were acceptability and depression. Acceptability was measured by participant attendance to the 6 sessions. Three case studies illustrate the structured intervention, solutions identified to adherence barriers and to problems underlying low mood, and changes seen in the clients' psychological symptoms. Acceptability of the intervention was high and common mental disorder symptoms scores measured using the SRQ-8 decreased overall. An integrated intervention for depression and adherence to ART appeared feasible in this low-income setting. An RCT of the intervention versus an appropriate comparison condition is needed to evaluate clinical and cost-effectiveness.

9.
AIDS Care ; 32(sup2): 107-118, 2020 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32164440

RESUMEN

Person-centred care (PCC) for people living with HIV (PLWH) is a global goal for WHO and the UNAIDS strategy. We aimed to develop a novel person-centred intervention for community providers, test the feasibility of participant recruitment and retention, intervention delivery and to establish acceptability. Findings from qualitative interviews with PLWH and healthcare professionals were mapped onto a PCC theory in an expert intervention development workshop. A parallel feasibility cluster randomised controlled trial (cRCT) was conducted. We randomly assigned clusters (1:1) either to intervention or to standard care. The primary outcome was trial recruitment and retention. We screened 83 PLWH, enrolled 60 with 30 allocated to each arm. Recruitment and retention rates were 87% and 97%, respectively. Potential effect size achieved at final timepoint: a measure of person-centred outcomes [0.7 (95% CI 0.17-1.23) p < 0.001]; MOSHIV [0.7 (95% CI 0.17-1.23) p < 0.001]; Patient Experience Questionnaire [0.8 (95% CI 0.27-1.31) p < 0.001]; CARE Measure [1.0 (95% CI 0.45-1.55) p < 0.001], POSITIVE OUTCOMES [0.7 (95% CI 0.17-1.23) p < 0.001]. Post-trial interviews revealed general acceptability of the intervention. The results confirm the feasibility and justify a definitive cRCT of the enhanced care intervention to improve person-centred outcomes for PLWH.Trial registration number ISRCTN13630241.


Asunto(s)
Servicios de Salud Comunitaria/métodos , Infecciones por VIH/terapia , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud , Cooperación del Paciente/psicología , Satisfacción del Paciente , Atención Dirigida al Paciente/organización & administración , Adulto , Investigación Participativa Basada en la Comunidad , Prestación de Atención de Salud , Estudios de Factibilidad , Femenino , Ghana , Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Infecciones por VIH/psicología , Personal de Salud , Humanos , Entrevistas como Asunto , Masculino , Evaluación de Resultado en la Atención de Salud , Investigación Cualitativa , Calidad de Vida , Autocuidado , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
10.
Palliat Med ; 34(3): 319-335, 2020 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32081084

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Paediatric life-limiting and life-threatening conditions (life-limiting conditions) place significant strain on children, families and health systems. Given high service use among this population, it is essential that care addresses their main symptoms and concerns. AIM: This study aimed to identify the symptoms, concerns and other outcomes that matter to children with life-limiting conditions and their families in sub-Saharan Africa. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Cross-sectional qualitative study in Kenya, Namibia, South Africa and Uganda. Children/caregivers of children aged 0-17 years with life-limiting conditions were purposively sampled by age, sex and diagnosis. Children aged 7 and above self-reported; caregiver proxies reported for children below 7 and those aged 7 and above unable to self-report. RESULTS: A total of 120 interviews were conducted with children with life-limiting conditions (n = 61; age range: 7-17 years), and where self-report was not possible, caregivers (n = 59) of children (age range: 0-17) were included. Conditions included advanced HIV (22%), cancer (19%), heart disease (16%) endocrine, blood and immune disorders (13%), neurological conditions (12%), sickle cell anaemia (10%) and renal disease (8%). Outcomes identified included physical concerns - pain and symptom distress; psycho-social concerns - family and social relationships, ability to engage with age-appropriate activities (e.g. play, school attendance); existential concerns - worry about death, and loss of ambitions; health care quality - child- and adolescent-friendly services. Priority psycho-social concerns and health service factors varied by age. CONCLUSION: This study bridges an important knowledge gap regarding symptoms, concerns and outcomes that matter to children living with life-limiting conditions and their families and informs service development and evaluation.

