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1.
Ther Clin Risk Manag ; 16: 759-767, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32884277

RESUMEN

The ongoing coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic is a global health emergency of international concern and has affected management plans of many autoimmune disorders. Immunosuppressive and immunomodulatory therapies are pivotal in the management of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD), potentially placing patients at an increased risk of contracting infections such as COVID-19. The optimal management strategy of NMOSD during the COVID-19 era remains unclear. Here, however, we examined the evidence of NMOSD disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) use during the present period and highlighted different scenarios including treatment of relapses as well as initiation and maintenance of DMTs in order to optimize care of NMOSD patients in the COVID-19 era.

2.
Ther Clin Risk Manag ; 16: 651-662, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32801722

RESUMEN

The emergence of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has become a major public health challenge of global concern since December 2019, when the virus was recognized in Wuhan, the capital city of Hubei province in China and epicenter of the COVID-19 epidemic. Given the novelty of COVID-19 and the lack of specific anti-virus therapies, the current management is essentially supportive. There is an absence of consensus on guidelines or treatment strategies for complex disorders such as multiple sclerosis (MS), in which the risk of infections is higher than in the general population. This is due to the overall impairment of the immune system typical of autoimmune diseases, in addition to accumulation of disabilities, and the iatrogenic effect generated by corticosteroids and the recommended disease-modifying therapies (DMTs). DMTs have different modes of action, but all modulate and interfere with the patient's immune response, thereby raising concerns about adverse effects, such as an increased susceptibility to infections. In this review, we analyze the evidence for use of DMTs during the current critical period and ratify an algorithmic approach for management to optimize care between keeping DMTs, with their infection hazards, or coming off them, with the risk of disease activation. We also provide an algorithmic approach to the management of breakthrough activity during the COVID-19 pandemic.

3.
J Pain Res ; 13: 537-545, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32210609

RESUMEN

Background: Studies have shown that interferon-beta (IFN-ß) treatment is associated with headaches in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Headaches can affect quality of life and overall function of patients with MS. We examined the frequency, relationships, patterns, and characteristics of headaches in response to IFN-ß in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Patients and Methods: This study was a prospective, longitudinal analysis with 1-year follow-up. The study comprised 796 patients with RRMS treated with IFN-ß (mean age 30.84±8.98 years) at 5 tertiary referral center outpatient clinics in Egypt between January 2015 and December 2017. Headaches were diagnosed according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders ICHD-3 (beta version), and data were collected through an interviewer-administered Arabic-language-validated questionnaire with an addendum specifically designed to investigate the temporal relationship between commencement of interferon treatment, and headache onset and characteristics. Results: Two hundred seventy-six patients had pre-existing headaches, and 356 experienced de novo headaches. Of 122 patients who experienced headaches before IFN-ß treatment, 55 reported headaches that worsened following onset of IFN-ß treatment. In patients with post-IFN-ß headaches, 329 had headaches that persisted for >3 months, 51 had chronic headaches, and 278 had episodic headaches, and 216 of these patients required preventive therapies. Univariate analysis showed a >6- and an approximately 5-fold increased risk of headache among those treated with intramuscular (IM) INF-ß-1a (OR 6.51; 95% CI: 3.73-10.01; P-value <0.0001) and 44 µg of SC INF-ß-1a (OR 5.44; 95% CI: 3.15-9.37; P-value <0.0001), respectively, compared with that in patients who received 22 µg of SC INF-ß-1a. Conclusion: Interferon-ß therapy aggravated pre-existing headaches and caused primary headaches in patients with MS. Headache risk was greater following treatment with IM INF-ß-1a and 44 µg SC INF-ß-1a.

