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1.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 8711, 2019 Jun 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31213631

RESUMEN

A new mechanism is revealed by which a polyphenol, rosmarinic acid (RA), suppresses amyloid ß (Aß) accumulation in mice. Here we examined the brains of mice (Alzheimer's disease model) using DNA microarray analysis and revealed that the dopamine (DA)-signaling pathway was enhanced in the group fed RA versus controls. In the cerebral cortex, the levels of monoamines, such as norepinephrine, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, DA, and levodopa, increased after RA feeding. The expression of DA-degrading enzymes, such as monoamine oxidase B (Maob), was significantly downregulated in the substantia nigra and ventral tegmental area, both DA synthesis regions. Following in vitro studies showing that monoamines inhibited Aß aggregation, this in vivo study, in which RA intake increased concentration of monoamine by reducing Maob gene expression, builds on that knowledge by demonstrating that monoamines suppress Aß aggregation. In conclusion, RA-initiated monoamine increase in the brain may beneficially act against AD.

2.
J Oral Sci ; 61(2): 364-369, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217388

RESUMEN

Although in clinical dentistry the major method used for pain relief is oral administration of analgesics, alternative methods are available, such as transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS), acupuncture, vibration and conditioned pain modulation (CPM), formerly termed diffuse noxious inhibitory control. The aim of the present study was to investigate the combined effects of non-noxious (TENS) and noxious (CPM) stimuli on postoperative pain after extraction of an impacted wisdom tooth. The study involved 44 patients who were scheduled to undergo impacted wisdom tooth extraction. The patients were randomly allocated into four groups: noxious stimuli, non-noxious stimuli, combined noxious and non-noxious stimuli, and a sham group. On the day after tooth extraction, stimulation procedures for pain relief were performed and changes in the level of perceived pain were scored using a visual analog scale (VAS). The combination of non-noxious and noxious stimuli decreased the VAS scores by 63.7%, indicating a more potent analgesic effect than that in the non-noxious, noxious, and sham groups. This method of analgesia using a combination of non-noxious and noxious stimuli can be applied to patients who are unable to tolerate analgesics, such as those with allergy, hypersensitivity or digestive disorders, and those who are pregnant.


Asunto(s)
Diente Impactado , Estimulación Eléctrica Transcutánea del Nervio , Humanos , Manejo del Dolor , Dolor Postoperatorio , Extracción Dental
3.
PLoS One ; 14(5): e0217212, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31120929

RESUMEN

The endosperm cell wall affects post-harvest grain quality by affecting the mechanical fragility and water absorption of the grain. Therefore, understanding the mechanism underlying endosperm cell wall synthesis is important for determining the growth and quality of cereals. However, the molecular machinery mediating endosperm cell wall biosynthesis is not well understood. In this study, we investigated the role of Oryza sativa Brittle Culm 1-like 6 (OsBC1L6), a member of the COBRA-like protein family, in cellulose synthesis in rice. OsBC1L6 mRNA was expressed in ripening seeds during endosperm enlargement. When OsBC1L6-RFP was expressed in Arabidopsis cell cultures, this fusion protein was transported to the plasma membrane. To investigate the target molecules of OsBC1L6, we analyzed the binding interactions of OsBC1L6 with cellohexaose and the analogs using surface plasmon resonance, determining that cellohexaose bound to OsBC1L6. The ß-glucan contents were significantly reduced in OsBC1L6-RNAi calli and OsBC1L6-deficient seeds from a Tos insertion mutant, compared to their wild-type counterparts. These findings suggest that OsBC1L6 modulates ß-glucan synthesis during endosperm cell wall formation by interacting with cellulose moieties on the plasma membrane during seed ripening.

4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 20(3)2019 Feb 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30720745