11.
Glob Health Action ; 13(1): 1715325, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32041498

RESUMEN

Less than 1% of biomedical research papers originate in Africa. Locally relevant mental health research, including synthesis of existing evidence, is essential for developing interventions and strengthening health systems, but institutions may lack the capacity to deliver training on systematic reviewing for publication in international journals. This paper describes the development and implementation of a training-of-trainers (ToT) course on systematic reviewing. The ToT prepared junior faculty ('trainers') from universities in Ethiopia, Malawi, and Zimbabwe to lead a five-day systematic reviewing workshop. Using an evaluation framework based on implementation science outcomes, the feasibility of the ToT was assessed by tracking the number of workshops the trainers subsequently conducted and the number of trainers and trainees who participated; acceptability was assessed through post-workshop surveys on trainee perspectives; impact was evaluated through trainee scores on a 15-item multiple choice test on systematic reviewing concepts; and sustainability was assessed based on whether the workshop was integrated into university curricula. Twelve trainers (86% of those trained) facilitated a total of seven workshops in their home countries (total 103 trainees). The first workshop run in each country was evaluated, and there was a significant improvement in mean knowledge scores between pre- and post-tests among trainees (MD= 3.07, t= 5.90, 95% CI 2.02-4.11). In two of the three countries, there are efforts to integrate the systematic review workshop into university curricula. The cost of the workshop led by the international trainer was $1480 per participant, whereas the trainer-led workshops cost approximately $240 per participant. Overall, ToT is relatively new to research capacity building, although it has been used widely in clinical settings. Our findings suggest ToT is a promising, low-cost way to develop both technical skills of individuals and the pedagogical capacity of universities, and to promote sustainability of research capacity building programs that often have time-limited grant funding.


Asunto(s)
Investigación Biomédica/educación , Investigación Biomédica/métodos , Creación de Capacidad , Educación Médica/organización & administración , Salud Mental/educación , Investigadores/educación , Revisiones Sistemáticas como Asunto , Adulto , Curriculum , Etiopía , Femenino , Humanos , Malaui , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Zimbabwe
12.
Glob Public Health ; 15(6): 865-876, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31994453

RESUMEN

This analysis estimates prevalence of intimate partner violence (IPV) and its association with probable depression among adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) in Lilongwe, Malawi, and whether partner's controlling behaviour modifies this relationship. Baseline data was utilised from the Girl Power-Malawi study of 1000 15-24-year-old AGYW in Lilongwe. Emotional, physical, and sexual IPV experiences with a current or recent partner were measured using the modified Conflict Tactics Scale. Probable depression was measured by scoring ≥10 on the Centre for Epidemiologic Studies-Short Depression Scale (CES-D-10). Generalised linear models with log-link and binomial distribution estimated prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between IPV types and probable depression. Partner's controlling behaviour was examined as an effect modifier. Participants' mean age was 19.2 years, with 70% never-married. IPV prevalence varied for emotional (59%), physical (36%), sexual (46%), and all forms (20%). Prevalence of probable depression was 47%. AGYW who experienced each IPV type had a higher prevalence of probable depression: physical (PR:1.54, CI:1.28-1.86), sexual (1.46, CI:1.21-1.75), emotional (1.37, CI:1.14-1.64), all forms (1.72, CI:1.41-2.09). IPV and probable depression were prevalent and strongly associated, especially among AGYW reporting controlling behaviour. Interventions addressing IPV and controlling behaviour may positively impact depression among AGYW.

13.
AIDS Care ; 32(12): 1479-1488, 2020 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31795741

RESUMEN

Although person-centred care (PCC) has been identified as a means to achieve the 90-90-90 targets, limited research has considered PCC in low- or middle-income settings. We aimed to explore what constitutes PCC from the perspectives of PLWHA and healthcare professionals (HCP) in Ghana. We conducted 39 semi-structured qualitative interviews with PLWHA and HCP in two community clinics in Ghana, West Africa. Interviews were analysed deductively using thematic analysis, and sampling continued until thematic saturation was achieved. Twenty-four PLWHA (median age 42.5, 50% female) and 15 HCP (median age 34, 53% female) were interviewed. Three interconnected themes emerged across PLWHA and HCP: (1) care structures not built around the person, (2) priority outcomes and components of PCC and (3) re-engineering HIV care to be more person-centred. A conceptual model showing the overlap between PLWHA and HCP's perspectives of PCC and a framework to inform PCC delivery have been developed from these findings. Our data revealed that PLWHA want PCC to improve care outcomes, well-being and quality of life. Further testing of this model is required to inform PCC delivery for PLWHA in low- and middle-income countries.