4.
Mult Scler Relat Disord ; 38: 101873, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31816505

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Despite multiple diagnostic tests, multiple sclerosis (MS) remains a clinical diagnosis with supportive paraclinical evidence. OBJECTIVE: To measure glutamate and nitric oxide serum levels in MS patients during and in between relapses to assess their potential role as biomarkers of disease activity and relapses. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: This cross sectional study was carried out on 70 MS patients and 40 age and sex matched apparently healthy controls. MS patients were divided into 2 groups; group 1 that included thirty MS patients without history of relapse within the last 3 months prior to recruitment and group 2 that included forty MS patients with history of relapse within the last 30 day prior to recruitment. RESULTS: Serum glutamate was significantly higher in group 2 (24.67 ±â€¯9.58 µg/ml) compared to group 1(12.5 ±â€¯4.9 µg/ml) (P value < 0.0001) and apparently healthy controls (3.5 ±â€¯1.3 µg/ml) (P value < 0.0001). Serum nitric oxide was significantly higher in group 2 (84.87 ±â€¯29.6 nmol/µl) than group 1 (41.99 ±â€¯24.2 nmol/µl) (P value < 0.0001) and apparently healthy controls (12.03 ±â€¯3.59 nmol/µl) (P value < 0.0001). Cutoff values of 17.5 µg/ml for glutamate and 75.2 nmol/µl for nitric oxide were found to predict occurrence of a relapse (sensitivity = 70% and 72.5% and specificity= 90% and 93.3% respectively). CONCLUSION: Serum glutamate and nitric oxide can be potential easily-accessible biomarkers of disease activity and relapses in MS patients.

5.
Neurol Res ; 41(7): 644-651, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31025605

RESUMEN

Objectives: The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between cognitive dysfunction, neurodegeneration, and genetic factors among multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. Methods: Fifty patients of definite MS were included. Physical disability was assessed by expanded disability status scale (EDSS). Cognitive functions were assessed by using the Brief International Cognitive Assessment for Multiple Sclerosis (BICAMS). For each eye, optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used to track thickness of retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) and ganglion cell complex (GCC), respecting the previous history of optic neuritis (ON). All patients were genotyped for glutamate N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDARs). Results: A statistically significant negative correlation was found between scores of EDSS and each of neuropsychological tests scores and thickness of both RNFL and GCC. The predictor for progressive disability assessed by EDSS was Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT) (P = 0.021), that is dependent on the educational level of the patients (P = 0.016). A statistically significant positive correlation was found between scores of all neuropsychological tests and the thickness of both RNFL and GCC. Eighty-three percent of MS patients with CC genotype reported previous attacks of ON with significant thinning in RNFL and GCC despite their higher cognitive performance in comparison to other genotypes. Discussion: Deficit in information processing speed measured by SDMT is a predictor of early progressive disability in MS patients. Thinning of RNFL and GCC is a potential biomarker for cognitive and physical disability in MS. The CC genotype of glutamate NMDAR gene has a divergent effect on visual and cognitive functions.


Asunto(s)
Disfunción Cognitiva/psicología , Esclerosis Múltiple/genética , Esclerosis Múltiple/psicología , Proteínas del Tejido Nervioso/genética , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/genética , Adulto , Grupo de Ascendencia Continental Africana/genética , Disfunción Cognitiva/complicaciones , Estudios Transversales , Evaluación de la Discapacidad , Egipto , Femenino , Genotipo , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Esclerosis Múltiple/complicaciones , Esclerosis Múltiple/patología , Fibras Nerviosas/patología , Pruebas Neuropsicológicas , Neuritis Óptica/complicaciones , Neuritis Óptica/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple/genética , Células Ganglionares de la Retina/patología , Tomografía de Coherencia Óptica , Adulto Joven
6.
Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat ; 14: 631-640, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29503547

RESUMEN

Introduction: Although the frequency of pediatric-onset multiple sclerosis (POMS) has increased in recent decades, it is still highly uncommon, which creates a need for the involvement of more registries from various clinical centers. Objective: To characterize the demographic, clinical, and paraclinical features of Egyptian patients with POMS. Patients and methods: A retrospective chart review study was undertaken on 237 Egyptian patients with demyelinating events which started before the age of 18 years who attended one of five tertiary referral centers in Cairo, Egypt. Results: Multiple sclerosis was diagnosed in 186 patients, 47 (25.27%) patients had disease onset before the age of 12 years; "early-onset pediatric multiple sclerosis (EOPMS)". The mean age of disease onset was (14.13±2.49 years), with a female:male ratio of 1.62:1, none of the enrolled patients had a primary progressive course (PPMS), whereas 10 patients (5.38%) had a secondary progressive form. Approximately two-thirds of the patients had monofocal disease onset, and less than 10% presented with encephalopathy; most of them had EOPMS. Motor weakness was the presenting symptom in half of the patients, whereas cerebellar presentation was detected in 34.95%, mainly in EOPMS. Seizures (not related to encephalopathy) were more frequent in those with EOPMS. Initial brain magnetic resonance images were positive in all patients, with detected atypical lesions in 29.03%, enhanced lesions in 35.48%, black holes in 13.98%, and infratentorial in 34.41%. Cervical cord involvement was found in 68.28%. More than two-thirds of the patients received either immunomodulatory or immunosuppressant (IS) treatment throughout their disease course, and about half of them received their treatment within the first year from symptoms onset, with a more favorable outcome, and patients with highly active disease received natalizumab, fingolimod, or other IS. Conclusion: The results from this registry - the largest for MS in the Arab region to date - are comparable to other registries. Immunomodulatory therapies in POMS are well tolerated and efficacious and they can improve the long-term outcome in children.