RESUMEN

Drug repositioning promises the advantages of reducing costs and expediting approvalschedules. An induction of the anesthetic and sedative drug; midazolam (MDZ), regulatesinhibitory neurotransmitters in the vertebrate nervous system. In this study we show the potentialfor drug repositioning of MDZ for dentin regeneration. A porcine dental pulp-derived cell line(PPU-7) that we established was cultured in MDZ-only, the combination of MDZ with bonemorphogenetic protein 2, and the combination of MDZ with transforming growth factor-beta 1. Thedifferentiation of PPU-7 into odontoblasts was investigated at the cell biological and genetic level.Mineralized nodules formed in PPU-7 were characterized at the protein and crystal engineeringlevels. The MDZ-only treatment enhanced the alkaline phosphatase activity and mRNA levels ofodontoblast differentiation marker genes, and precipitated nodule formation containing a dentinspecificprotein (dentin phosphoprotein). The nodules consisted of randomly orientedhydroxyapatite nanorods and nanoparticles. The morphology, orientation, and chemicalcomposition of the hydroxyapatite crystals were similar to those of hydroxyapatite that hadtransformed from amorphous calcium phosphate nanoparticles, as well as the hydroxyapatite inhuman molar dentin. Our investigation showed that a combination of MDZ and PPU-7 cellspossesses high potential of drug repositioning for dentin regeneration.


Asunto(s)
Dentina/efectos de los fármacos , Reposicionamiento de Medicamentos , Midazolam/farmacología , Regeneración , Animales , Proteína Morfogenética Ósea 2/farmacología , Proteína Morfogenética Ósea 2/uso terapéutico , Línea Celular , Dentina/fisiología , Midazolam/uso terapéutico , Odontoblastos , Porcinos , Factor de Crecimiento Transformador beta1/farmacología , Factor de Crecimiento Transformador beta1/uso terapéutico
5.
Nagoya J Med Sci ; 80(4): 465-473, 2018 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30587861

RESUMEN

To minimise the global burden of diabetes, the awareness of appropriate intervention methods for diabetes education and practice is essential. This project is the first international interprofessional education (IIPE) for the awareness of diabetes, with a focus on patient-centred care wherein three medical and four pharmacy students from Japan and one medical, two pharmacy, two nutrition and one occupational therapy (OT) student from Scotland participated. We described IIPE effects using interdisciplinary education perception scale (IEPS) before and after the programme among Scottish and Japanese students. University of Aberdeen/ Robert Gordon University and Nagoya University developed and established a shared online platform that provided knowledge to students on diabetes in both languages. We developed a case-based scenario that reflected diabetes care in each country using a standardised patient (SP). Lastly, a student-led live webinar was conducted on 14 November 2014 (the World Diabetes Day) to discuss and exchange care methods for SP. Each participating national team presented their care plan and all students discussed the diabetic care plan online. Both Japanese and Scottish teams were able to accurately assess the patient's condition and empathise with the SP. In conclusion, all participants learned that interprofessional collaboration was clearly required for diabetes management focused on patient-centred care. All participants appreciated the differences in the approach of the two countries involved because of the cultural- and health related differences. This programme was significant in raising awareness regarding the need for international interprofessional intervention on diabetes towards developing a model for live webinar IIPE.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Estudios Interdisciplinarios , Atención Dirigida al Paciente/métodos , Humanos , Japón , Grupo de Atención al Paciente , Escocia , Difusión por la Web como Asunto
6.
JCI Insight ; 3(24)2018 12 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30568036

RESUMEN

White adipose tissue (WAT) can dynamically expand and remodel through adipocyte hypertrophy and hyperplasia. The relative contribution of these 2 mechanisms to WAT expansion is a critical determinant of WAT function and dysfunction in obesity. However, little is known about the signaling systems that determine the mechanisms of WAT expansion. Here, we show that the GPCR LPA4 selectively activates Gα12/13 proteins in adipocytes and limits continuous remodeling and healthy expansion of WAT. LPA4-KO mice showed enhanced expression of mitochondrial and adipogenesis genes and reduced levels of inhibitory phosphorylation of PPARγ in WAT, along with increased production of adiponectin. Furthermore, LPA4-KO mice showed metabolically healthy obese phenotypes in a diet-induced obesity model, with continuous WAT expansion, as well as protection from WAT inflammation, hepatosteatosis, and insulin resistance. These findings unravel a potentially new signaling system that underlies WAT plasticity and expandability, providing a promising therapeutic approach for obesity-related metabolic disorders.