14.
AAS Open Res ; 1: 28, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31844836

RESUMEN

Background: People living with HIV are at risk of developing HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND) which adversely affects their quality of life. Routine screening of HAND in HIV care is recommended to identify clinically important changes in cognitive functioning and allow for early interventions. However, HAND detection in routine clinical practice has never been reported in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA), partly due to a lack of adequately standardized screening tools. This review was conducted to identify the commonly used screening tools for HAND in SSA and document their psychometric properties and diagnostic accuracy. Methods: We searched Ovid Medline, PsycINFO and Web of Sciences databases for empirical studies published from 1/1/1980 to 31/8/2018 on HAND among adults living with HIV in SSA. Results: We identified 14 eligible studies, of which 9 were from South Africa. The International HIV Dementia Scale (IHDS) was the most frequently reported tool, being used in more than half of the studies. However most studies only reported the diagnostic accuracy of this and other tools, with specificity ranging from 37% to 81% and sensitivity ranging from 45% to 100%. Appropriate data on construct validity and reliability of tools was rarely documented. Although most tools performed well in screening for severe forms of HAND, they lacked sensitivity and specificity for mild forms of HAND. NeuroScreen, one of the newer tools, yielded good diagnostic accuracy in its initial evaluation in South Africa (81% to 93% sensitivity and 71% to 81% specificity). Conclusions: This review identified a lack of adequately standardized and contextually relevant HAND screening tools in SSA. Most screening tools for HAND used in SSA possess inadequate psychometric properties and diagnostic accuracy. There is a need for further validation of existing tools and development of new HAND screening tools in SSA.

15.
Syst Rev ; 8(1): 244, 2019 10 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31661030

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Alcohol use disorders (AUDs) in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWH) are a significant impediment to achieving virological control. HIV non-suppression in PLWH with AUDs is mainly attributable to sub-optimal antiretroviral therapy adherence. Sub-optimal adherence makes control of the epidemic elusive, considering that effective antiretroviral treatment and viral suppression are the two key pillars in reducing new infections. Psychological interventions have been proposed as effective treatments for the management of AUDs in PLWH. Evidence for their effectiveness has been inconsistent, with two reviews (2010 and 2013) concluding a lack of effectiveness. However, a 2017 review that examined multiple HIV prevention and treatment outcomes suggested that behavioural interventions were effective in reducing alcohol use. Since then, several studies have been published necessitating a re-examination of this evidence. This review provides an updated synthesis of the effectiveness of psychological interventions for AUDs in PLWH. METHODS: A search was conducted in the following databases: PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE (Ovid), EMBASE, PsychInfo (Ovid) and Clinical trials.gov (clinicaltrials.gov) for eligible studies until August 2018 for psychotherapy and psychosocial interventions for PLWH with AUDs. Two reviewers independently screened titles, abstracts and full texts to select studies that met the inclusion criteria. Two reviewers independently performed data extraction with any differences resolved through discussion. Risk of bias was assessed by two independent reviewers using the Cochrane risk of bias tool, and the concordance between the first and second reviewers was 0.63 and between the first and third reviewers 0.71. Inclusion criteria were randomised controlled trials using psychological interventions in people aged 16 and above, with comparisons being usual care, enhanced usual care, other active treatments or waitlist controls. RESULTS: A total of 21 studies (6954 participants) were included in this review. Studies had diverse populations including men alone, men and women and men who had sex with men (MSM). Use of motivational interviewing alone or blended with cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) and technology/computer-assisted platforms were common as individual-level interventions, while a few studies investigated group motivational interviewing or CBT. Alcohol use outcomes were all self-report and included assessment of the quantity and the frequency of alcohol use. Measured secondary outcomes included viral load, CD4 count or other self-reported outcomes. There was a lack of evidence for significant intervention effects in the included studies. Isolated effects of motivational interviewing, cognitive behavioural therapy and group therapy were noted. However for some of the studies that found significant effects, the effect sizes were small and not sustained over time. Owing to the variation in outcome measures employed across studies, no meta-analysis could be carried out. CONCLUSION: This systematic review did not reveal large or sustained intervention effects of psychological interventions for either primary alcohol use or secondary HIV-related outcomes. Due to the methodological heterogeneity, we were unable to undertake a meta-analysis. Effectiveness trials of psychological interventions for AUDs in PLWH that include disaggregation of data by level of alcohol consumption, gender and age are needed. There is a need to standardise alcohol use outcome measures across studies and include objective biomarkers that provide a more accurate measure of alcohol consumption and are relatively free from social desirability bias. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD  42017063856 .


