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1.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33763830

RESUMEN

Treatment with anti-neoplastic agents, including cyclophosphamide (CP), is associated with several adverse reactions. Here, we distinguished the potential protective effect of allicin against CP-mediated hepatotoxicity in rats. To assess the effect of allicin, four experimental groups were used, with 7 rats per group, including control, allicin (10 mg/kg), CP (200 mg/kg), and allicin + CP-treated groups. All groups were treated for 10 days. Blood and liver samples were collected for biochemical, molecular, and histological analyses. Treatment with CP led to deformations in the liver tissue that were associated with higher liver function markers (alanine transaminase, aspartate transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase). Additionally, a disturbance in the redox balance was observed after CP exposure, as indicated by increased levels of oxidants, including malondialdehyde and nitric oxide, and the decreased levels of endogenous antioxidants, including glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase. At the molecular level, CP treatment resulted in reduced expression of the Nrf2/ARE pathway and other genes related to this pathway, including NAD(P)H quinone dehydrogenase 1 and glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit. CP also led to a hyper-inflammatory response in hepatic tissue, with increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interlukin-1beta, and upregulation of nitric oxide synthase 2. CP also enhanced the immunoreactivity of the profibrogenic cytokine, transforming growth factor-beta, in liver tissue. Upregulation of caspase 3 and Bcl-2-associated X protein and downregulation of B-cell lymphoma 2 were also observed in response to CP treatment. Treatment with allicin reversed the molecular, biochemical, and histological changes that occurred with CP exposure. These results suggest that allicin can be used in combination with CP to avoid hepatotoxicity.

2.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(14): 17482-17494, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33394435

RESUMEN

Heavy metal contamination including mercury (Hg) has become one of the most serious environmental problems facing humans and other living organisms. Here, the hepatoprotective effects of Z. spina-christi leaf extract (ZCE) against inorganic mercury salt (mercuric chloride; HgCl2)-induced hepatotoxicity model was investigated in rats. Mercury concentration, liver function markers, oxidative stress markers, inflammation, cell death indicators, and histopathology were assessed. ZCE protected against HgCl2-induced hepatotoxicity, decreased Hg concentration, lipid peroxidation, and nitric oxide, increased glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione recycling enzymes (peroxidase and reductase), and upregulated nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) gene expression in HgCl2-intoxicated rat hepatic tissue. Nrf2 downstream gene and heme oxygenase-1 were also upregulated, confirming that hepatoprotection by ZCE against HgCl2-induced liver damage involved activation of the Nrf2/antioxidant response element pathway. ZCE also decreased the expression and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and pro-apoptotic proteins and increased anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. Immunohistochemical analysis of liver tissues of HgCl2-treated rats confirmed the alternations of apoptotic-related protein expression. Our data demonstrated that post-administration of ZCE attenuated HgCl2-induced liver damage by activating the Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway. Therefore, administering this extract may be a novel therapeutic strategy for inorganic mercury intoxication.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad Hepática Crónica Inducida por Sustancias y Drogas , Ziziphus , Animales , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Enfermedad Hepática Crónica Inducida por Sustancias y Drogas/metabolismo , Hígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Cloruro de Mercurio/metabolismo , Cloruro de Mercurio/toxicidad , Factor 2 Relacionado con NF-E2/metabolismo , Estrés Oxidativo , Extractos Vegetales/metabolismo , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Ratas , Ziziphus/metabolismo
3.
Chem Biol Interact ; 337: 109392, 2021 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33497687