Asunto(s)
Tejido Adiposo/metabolismo , Subunidades alfa de la Proteína de Unión al GTP G12-G13/metabolismo , Obesidad/metabolismo , Receptores Purinérgicos/metabolismo , Expansión de Tejido/métodos , Adipocitos/metabolismo , Adipogénesis/genética , Adiponectina/metabolismo , Tejido Adiposo/patología , Tejido Adiposo Blanco/metabolismo , Animales , Dieta Alta en Grasa , Modelos Animales de Enfermedad , Fibroblastos , Regulación de la Expresión Génica , Prueba de Tolerancia a la Glucosa , Insulina/metabolismo , Resistencia a la Insulina , Masculino , Ratones , Ratones Endogámicos C57BL , Ratones Noqueados , Mitocondrias/metabolismo , Obesidad/genética , Obesidad/patología , PPAR gamma/metabolismo , Fosforilación , Receptores Purinérgicos/genética , Transducción de Señal
7.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; : e1800543, 2018 Nov 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30411492

RESUMEN

SCOPE: A previous study demonstrated that intake of olive pomace extract containing maslinic acid (MA), a triterpene, effectively prevents and alleviates arthritis in animals and humans. Here, the molecular mechanisms involved in the anti-arthritis effect of MA have been elucidated by determining gene expression changes induced by olive-derived MA intake in collagen antibody-induced arthritis (CAIA) mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: Mice are divided into the untreated (CT), CAIA (CA), and CAIA administered MA (CA + MA) groups. The CA + MA mice are fed MA at a daily dose of 200 mg kg-1 of body weight from day 1. CAIA is then induced on day 8 and evaluated on day 12. Arthritis symptoms are alleviated, and the gene expression of inflammatory cytokines is reduced in the CA + MA group compared with the CA group. A DNA microarray analysis of synovial membranes reveals that MA alters the expression levels of genes related to inflammation, including glucocorticoid responses, immune responses, and the extracellular matrix. CONCLUSIONS: The preventive effect of MA on arthritis is attributable to the promotion of tissue formation as well as suppression of inflammation in the synovium via inactivation of Toll-like receptor signaling and downregulation of leukotrienes through the glucocorticoid receptor.

8.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem ; : 1-8, 2018 Oct 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30343635

RESUMEN

The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC) plays a pivotal role in sodium homeostasis, and the development of drugs that modulate ENaC activity is of great potential therapeutic relevance. We screened 6100 chemicals for their ability to activate sodium permeability of ENaC. We used a two-step strategy: a high throughput cell-based assay and an electrophysiological assay. Five compounds were identified showing common structural features including an indole or benzothiophene ring. ENaC consists of three subunits: α, ß, and γ. Changing the heteromeric combination of human and mouse ENaC αßγ subunits, we found that all five compounds activated the human ß subunit but not the mouse subunit. However, four of them exhibited lower activity when the human γ subunit was substituted by the mouse γ subunit. Our findings provide a structural basis for designing human ENaC activity modulators. Abbreviations: ENaC: Epithelial sodium channel; ΔRFU: delta relative fluorescence units; EC50: Half-maximal effective concentration; Emax: maximum effect value.

9.
Food Sci Nutr ; 6(6): 1657-1663, 2018 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30258609

RESUMEN

Scope: Previously, we showed that the intake of a persimmon peel (PP) extract altered hepatic gene expression associated with the insulin signaling pathway and enhanced tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptors in nonobese type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of fat-soluble PP extract on obese type 2 diabetic KK-Ay mice with insulin resistance. Methods and results: KK-Ay mice were fed a diet mixed with 0.1% of the extract for 8 weeks. The total ketone body levels in the plasma of PP extract-fed mice were significantly lower than those in the normal diet-fed mice. Hepatic nonesterified palmitic acid content was higher in the PP extract-fed mice than in normal diet-fed mice. The hepatic gene expression profiles of the treated mice indicated upregulation of fatty acid synthesis and downregulation of inflammation-associated genes, predicting SREBP-1c and PPARγ activation. Conclusion: These results suggest that the PP extract enhances hepatic fatty acid synthesis via SREBP-1c and PPARγ, as well as anti-inflammatory activity in KK-Ay mice.