Asunto(s)
Trastornos Inducidos por Alcohol , Antirretrovirales/administración & dosificación , Terapia Cognitivo-Conductual , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Cumplimiento de la Medicación , Entrevista Motivacional , Psicoterapia , Trastornos Inducidos por Alcohol/psicología , Trastornos Inducidos por Alcohol/terapia , Femenino , Homosexualidad Masculina , Humanos , Masculino , Minorías Sexuales y de Género , Carga Viral
16.
Patient ; 12(1): 15-55, 2019 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30361884

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The design and provision of quality pediatric palliative care should prioritize issues that matter to children and their families for optimal outcomes. OBJECTIVE: This review aims to identify symptoms, concerns and outcomes that matter to children and young people ("young people") with terminal illnesses and their families. Findings from the systematic review will inform the development of a relevant framework of health outcomes. METHOD: This is a systematic literature review across multiple databases for identification of eligible primary evidence. Data sources included PsycINFO, MEDLINE, Embase, CINAHL, OpenGrey, and Science Direct Journals, searched from 1 August 2016 to 30 July 2017. The study also incorporates consultations with experts in the field, citation searches via Scopus, and a hand search of reference lists of included studies. RESULTS: Of the 13,567 articles that were evaluated, 81 studies were included. Most of these studies (n = 68) were from high-income countries and foused on young people with cancer (n = 58). A total of 3236 young people, 2103 family carers, 108 families, and 901 healthcare providers were included in the studies. Young people did not contribute to data in 30% of studies. Themes on priority concerns are presented by the following domains and health outcomes: (1) physical (n = 62 studies), e.g., physical symptoms; (2) psychological (n = 65), e.g., worry; (3) psychosocial (n = 31), e.g., relationships; (4) existential (n = 37), e.g., existential loss; and (5) "other" (n = 39), e.g., information access. CONCLUSION: Burdensome symptoms and concerns affect young people with malignant and nonmalignant conditions and occur across the disease trajectory; pediatric palliative care should not be limited to the end-of-life phase. A child-family-centered framework of health outcomes, spanning the patient, family, and quality of service levels is proposed to inform service development. Future research should address gaps identified across the literature (i.e., the involvement of young people in research, evidence for developing countries, and a focus on nonmalignant conditions.


Asunto(s)
Cuidados Paliativos , Enfermo Terminal/psicología , Adolescente , Ansiedad , Niño , Humanos
18.
Brain Behav Immun ; 73: 261-273, 2018 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29768184

RESUMEN

This meta-analytic review evaluated the effectiveness of depression interventions on the psychological and immunological outcomes of people living with HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. 14 studies, yielding 932 participants were eligible. A random-effects models indicated that depression interventions were followed by large reductions in depression scores (effect size = 1.86, 95% CI = 1.71, 2.01, p < 0.01). No significant effect on immune outcome was observed, however there was a trend toward immune improvement of medium effect size (effect size on CD4 count and/or viral suppression = 0.57, 95% CI = -0.06, 1.20, p = 0.08). Pharmacological interventions appeared to have a significantly larger improvement in depression scores than psychological interventions. The greatest improvement in immune status was demonstrated in psychological treatments which incorporated a component to enhance HIV medication adherence, however these results did not reach significance. Small sample sizes and highly heterogeneous analysis necessitate caution in interpretation. The results of this meta-analysis should thus be treated as preliminary evidence and used to encourage further studies of immunopsychiatry in HIV in sub-Saharan Africa.