RESUMEN

Arsenic is a toxic metalloid abundantly found in nature and used in many industries. Consumption of contaminated water mainly results in human exposure to arsenic. Toxicity (arsenicosis) resulting from arsenic exposure causes cerebral neurodegeneration. Protocatechuic acid (PCA), a phenol derived from edible plants, has antioxidant properties. The present study investigated the neuroprotective potential of PCA against arsenic-induced neurotoxicity in mice. Male Swiss albino mice were divided into four groups: (i) orally administered physiological saline, (ii) orally administered 100 mg/kg PCA, (iii) orally administered 5 mg/kg NaAsO2, and (iv) orally administered 100 mg/kg PCA 120 min prior to oral administration of 5 mg/kg NaAsO2. Each group received its respective treatment for 1 week, after which cortical tissues from each group were analyzed for various parameters of oxidative stress, proinflammatory cytokines, apoptosis-related proteins, and changes in histopathology. NaAsO2-treatment resulted in a significant increase in lipid peroxidation (LPO), inducible nitric oxide synthetase (iNOs), and NO levels, with a decrease in the levels of both enzymatic (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase) and non-enzymatic (glutathione) antioxidant markers. Arsenic increased proinflammatory cytokine (tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1ß) levels, enhanced caspase-3 and Bax expression, and reduced Bcl-2 expression. Furthermore, arsenic-exposure in mice decreased significantly acetylcholinesterase activity and brain-derived neurotrophic factor level in the cerebral cortex. Histopathological examination revealed changes in nerve cell cyto-architecture and distribution in arsenic-exposed brain tissue sections. PCA treatment before arsenic administration resulted in a positive shift in the oxidative stress and cytokine levels with decreased levels of LPO, iNOS, and NO. PCA pre-treatment considerably attenuated arsenic-associated histopathological changes in murine brain tissue. This study suggested that the presence of PCA may be responsible for the prevention of arsenic-induced neurotoxicity.


Asunto(s)
Apoptosis/efectos de los fármacos , Arseniatos/toxicidad , Hidroxibenzoatos/farmacología , Fármacos Neuroprotectores/farmacología , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos , Acetilcolinesterasa/metabolismo , Animales , Encéfalo/efectos de los fármacos , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Encéfalo/patología , Factor Neurotrófico Derivado del Encéfalo/metabolismo , Catalasa/genética , Catalasa/metabolismo , Citocinas/genética , Citocinas/metabolismo , Glutatión Peroxidasa/metabolismo , Masculino , Ratones , Proteínas Proto-Oncogénicas c-bcl-2/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutasa/metabolismo
4.
Biol Trace Elem Res ; 2021 Jan 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33454892

RESUMEN

We performed a thorough screening and analysis of the impact of cadmium chloride (CdCl2) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on the miR146a/NF-κB p65 inflammatory pathway and mitochondrial biogenesis dysfunction in male albino rats. A total of 24 male albino rats were divided into three groups: a control group, a CdCl2-treated group (3 mg/kg, orally), and a CdCl2 + NAC-treated group (200 mg/kg of NAC, 1 h after CdCl2 treatment), for 60 consecutive days. Real-time quantitative PCR was used to analyze the expression of miR146a, Irak1, Traf6, Nrf1, Nfe2l2, Pparg, Prkaa, Stat3, Tfam, Tnfa, and Il1b, whereas tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1ß, and cyclooxygenase-2 protein levels were assessed using ELISA, and NF-κB p65 was detected using western blotting. A significant restoration of homeostatic inflammatory processes as well as mitochondrial biogenesis was observed after NAC and CdCl2 treatment. Decreased miR146a and NF-κB p65 were also found after treatment with NAC and CdCl2 compared with CdCl2 treatment alone. Collectively, our findings demonstrate that CdCl2 caused mtDNA release because of Tfam loss, leading to NF-κB p65 activation. Co-treatment with NAC could alleviate Cd-induced genotoxicity in liver tissue. We concluded that adding NAC to CdCl2 resulted in a decreased signaling of the NF-κB p65 signaling pathway.

5.
Chem Biol Interact ; 333: 109333, 2020 Nov 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33242462

RESUMEN

Arsenic, a major environmental pollutant of global concern, is well-known for its reproductive toxicity. In this study, the protective potential of chlorogenic acid (CGA), a caffeoylquinic acid isomer abundantly found in many plants, was investigated against sodium arsenite (NaAsO2)-induced testicular dysfunctions. Adult male Swiss mice were either administered NaAsO2 alone at 5 mg kg-1 or co-treated with CGA at 100 mg kg-1 or 200 mg kg-1 body weight for 4 weeks. Results showed that NaAsO2-treated mice exhibited marked declines in testes weight, sperm count, and viability accompanied by decreases in sexual hormonal levels. Moreover, NaAsO2 toxicity evoked exhaustion of antioxidant markers (SOD, CAT, GPx, GR, and GSH), down-regulation of Nrf2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2) gene expression level, and elevations in malondialdehyde. Further, elevations in inflammatory cytokines (IL-1, TNF-α, and IL-6) together with the up-regulation of pro-apoptotic biomarkers (Bax and caspase- 3) and down-regulation of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 were observed in NaAsO2 intoxication. Immunohistochemical analysis of testis sections of NaAsO2-treated mice showed high caspase-3 expression. These findings were well supported with testicular histopathological examination. However, pretreatment of mice with CGA resulted in noteworthy improvements in testicular damage induced by arsenic in a dose-dependent manner possibly mediated by the Nrf2 signaling pathway. Conclusively, CGA counteracted arsenic-induced testicular injury through its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic properties. Therefore, CGA could serve as a favorable intervention in the alleviation of arsenic-induced reproductive toxicity.