10.
Mod Pathol ; 2018 Sep 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30206406

RESUMEN

Adenocarcinoma within anorectal fistulae is rare and is sometimes associated with Crohn's disease. Crohn's disease-associated adenocarcinoma within anorectal fistulae has a poor prognosis; however, little is known about the clinicopathological differences between Crohn's disease-associated adenocarcinoma within anorectal fistulae and usual adenocarcinoma within anorectal fistulae. We retrospectively searched patients' charts and pathology archives at Tokyo Yamate Medical Center and Tokyo Medical and Dental University Hospital for adenocarcinoma within anorectal fistulae. Clinical and pathological data were collected and immunohistochemical examinations were conducted. Overall survival rate was estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method. Prognostic factors of overall survival were assessed using univariate and multivariate Cox regression analyses. We examined 82 cases of adenocarcinoma within anorectal fistulae. Fifty-nine of 82 cases (72%) had usual adenocarcinoma within anorectal fistulae, while the remaining 23 cases (28%) had Crohn's disease-associated adenocarcinoma within anorectal fistulae. Patients with Crohn's disease-associated adenocarcinoma within anorectal fistulae were diagnosed at a younger age and at a more advanced stage than those with usual adenocarcinoma within anorectal fistulae. Macroscopic and histological types were also different between usual adenocarcinoma within anorectal fistulae and Crohn's disease-associated adenocarcinoma within anorectal fistulae. Crohn's disease-associated adenocarcinoma within anorectal fistulae included more ulcerative types and high-grade adenocarcinomas. The rate of lymphovascular invasion was higher in Crohn's disease-associated adenocarcinoma within anorectal fistulae. Immunohistochemically, the expression of E-cadherin, p53, and MUC5AC differed between usual adenocarcinoma within anorectal fistulae and Crohn's disease-associated adenocarcinoma within anorectal fistulae. Patients with Crohn's disease-associated adenocarcinoma within anorectal fistulae exhibited worse overall survival than those with usual adenocarcinoma within anorectal fistulae, and vascular invasion was the strongest significant independent predictor of overall survival in patients with adenocarcinoma within anorectal fistulae. In conclusion, usual adenocarcinoma within anorectal fistulae and Crohn's disease-associated adenocarcinoma within anorectal fistulae have different clinicopathological characteristics and should be considered separate clinical entities.

11.
Anesth Prog ; 65(2): 76-81, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29952641

RESUMEN

We retrospectively investigated the efficacy and safety of propofol administration alone and in combination with midazolam for gag reflex suppression during dental treatment under intravenous sedation. We included 56 patients with an overactive gag reflex who were to undergo dental treatment under intravenous sedation. They were divided into propofol (P group, n = 22) and midazolam with propofol (MP group, n = 34) groups. The P group received propofol alone, while the MP group received midazolam (0.04 mg/kg) prior to target-controlled infusion (TCI) of propofol (titrated for adequate sedation). The patients' anesthetic records were evaluated for vital sign changes, adverse cardiovascular or respiratory event frequency, the number of forced treatment interruptions, and the TCI-predicted cerebral propofol concentration at gag reflex suppression (posterior tongue stimulation with a dental mirror). No significant differences were observed between the 2 groups preoperatively. There were no cases of forced interruptions or significant respiratory compromise in either group. Cardiovascular adverse event frequency was lower in the MP group than in the P group (all p < .05). Our results suggest that propofol, when combined with midazolam, minimized cardiovascular effects compared with propofol alone when used to suppress the gag reflex in patients during dental treatment under intravenous sedation.

12.
Mol Nutr Food Res ; 62(12): e1700828, 2018 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29663642

RESUMEN

SCOPE: Wakame is an edible seaweed that is a common constituent in the Japanese diet. Previous studies showed that wakame consumption is associated with the prevention of metabolic syndrome, but the molecular mechanisms underlying the protective effects are poorly understood. METHODS AND RESULTS: To determine if the expression of hepatic genes is affected by ingestion of the brown seaweed Undaria pinnatifida (wakame), rats were fed a diet containing 0, 0.1, or 1.0 g per 100 g dried wakame powder for 28 days. Administration of 1% wakame significantly decreased serum total cholesterol levels. Hepatic gene expression was investigated using DNA microarray analysis, and the results showed that wakame suppresses the lipogenic pathway by downregulating SREBF-1. Moreover, bile acid biosynthesis and gluconeogenesis were promoted by upregulation of the PPAR signaling pathway, which leads to a reduction in the accumulation of cholesterol and promotion of ß-oxidation. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that wakame ingestion affects glucose and lipid metabolism by altering the expression of SREBF-1 and PPAR signal-related genes.