Asunto(s)
Depresión/terapia , Infecciones por VIH/inmunología , Infecciones por VIH/psicología , Adulto , África del Sur del Sahara , Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico , Depresión/psicología , Trastorno Depresivo Mayor/inmunología , Trastorno Depresivo Mayor/psicología , Trastorno Depresivo Mayor/terapia , Intervención Médica Temprana/métodos , Femenino , VIH/inmunología , Humanos , Masculino , Cumplimiento de la Medicación/psicología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Resultado del Tratamiento
19.
Glob Health Sci Pract ; 6(1): 82-92, 2018 03 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29602867

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Sub-Saharan Africa has an inadequate number of health professionals, leading to a reduced capacity to respond to health challenges, including HIV/AIDS. From 2010 to 2015, the Medical Education Partnership Initiative (MEPI)-sponsored by the U.S. Presidents Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) and the National Institutes of Health (NIH)-was enthusiastically taken up by the University of Zimbabwe College of Health Sciences (UZCHS) and 12 other sub-Saharan African universities to develop models of training to improve medical education and research capacity. In this article, we describe the outcomes and challenges of MEPI in Zimbabwe. METHODS: UZCHS in partnership with the University of Colorado, Denver; Stanford University; University of Cape Town; University College London; and King's College London designed the Novel Education Clinical Trainees and Researchers (NECTAR) program and 2 linked awards addressing cardiovascular disease and mental health to pursue MEPI objectives. A range of medical education and research capacity-focused programs were implemented, including faculty development, research support, mentored scholars, visiting professors, community-based education, information and technology support, cross-cutting curricula, and collaboration with partner universities and the ministries of health and education. We analyzed quantitative and qualitative data from several data sources, including annual surveys of faculty, students, and other stakeholders; workshop exit surveys; and key informant interviews with NECTAR administrators and leaders and the UZCHS dean. FINDINGS: Improved Internet connectivity and electronic resource availability were early successes of NECTAR. Over the 5-year period, 69% (115 of 166) of faculty members attended at least 1 of 15 faculty development workshops. Forty-one faculty members underwent 1-year advanced faculty development training in medical education and leadership. Thirty-three mentored research scholars were trained under NECTAR, and 52 and 12 in cardiovascular and mental health programs, respectively. Twelve MEPI scholars had joined faculty by 2015. Full-time faculty grew by 36% (122 to 166), annual postgraduate and medical student enrollment increased by 61% (75 to 121) and 71% (123 to 210), respectively. To institutionalize and sustain MEPI innovations, the Research Support Center and the Department of Health Professions Education were established at UZCHS. CONCLUSION: MEPI has synergistically revitalized medical education, research capacity, and leadership at UZCHS. Investments in creating a new research center, health professions education department, and, programs have laid the foundation to help sustain faculty development and research capacity in the country.


Asunto(s)
Educación Médica/organización & administración , Cooperación Internacional , Creación de Capacidad , Humanos , Liderazgo , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Investigación/organización & administración , Estados Unidos , Zimbabwe
20.
Syst Rev ; 7(1): 57, 2018 04 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29636088

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Depression and anxiety symptoms are reported to be common among university students in many regions of the world and impact on quality of life and academic attainment. The extent of the problem of depression and anxiety among students in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) is largely unknown. This paper details methods for a systematic review that will be conducted to explore the prevalence, antecedents, consequences, and treatments for depression and anxiety among undergraduate university students in LMICs. METHODS: Studies reporting primary data on common mental disorders among students in universities and colleges within LMICs will be included. Quality assessment of retrieved articles will be conducted using four Joanna Briggs critical appraisal checklists for prevalence, randomized control/pseudo-randomized trials, descriptive case series, and comparable cohort/case control. Meta-analysis of the prevalence of depression and anxiety will be conducted using a random effects model which will generate pooled prevalence with their respective 95% confidence intervals. DISCUSSION: The results from this systematic review will help in informing and guiding healthcare practitioners, planners, and policymakers on the burden of common mental disorders in university students in LMICs and of appropriate and feasible interventions aimed at reducing the burden of psychological morbidity among them. The results will also point to gaps in research and help set priorities for future enquiries. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42017064148.


Asunto(s)
Ansiedad/epidemiología , Depresión/epidemiología , Estudiantes , Universidades , Ansiedad/terapia , Depresión/terapia , Países en Desarrollo , Humanos , Prevalencia , Calidad de Vida
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