6.
Neurotox Res ; 2020 Nov 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33141427

RESUMEN

Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal of considerable toxicity, inducing a number of hazardous effects to humans and animals including neurotoxicity. This experiment was aimed to investigate the potential effect of kaempferol (KPF) against Cd-induced cortical injury. Thirty-two adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided equally into four groups. The control rats intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with physiological saline (0.9% NaCl), the cadmium chloride (CdCl2)-treated rats were i.p. injected with 4.5 mg/kg of CdCl2, the KPF-treated rats were orally gavaged with 50 mg/kg of KPF, and the KPF + CdCl2-treated rats were administered orally 50 mg/kg of KPF 120 min before receiving i.p. injection of 4.5 mg/kg CdCl2. CdCl2 exposure for 30 days led to the accumulation of Cd in the cortical tissue, accompanied by a reduction in the content of monoamines and acetylcholinesterase activity. Additionally, CdCl2 induced a state of oxidative stress as evidenced by the elevation of lipid peroxidation and nitrate/nitrite levels, while glutathione content and the activities of glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase were decreased. Moreover, CdCl2 mediated inflammatory events in the cortical tissue through increasing tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1 beta levels and upregulating the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase. Furthermore, pro-apoptotic proteins (Bax and caspase-3) were elevated, while Bcl-2, the anti-apoptotic protein, was decreased. Also, histological alterations were observed obviously following CdCl2. However, KPF pretreatment restored significantly the examined markers to be near the normal values. Hence, the obtained data provide evidences that KPF pretreatment has the protective effect to preserve the cortical tissues in CdCl2-exposed rats by restraining oxidative stress, inflammatory response, apoptosis, neurochemical modulation, and improving the histological changes.

7.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2020: 7375136, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33133350

RESUMEN

Aluminum (Al) is a ubiquitous element with known toxicity for both humans and animals. Herein, we aimed to investigate the potential role of melatonin (MEL) in hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity following aluminum chloride (AlCl3) treatment in rats. Adult male rats were treated with AlCl3 (34 mg/kg bwt) for eight weeks. Exposure to AlCl3 enhanced the serum activities of the liver transaminases (alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase) and increased the level of bilirubin, in addition to the serum kidney function markers urea and creatinine. AlCl3 intoxication boosted oxidative stress, as evidenced by increases in the levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and nitric oxide (NO) along with simultaneous decreases in the levels of glutathione (GSH), various antioxidant enzymes, and Nrf2 mRNA expression. MEL (5 mg/kg bwt) treatment repressed LPO and NO levels, whereas it augmented GSH content. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes GPx, SOD, CAT, and GR were also restored concomitantly when MEL was administered before AlCl3. MEL also suppressed the apoptotic effect of AlCl3 by enhancing Bcl-2 protein expression in the liver and kidney and decreasing the expression levels of proinflammatory cytokines. Histopathological findings in the liver and kidney tissues confirmed the beneficial effect of MEL against AlCl3 toxicity. These findings indicate that MEL prevents AlCl3 toxicity by enhancing the antioxidant defense system.