13.
BMC Med Educ ; 18(1): 47, 2018 Mar 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29587725

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: It is known that empathic communication is important for physicians to achieve higher patient satisfaction and health outcomes. Emotional intelligence (EI), empathy and personality in medical students predict students' individual disposition and their emotional and empathic perceptions. This study aimed to investigate: 1) The association between empathy, EI and personality, and 2) Gender differences in the association between empathy, EI and personality. METHOD: Participants were 357 1st year medical students from 2008 to 2011 at one medical school in Japan. Students completed self-report questionnaires comprising three validated instruments measuring EI: Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Short Form (TEIQue-SF), empathy: Jefferson Scale of Physician Empathy- student version (JSPE) and personality: NEO-Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), which explores 5 dimensions of personality Neuroticism (N), Extraversion (E), Openness to experience (O), Agreeableness (A), and Conscientiousness (C). RESULTS: Pearson Correlations showed weak association between TEIQue-SF and JSPE. TEIQue-SF and NEO-FFI showed positive correlation for E and C, and strong negative correlation for N and weak positive correlation for A and O. Weak positive correlation between JSPE and the NEO-FFI were observed for E and A. Although effect sizes were small, N, A and empathy were significantly higher in females (unpaired t-test). However, hierarchical multiple-regression analysis when controlling for gender and personality showed no association between EI, empathy and gender. A, TEIQue-SF and N were found to make small contributions in respect of predictions for JSPE. Personality contributed significantly to the prediction of TEIQue-SF. N had the largest independent negative contribution (ß = - 0,38). CONCLUSION: In our study population of 1st year medical students, females had significantly higher N, A and empathy scores than males. Medical students' N score was strongly negatively associated with EI. Empathy was weakly associated with EI and A. However, when controlling gender and personality in regression analysis, gender did not affect EI and empathy, rather personality is the most important factor. Our findings indicate that N is a major factor that negatively affects EI. It is important to mitigate N using thoughtful training, taking into account students' personalities, to reduce N. In future studies, we will assess how communication trainings for students might enhance EI.


Asunto(s)
Inteligencia Emocional , Empatía , Personalidad , Estudiantes de Medicina/psicología , Femenino , Humanos , Japón , Masculino , Satisfacción del Paciente , Autoinforme , Factores Sexuales , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
14.
Biochem Biophys Res Commun ; 498(3): 621-626, 2018 04 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29524403

RESUMEN

Mastication enhances brain function and mental health, but little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of mastication on neural development in early childhood. Therefore, we analysed the gene expression in juvenile neural circuits in rats fed with a soft or chow diet immediately after weaning. We observed that the gene expression patterns in the thalamus varied depending on the diet. Furthermore, gene ontology analysis revealed that two terms were significantly enhanced: chemical synaptic transmission and positive regulation of dendritic spine morphogenesis. With respect to chemical synaptic transmission, glutamate decarboxylase and GABA receptors were upregulated in the chow diet group. The related genes, including vesicular GABA transporter, were also upregulated, suggesting that mastication activates GABAergic signalling. With respect to dendritic spine morphogenesis, Ingenuity Pathway Analysis predicted fewer extension of neurites and neurons and fewer number of branches in the chow diet group. The numbers of spines in the ventral posterolateral and posteromedial regions were significantly decreased. These results suggest that mastication in the early developing period upregulates GABAergic signalling genes, with a decrease of spines in the thalamus.


Asunto(s)
Espinas Dendríticas/fisiología , Masticación , Transducción de Señal , Tálamo/fisiología , Ácido gamma-Aminobutírico/metabolismo , Alimentación Animal/análisis , Animales , Espinas Dendríticas/genética , Espinas Dendríticas/ultraestructura , Proteínas Transportadoras de GABA en la Membrana Plasmática/genética , Proteínas Transportadoras de GABA en la Membrana Plasmática/metabolismo , Regulación del Desarrollo de la Expresión Génica , Glutamato Descarboxilasa/genética , Glutamato Descarboxilasa/metabolismo , Masculino , Neurogénesis , Ratas , Ratas Wistar , Receptores de GABA/genética , Receptores de GABA/metabolismo , Transmisión Sináptica , Tálamo/crecimiento & desarrollo , Transcriptoma , Regulación hacia Arriba , Destete , Ácido gamma-Aminobutírico/genética
15.
Biosci Biotechnol Biochem ; 82(4): 573-583, 2018 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29316856

RESUMEN

In Japan, where a super-aging society is realized, we are most concerned about healthy longevity, which would ascertain the wellness of people by improving their quality of life (QOL). In 2014, the Cabinet Office proposed a strategic innovation promotion programme, launching a national project for the development of the agricultural-forestry-fisheries food products with new functionalities for the next generation. In addition to focusing on a conventional prevention of lifestyle-associated metabolic syndromes, the project targets the scientific evidence of the activation of brain cognitive ability and the improvement of bodily locomotive function. The project also involves the analysis of the foods-sports interrelation of chronic importance, and the development of devices for the verification of QOL-associated maintenance of homeostasis. In this review, we provide an overview of these studies, with special reference to cognition as a case of the gut-brain axis which the author is particularly interested in.