7.
Neuropsychiatr Dis Treat ; 13: 1895-1903, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28765711

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex autoimmune disease with a heterogeneous presentation and diverse disease course. Recent studies indicate a rising prevalence of MS in the Middle East. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the demographics and disease features of Egyptian patients attending four tertiary referral MS centers in Cairo. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This was a retrospective, observational study on 1,581 patients between 2001 and 2015. Medical records were reviewed and data were identified and extracted in a standardized electronic registry. RESULTS: The mean age of disease onset was 26.6±7.8 years, with the majority being female (2.11:1). Relapsing-remitting MS was the most common type (75.1%). The main presenting symptom was motor weakness (43.9%), which was also the most frequent symptom during the disease course. Family history of MS was found in 2.28%. Higher initial Expanded Disability Status Scale score, black holes, and infratentorial lesions on initial magnetic resonance imaging were independent factors for disease progression by univariate analysis (OR 3.87 [95% CI 1.84-6.51], 4.14 [95% CI 3.08-5.58], 4.07 [95% CI 3.21-4.99], respectively); however, in multivariate analysis, only infratentorial lesions were an independent risk for disease progression (OR 6, 95% CI 2.99-12.02; P=0.0005). CONCLUSION: The results from this registry - the largest for MS in the Arab region to date - are comparable to other registries with slight differences.

8.
J Neurol Sci ; 211(1-2): 15-22, 2003 Jul 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12767492

RESUMEN

Studying the cognitive and immunological changes that occur in old age as well as genetic function have been considered an important subject to differentiate between normal brain aging and early dementia especially Alzheimer's disease. The aim of this study is to stress on age-related neuropsychological and electrophysiological (P(300)) changes in normal Egyptian subjects, to throw light on the value of genetic (Apo-E(4) genotype) and immunological markers [interleukin-6 (IL-6) and intercellular adhesion molecules (ICAM-1) in the serum] as tools used in early detection of cognitive decline in cerebral aging. Ninety-four normal Egyptian subjects (below and above 60 years) were submitted to the following: (1) neuropsychological tests for testing memory, perception, psychomotor performance and attention, (2) Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ) for personality traits, (3) event-related potential study (P(300), latency and amplitude), (4) genetic test for detection of Apolipoprotein E genotype and (5) immunological studies including detection of the level of IL-6 and ICAM-1 in serum. There was a significant impairment of memory, psychomotor performance and perception in elderly subjects particularly males and subjects with low level of education. Regarding personality, significantly high scores were obtained in neuroticism scale of EPQ in elderly subjects. Apo-E(3)/E(3) was the most common genotype encountered in Egyptian subjects (49.1%). It was found that subjects with Apo-E(4) genotype did significantly worse in scores of intentional memory test (sensory memory) when compared with other genotypes. Statistically significant impairment in attention and sensory memory was found in subjects with high IL-6 level. This could not be detected in subjects with high ICAM-1 level. In conclusion, advancing age and lower levels of education are considered risk factors for cognitive decline in normal brain aging. Neuropsychological tests remain as the highly sensitive tools for detection of early cognitive impairment. Neurotic traits are more encountered in old age. Apo-E(4) genotype is associated with significant sensory (intentional) memory impairment. High IL-6 level in the serum is accompanied by significant impairment in attention and sensory (intentional) memory.


Asunto(s)
Envejecimiento/fisiología , Encéfalo/fisiología , Cognición/fisiología , Personalidad/fisiología , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Envejecimiento/genética , Envejecimiento/inmunología , Alergia e Inmunología , Apolipoproteína E4 , Apolipoproteínas E/genética , Atención/fisiología , Encéfalo/inmunología , Educación , Egipto , Electrofisiología/métodos , Potenciales Relacionados con Evento P300/fisiología , Femenino , Genética , Genotipo , Humanos , Molécula 1 de Adhesión Intercelular/sangre , Interleucina-6/sangre , Masculino , Memoria/fisiología , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pruebas Neuropsicológicas , Percepción/fisiología , Personalidad/genética , Desempeño Psicomotor/fisiología , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
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