8.
Mediators Inflamm ; 2020: 9419085, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33061833

RESUMEN

Berberine (BER), a natural isoquinoline alkaloid, has been demonstrated to have appreciable anticolitis effects. Nevertheless, the protective mechanism of BER in ulcerative colitis (UC) is barely understood. The present study was aimed at exploring the therapeutic efficacy of BER on UC in experimental colitis rat model. Rats were orally administered with BER for seven days at low and high doses (25 and 50 mg/kg/day) before AcOH intracolonic instillation. BER significantly retrieved colon inflammation and mucosal damage indicated by inhibition of macroscopic score and lessened the levels of inflammatory biomarkers (IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α, MPO, and PGE2). Notable downregulation of mRNA expression of p38 MAPK and increased protein expression of TGF-ß were achieved by BER treatment. The anti-inflammatory potential of BER was supported by the histopathological screening of colon mucosa. In addition, BER restored colonic antioxidant capacity through elevation of GSH level and antioxidant enzymatic activities (SOD, CAT, GPx, and GR) together with reductions of both MDA and NO levels. Marked downregulation of Nos2 mRNA expression is accompanied by increased Nrf2 and Hmox-1 expressions in colon specimens treated by BER. Furthermore, BER exhibited noticeable antiapoptotic activities through decreasing proapoptotic proteins (Bax and caspase-3) and lessening antiapoptotic Bcl-2 protein in the colon mucosa. Based on these findings, BER may improve colitis markedly which may be mediated by its striking antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic properties.

9.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 15: 6339-6353, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32922005

RESUMEN

Introduction: Epilepsy is a chronic neurological condition characterized by behavioral, molecular, and neurochemical alterations. Current antiepileptic drugs are associated with various adverse impacts. The main goal of the current study is to investigate the possible anticonvulsant effect of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-mediated epileptic seizures in mice hippocampus. Sodium valproate (VPA) was used as a standard anti-epileptic drug. Methods: Mice were assigned into five groups (n=15): control, SeNPs (5 mg/kg, orally), PTZ (60 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), SeNPs+PTZ and VPA (200 mg/kg)+PTZ. All groups were treated for 10 days. Results: PTZ injection triggered a state of oxidative stress in the hippocampal tissue as represented by the elevated lipoperoxidation, heat shock protein 70 level, and nitric oxide formation while decreased glutathione level and antioxidant enzymes activity. Additionally, the blotting analysis showed downregulation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in the epileptic mice. A state of neuroinflammation was recorded following the developed seizures represented by the increased pro-inflammatory cytokines. Moreover, neuronal apoptosis was recorded following the development of epileptic convulsions. At the neurochemical level, acetylcholinesterase activity and monoamines content were decreased in the epileptic mice, accompanied by high glutamate and low GABA levels in the hippocampal tissue. However, SeNP supplementation was found to delay the onset and decreased the duration of tonic, myoclonic, and generalized seizures following PTZ injection. Moreover, SeNPs were found to provide neuroprotection through preventing the development of oxidative challenge via the upregulation of Nrf2 and HO-1, inhibiting the inflammatory response and apoptotic cascade. Additionally, SeNPs reversed the changes in the activity and levels of neuromodulators following the development of epileptic seizures. Conclusion: The obtained results suggest that SeNPs could be used as a promising anticonvulsant drug due to its potent antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and neuromodulatory activities.


Asunto(s)
Nanopartículas/química , Neuronas/patología , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos , Convulsiones/tratamiento farmacológico , Selenio/uso terapéutico , Aminoácidos , Animales , Antiinflamatorios/farmacología , Antiinflamatorios/uso terapéutico , Anticonvulsivantes/efectos adversos , Anticonvulsivantes/farmacología , Anticonvulsivantes/uso terapéutico , Apoptosis/efectos de los fármacos , Colinérgicos/metabolismo , Hipocampo/efectos de los fármacos , Hipocampo/patología , Masculino , Ratones , Nanopartículas/administración & dosificación , Neuronas/efectos de los fármacos , Neurotransmisores/metabolismo , Oxidación-Reducción , Pentilenotetrazol , Convulsiones/inducido químicamente , Convulsiones/prevención & control , Selenio/administración & dosificación , Selenio/farmacología
10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32989703