Asunto(s)
Cognición/fisiología , Alimentos Funcionales , Locomoción/fisiología , Envejecimiento , Animales , Encéfalo/fisiología , Metabolismo Energético , Ejercicio , Homeostasis , Humanos , Intestinos/fisiología , Japón , Estilo de Vida , Enfermedades Metabólicas/fisiopatología , Enfermedades Metabólicas/prevención & control , Ratones , Desarrollo de Programa , Calidad de Vida
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 18(11)2017 Nov 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29113076

RESUMEN

Given the abundance of stroke patients and deaths from stroke worldwide, many studies concerning the aftermath of stroke are being carried out. To reveal the precise effect of ischemic infarction, we conducted a comprehensive gene expression analysis. Alongside a middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) Sprague-Dawley rat model, we used a group undergoing sham surgery for comparison, which was the same as MCAO surgery but without blood vessel occlusion. Subsequently, infarction of the brains of MCAO-treated rats occurred, but did not occur in the sham-treated rats. Using whole blood, we carried out DNA microarray analysis, revealing the gene expression alterations caused by stroke. Downregulation of immune pathways and cluster of differentiation (CD) molecules indicated immunodepression. By conducting miRNA microarray analysis, we extracted seven miRNAs as significantly regulated: miR-107-5p, miR-383-5p, miR-24-1-5p, mir-191b, miR-196b-5p, and miR-3552 were upregulated, and mir-194-1 was downregulated. Among these seven miRNAs, three had one target mRNA each that was extracted as differentially expressed, and the expression levels of all pairs were inversely correlated. This indicates the occurrence of miRNA-mRNA regulatory systems in blood: between miR-107-5p and H2A histone family member Z (H2afz), miR-196b-5p and protein tyrosine phosphatase receptor type C (Ptprc), and miR-3552 and serine/arginine-rich splicing factor 2 (Srsf2). Moreover, six miRNAs had matching human miRNAs with similar sequences, which are potential human stroke biomarkers.


Asunto(s)
Infarto de la Arteria Cerebral Media/sangre , MicroARNs/genética , ARN Mensajero/genética , Animales , Biomarcadores/sangre , Regulación hacia Abajo , Histonas/genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Infarto de la Arteria Cerebral Media/genética , Infarto de la Arteria Cerebral Media/metabolismo , Antígenos Comunes de Leucocito/genética , Antígenos Comunes de Leucocito/metabolismo , Masculino , MicroARNs/sangre , MicroARNs/metabolismo , ARN Mensajero/sangre , ARN Mensajero/metabolismo , Ratas , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Factores de Empalme Serina-Arginina/genética , Factores de Empalme Serina-Arginina/metabolismo
17.
Sci Rep ; 7(1): 13510, 2017 Oct 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29044140

RESUMEN

It has previously been shown that the consumption of probiotics may have beneficial effects not only on peripheral tissues but also on the central nervous system and behavior via the microbiota-gut-brain axis, raising the possibility that treatment with probiotics could be an effective therapeutic strategy for managing neurodegenerative disorders. In this study, we investigated the effects of oral administration of Bifidobacterium breve strain A1 (B. breve A1) on behavior and physiological processes in Alzheimer's disease (AD) model mice. We found that administration of B. breve A1 to AD mice reversed the impairment of alternation behavior in a Y maze test and the reduced latency time in a passive avoidance test, indicating that it prevented cognitive dysfunction. We also demonstrated that non-viable components of the bacterium or its metabolite acetate partially ameliorated the cognitive decline observed in AD mice. Gene profiling analysis revealed that the consumption of B. breve A1 suppressed the hippocampal expressions of inflammation and immune-reactive genes that are induced by amyloid-ß. Together, these findings suggest that B. breve A1 has therapeutic potential for preventing cognitive impairment in AD.