RESUMEN

Arsenic (As) exposure is associated with adverse health outcomes to the living organisms. In the present study, the hepato-protective ability of thymoquinone (TQ), the active principle of Nigella sativa seed, or ebselen (Eb), an organoselenium compound, against As intoxication in female rats was investigated. For this purpose, animals were allocated randomly into control, As (20 mg/kg), TQ (10 mg/kg), Eb (5 mg/kg), As+TQ, and As+Eb groups that were orally administered for 28 consecutive days. Arsenic exposure resulted in hepatic oxidative damage which was evidenced by marked decreases in antioxidant parameters (superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione (GSH)) concomitant with high malondialdehyde (MDA) level. Furthermore, As toxicity induced significant elevations in liver accumulation of As, serum hepatic indices (aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and total bilirubin (TB)), and apoptotic marker (B cell lymphoma 2(Bcl2), Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax), and caspase 3) levels. Additionally, notable increments in hepatic fibrotic markers (epidermal growth factor (EFG) and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-ß1)) associated with high nitric oxide, interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) levels were noticed following As intoxication. Biochemical findings were well-supported by hepatic histopathological screening. The co-treatment of As-exposed rats with TQ or Eb considerably improved liver function and antioxidant status together with lessened hepatic As content, inflammation, apoptosis, and fibrosis. The overall outcomes demonstrated that TQ or Eb ameliorates As-induced liver injury through their favorable antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic, and fibrolytic properties.

11.
IUBMB Life ; 72(10): 2121-2132, 2020 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32710811

RESUMEN

Sepsis results from a major systemic inflammatory response and can induce disorders in multiple organs. The present study evaluated the potential protective effects of oleuropein (OLE) against hyperinflammatory responses during lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced sepsis in mice. Sixty male Balb/c mice were randomly categorized into five groups of 12 animals each: control, intraperitoneally injected with OLE (50 mg/kg), injected with LPS (10 mg/kg, intraperitoneal), and two groups administered OLE (25 and 50 mg/kg) for 3 days prior to LPS injection. Twenty-four hours after lipopolysaccharide injection, the animals were sacrificed. Serum, liver, and kidney tissue samples were collected for biochemical analyses, histopathological examinations, and investigation of inflammation-related gene expression. OLE pretreatment significantly reduced liver damage parameters (alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, lactate dehydrogenase) and kidney damage parameters (blood urea nitrogen, creatinine, and kidney injury molecule-1) in the septic mice. OLE pretreatment ameliorated LPS-induced liver and kidney histological changes. OLE significantly mitigated the increased levels of malondialdehyde in the liver and kidneys and reduced levels of reduced glutathione induced by LPS. LPS injection also resulted in increased expression of the proinflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-6) and inflammation-related genes (Nos2, Hmgb1, Mpo, Cd46, Map2k4, and Map2k7) in the hepatic and renal tissues. OLE reduced these expressions to ameliorate the inflammatory response. Moreover, OLE pretreatment enhanced the survival rate of septic mice. In conclusion, OLE alleviated the inflammatory response to protect against LPS-induced sepsis in mice.

12.
J Diabetes Res ; 2020: 6762709, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32626781

RESUMEN

Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a chronic endocrine disease characterized by persistent hyperglycemia. Oxidative damage, inflammatory cytokines, and apoptotic cell death play a major role in the induction and progression of male testicular damage. Plant-derived phytochemicals such as green coffee (Coffea arabica) can possess antidiabetic effects with little toxicity. The current study is aimed at investigating the therapeutic roles of green coffee in diabetic testicular injury stimulated by high-fat diet/streptozotocin administration. Diabetes mellitus was induced by a high-fat diet and a single dose of streptozotocin (STZ) (35 mg kg-1) in male albino rats. Diabetic animals were orally given two different concentrations of green coffee (50 mg kg-1 and 100 mg kg-1) for 28 days. The levels of testosterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone and parameters of oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis were measured. mRNAs and protein levels were detected quantitatively by real-time PCR and ELISA, respectively. In the diabetic group, the levels of testosterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone showed a significant reduction while they increased significantly after green coffee treatment. A significant increase of antioxidant markers glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione reductase along with decreased levels of lipid peroxides and nitric oxide was observed after green coffee treatment in the diabetic group. Finally, the levels of IL-1ß, TNF-α, Bax, and caspase-3 were also decreased in both treated groups (metformin and green coffee) when compared to the diabetic group. We conclude that testicular oxidative impairment induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) and STZ can be reversed by green coffee. Administration of green coffee could represent a promising therapeutic agent which can help the treatment of type 2 DM-induced testicular dysfunction.

13.
Heliyon ; 6(5): e04045, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32509990

RESUMEN

This study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy of synthesized selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) capped with glucose and polyvinyl-pyrrolidone (PVP) on the hyperglycemia and prooxidants/antioxidants imbalance present in model streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. SeNPs were synthesized and characterized. Twenty-four albino male rats were grouped into four different groups. After the rats were induced to have type 2 diabetes by STZ, the SeNPs-treated groups received a dose of 0.5 mg/ml of SeNPs for seven days. Plasma glucose and insulin levels, pancreatic insulin expression, the levels of lipid peroxidation (LPO), nitric oxide (NO), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione (GSH) were evaluated. TEM images revealed the formation of semispherical particles with average size between 40 and 50 nm. SeNPs administration successfully reduced the hyperglycemia, raised the levels of insulin in both the pancreas and the plasma and restored the damaged pancreatic tissue. SeNPs also showed enhancement of the elimination of the diabetes-induced oxidative stress injuries by decreasing the pancreatic LPO and NO levels. Furthermore, the activities of the antioxidant enzyme GPx and GSH levels of the diabetic rats were increased. In conclusion, SeNPs capped with PVP could be used in the future as an agent that could manage Diabetes mellitus.

14.
Metab Brain Dis ; 35(7): 1175-1187, 2020 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32548708

RESUMEN

Diabetes mellitus is an increasing metabolic disease worldwide associated with central nervous system disorders. Coffee is a widely consumed beverage that enriched with antioxidants with numerous medicinal applications. Accordingly, the present study aimed to investigate the therapeutic potential of orally administered green coffee bean water extract (GCBWE) against cortical damage induced by high fat diet (HFD) followed by a single injection of streptozotocin (STZ) in rats. Metformin (Met) was used as standard antidiabetic drug. Animals were allocated into six groups: control, GCBWE (100 mg/kg), HFD/STZ (40 mg/kg), HFD/STZ + GCBWE (50 mg/kg), HFD/STZ + GCBWE (100 mg/kg) and HFD/STZ + Met (200 mg/kg) which were treated daily for 28 days. Compared to control rats, HFD/STZ-treated rats showed decreased levels of cortical dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin with marked increases in their metabolites. Further, HFD/STZ treatment resulted in notable elevations in malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl and total nitrite levels paralleled with declines in antioxidant markers (SOD, CAT, GPx, GR and GSH) and down-regulations of Sod2, Cat, GPx1 and Gsr gene expression. Neuroinflammation was evident in diabetic animals by marked elevations in TNF-α, IL-1ß and up-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase. Significant rises incaspase-3 and Bax with decline in Bcl-2 level were noticed in diabetic rats together with similar results in their gene expressions. Cortical histopathological examination supported the biochemical and molecular findings. GCBWE administration achieved noteworthy neuroprotection in diabetic animals in most assessed parameters. The overall results suggested that antioxidant, anti-inflammatory; anti-apoptotic activities of GCBWE restored the cortical neurochemistry in diabetic rats.

15.
Oxid Med Cell Longev ; 2020: 4981386, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32566085

RESUMEN

Exposure to lead (Pb) causes multiorgan dysfunction including reproductive impairments. Here, we examined the protective effects of coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) administration on testicular injury induced by lead acetate (PbAc) exposure in rats. This study employed four experimental groups (n = 7) that underwent seven days of treatment as follows: control group intraperitoneally (i.p.) treated with 0.1 ml of 0.9% NaCl containing 1% Tween 80 (v : v), CoQ10 group that was i.p. injected with 10 mg/kg CoQ10, PbAc group that was i.p. treated with PbAc (20 mg/kg), and PbAc+CoQ10 group that was i.p. injected with CoQ10 2 h after PbAc. PbAc injection resulted in increasing residual Pb levels in the testis and reducing testosterone, luteinizing hormone, and follicle-stimulating hormone levels. Additionally, PbAc exposure resulted in significant oxidative damage to the tissues on the testes. PbAc raised the levels of prooxidants (malondialdehyde and nitric oxide) and reduced the amount of endogenous antioxidative proteins (glutathione and its derivative enzymes, catalase, and superoxide dismutase) available in the cell. Moreover, PbAc induced the inflammatory response as evidenced by the upregulation of inflammatory mediators (tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1 beta). Further, PbAc treatment induced apoptosis in the testicular cells, as indicated by an increase in Bax and caspase 3 expression, and reduced Bcl2 expression. CoQ10 supplementation improved testicular function by inhibiting Pb accumulation, oxidative stress, inflammation, cell death, and histopathological changes following PbAc exposure. Our findings suggest that CoQ10 can act as a natural therapeutic agent to protect against the reproductive impairments associated with PbAc exposure.