18.
Oral Maxillofac Surg ; 21(3): 313-319, 2017 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28584916

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: This retrospective study investigated the relationship between the degree of neurosensory disturbance (NSD) and mandibular movement distance after sagittal split ramus osteotomy (SSRO) and assessed sensory recovery. METHODS: Lower lip hypoesthesia was evaluated at 1 week, 1 month, and 2 months after SSRO in 38 patients categorized according to the distance of mandibular movement: S group (0-7 mm; n = 17, 4 males and 13 females) and L group (7-14 mm; n = 21, 7 males, 14 females). Symptoms were evaluated by visual analog scale (VAS), tactile-threshold (SW) test, static 2-point discrimination (s-2PD) test, and current perception threshold (CPT) test. RESULTS: The two groups did not differ significantly in gender and age. The Aß fiber results of the CPT test differed significantly between the groups at 1 week and 1 month postsurgery (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences between the groups throughout the period in terms of VAS, SW, s-2PD, Aδ fiber, and C fiber of CPT. CONCLUSIONS: Post-SSRO, the incidence of NSD in terms of tactile sensation may be greater in the L group early postoperatively. This may assist surgeons in explaining postoperative hypoesthesia to patients preoperatively.

19.
Neurosci Lett ; 653: 314-319, 2017 Jul 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28595953

RESUMEN

Some odorants have physiological and psychological effects on organisms. However, little is known about the effects of inhaling them, particularly on the central nervous system. Using DNA microarray analysis, we obtained gene expression profiles of the hypothalamus from restraint stressed rats exposed to racemic (R,S)-linalool. Hierarchical clustering across all probe sets showed that this inhalation of (R,S)-linalool influenced the expression levels of a wide range of genes in the hypothalamus. A comparison of transcription levels revealed that the inhalation of (R,S)-linalool restored the expression of 560 stress-induced probe sets to a normal status. Gene Ontology (GO) analysis showed that these genes were associated with synaptic transmission via neurotransmitters including anxiolytic neuropeptides such as oxytocin and neuropeptide Y. These genes also included several major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules necessary for neural development and plasticity. Moreover, Upstream Regulator Analysis predicted that the hormone prolactin would be activated by the inhalation of (R,S)-linalool under stress. Our results reveal some of the molecular mechanisms associated with odor inhalation in the hypothalamus in organisms under stress.


Asunto(s)
Expresión Génica/efectos de los fármacos , Genes MHC Clase I/efectos de los fármacos , Hipotálamo/efectos de los fármacos , Monoterpenos/farmacología , Neuropéptido Y/efectos de los fármacos , Oxitocina/efectos de los fármacos , Estrés Psicológico/metabolismo , Administración por Inhalación , Animales , Masculino , Monoterpenos/administración & dosificación , Ratas , Ratas Wistar , Restricción Física , Regulación hacia Arriba
20.
Yakugaku Zasshi ; 137(6): 733-744, 2017.
Artículo en Japonés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28566579

RESUMEN

Collaboration with multiple healthcare professionals is important to provide safer and higher quality care. Interprofessional education (IPE) promotes the practice of team-based care. The establishment of Tsurumai-Meijo IPE, including interprofessional education and practice (IPEP) and video-teaching materials, was conducted in collaboration with school of medicine/nursing in Nagoya University and Fujita Health University, because Meijo University does not have its own clinical settings and faculties except for pharmacy. In the established Tsurumai-Meijo IPE, pharmacy, medicine, and nursing students interviewed simulated patients (SP) together or separately and practiced team-based care through Tsurumai-Meijo IPEP. Students could learn in advance and on their own about each professional's knowledge related to patient care by using video-teaching materials from the Meijo IPE homepage. Using a questionnaire survey at the end of program, this study was examined whether Tsurumai-Meijo IPEP, and video-teaching materials were useful for understanding importance of team-based care. More than 83% of students indicated that Tsurumai-Meijo IPE is useful on future clinical practice. This suggests that the program and materials are beneficial to the medical student education. In the optional survey of some clinical pharmacists, who had participated in Tsurumai-Meijo IPE before graduation, they utilized it in their work and it facilitated their work related to team-based care. Tsurumai-Meijo IPE collaborating with SP is likely to contribute to provide high quality and safe team-based care by taking advantage of specialized professional ability of healthcare professionals.


Asunto(s)
Educación Médica/métodos , Educación en Enfermería/métodos , Educación en Farmacia/métodos , Colaboración Intersectorial , Simulación de Paciente , Competencia Clínica , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Grupo de Atención al Paciente , Calidad de la Atención de Salud , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Materiales de Enseñanza , Grabación de Cinta de Video
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