16.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(14): 5162-5170, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32519758

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Chronic exposure to arsenic (As) leads to serious renal disorders. Chlorogenic acid (CGA), a phenolic compound, has several well known physiological benefits, including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. The present study investigated the potential renoprotective effects of CGA on sodium arsenite (NaAsO2 )-induced kidney damage in mice. The mice were randomly allocated into five groups to receive daily treatment with CGA (200 mg kg-1 ), NaAsO2 (5 mg kg-1 ), NaAsO2 + CGA (100 mg kg-1 ), NaAsO2 + CGA (200 mg kg-1 ), or a control for 28 days. RESULTS: In the NaAsO2 -treated group, NaAsO2 induced significant renal dysfunction, oxidative damage, inflammation, and apoptosis, as demonstrated by marked increases in urea and creatinine levels accompanied by a decrease in the kidney index. Considerable increases in malondialdehyde and nitric oxide levels and parallel decreases in various antioxidant markers (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione) levels were also detected in the renal tissues of NaAsO2 -treated mice. NaAsO2 exposure was associated with marked increases in renal inflammatory markers (interleukin-1ß and tumor necrosis factor-α) and apoptosis indicators including Bax and caspase-3 levels contaminant, with a marked decrease in Bcl-2, an anti-apoptotic protein, in the NaAsO2 -treated group compared with the control group. However, pretreatment with CGA substantially mitigated the renal injury and dysfunction associated with NaAsO2 exposure by reducing tissue inflammation and apoptosis and improving the antioxidant status. The CGA pretreatment also alleviated the NaAsO2 -induced histological alterations in renal tissues. CONCLUSION: Taken together, our results suggest the efficacy of CGA in alleviating As-mediated renal tissue damage. © 2020 Society of Chemical Industry.

17.
IUBMB Life ; 72(8): 1787-1798, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32478470

RESUMEN

Lead (Pb) is a toxic heavy metal that is harmful to humans, especially male reproductive organs. Luteolin (LUT) is a naturally occurring flavonoid with numerous biological activities. Our aim was to investigate the possible reproprotective effect of LUT against testicular deficits induced by Pb intoxication. In the present study, 28 rats were distributed into 4 groups: control, LUT (50 mg/kg), lead acetate (PbAc, 20 mg/kg), and LUT + PbAc groups, in which rats were pre-treated with LUT 3 hr before PbAc injection. All animals were treated for 7 days. Oxidative stress, inflammatory and apoptotic markers along with histopathological changes have been examined using spectrophotometric, ELISA, real-time PCR, and histopathological methods. PbAc injection elevated Pb concentration in testicular tissue and decreased levels of sex hormones. PbAc intoxication exacerbated lipoperoxidation and nitric oxide formation, depleted superoxide dismutase, and catalase activities along with glutathione and its originated enzymes (glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase). At the molecular level, PbAc deactivated nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 and heme oxygenase-1 in the testicular tissue. In addition, PbAc toxicity induced inflammatory and apoptotic cascades in testicular tissue as evidenced by the increased tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-1 beta, inducible nitric oxide synthase, Bax, and caspase 3, while Bcl-2 was declined. Histopathological examination of testicular tissue also revealed that PbAc caused degeneration alterations in spermatogenic cells, the spermatogenic epithelial cells were disconnected from the basement membrane, and the seminiferous tubules were vacuolated. Remarkably, pre-treatment with LUT minimized significantly the testicular damage induced by PbAc. Therefore, we conclude that LUT may have a beneficial effect against PbAc-induced testicular injury through preventing oxidative challenge, inflammation, and finally apoptosis.

18.
Mediators Inflamm ; 2020: 8508906, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32377166

RESUMEN

Diallyl disulfide (DADS) is the major organosulfur constituent in garlic, with a variety of pharmacological activities including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory. Here, we examined the potential antiedematous impact of DADS- versus carrageenan-mediated paw edema in mice. Carrageenan injection potentiated an inflammatory reaction as presented by the elevated serological C-reactive protein (CRP) levels and transcription of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, Tnfα), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1ß, Il1b), interleukin-2 (IL-2, Il2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), nitric oxide (NO), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2, Ptgs2), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, Ccl1), nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, while interleukin-10 (IL-10) was declined in the injured paw tissue. Additionally, carrageenan elevated lipid peroxidation in terms of malondialdehyde (MDA) and decreased glutathione content (GSH). Remarkably, DADS was found to inhibit the inflammatory signaling, suppressed the developed oxidative damage, and protected the histopathological alterations in the inflamed paw tissue in response to carrageenan injection. Our findings suggest that DADS could be used as an alternative therapy used to alleviate the pathophysiological changes associated with the genesis of paw edema through its potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant impacts.

19.
Sci Total Environ ; 723: 137969, 2020 Jun 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32392679

RESUMEN

Environmental and occupational exposure to heavy metals, including cadmium (Cd), is associated with extremely adverse impacts to living systems. Antioxidant agents are suggested to eliminate Cd intoxication. In this paper, we investigated the potential neuroprotective effect of protocatechuic acid (PCA) against Cd-induced neuronal damage in rats. Adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control, PCA (100 mg/kg)-treated, CdCl2 (6.5 mg/kg)-treated, and PCA and Cd treatment groups. Pre-treatment with PCA significantly reduced Cd concentrations and increased cortical acetylcholinesterase activity and brain derived neurotrophic factor. Additionally, PCA also prevented CdCl2-induced oxidative stress in the cortical tissue by preventing lipid peroxidation and the formation of nitric oxide (NO), and significantly enhancing antioxidant enzymes. Molecularly, PCA significantly up-regulated the antioxidant gene expression (Sod2, Cat, Gpx1, and Gsr) that was down-regulated by Cd. It should be noted that this effect was achieved by targeting the nuclear-related factor 2 (Nfe2l2) mRNA expression. PCA also prevented the Cd-induced inflammation by reducing the pro-inflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1ß. Moreover, PCA supplementation relieved the Cd-induced neuronal death by increasing Bcl-2 and decreasing Bax and Cas-3 levels in the cortical tissue. The improvement of the cortical tissue histopathology by PCA confirmed the biochemical and molecular data. Collectively, our findings indicate that PCA can counteract Cd-induced cortical toxicity by enhancing the antioxidant defense system and suppressing inflammation and apoptosis.


Asunto(s)
Cadmio , Estrés Oxidativo , Animales , Antioxidantes , Apoptosis , Hidroxibenzoatos , Inflamación , Masculino , Ratas , Ratas Wistar
20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(14): 17184-17193, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32152865

RESUMEN

Sodium arsenite (NaAsO2) and cadmium chloride (CdCl2) are two prime examples of un-biodegradable compounds that accumulate in the ecosystems causing great threats to human health and produce severe adverse effects. However, their joint toxicities are poorly understood in mammals. This study aimed to identify the effect of exposure to NaAsO2 (5 mg/kg, by oral gavage) and CdCl2 (1 mg/kg injected interperitoneal, i.p.) either alone or in combinations after 14 and 28 days on oxidative stress, antioxidant enzyme activities, and histopathological changes. The results revealed a downregulation of miR-146a also, in miR-let7a after 14 days and a notable upregulation after 28 days. However, administrations of their combinations for 14 days caused downregulated miR-146a and miR-let7a. However, upregulation miR-let7a was observed only after 28 days. Organotoxicity of liver results in a remarkable increase in oxidative stress biomarkers by the two metals either alone or in combinations. A remarkable decrease was noted in an antioxidant enzyme activity indicating a defect in the antioxidant defense system. Also, CdCl2 alone showed remarkable liver histopathological changes. This study concluded that there was a close relationship of high epigenetic changes as deregulation of both miR-146a and miR-let7a as a result of the joint toxicity of both compounds, and ultimately major changes in hepatic tissues that may lead to cell transformations. However, further studies are needed to investigate the target genes for those miRNAs.


Asunto(s)
Arsenitos , MicroARNs , Animales , Cadmio , Cloruro de Cadmio , Ecosistema , Humanos , Masculino , Ratas
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