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1.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(5): e19017, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32000446

RESUMEN

O-(2-[F]fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine positron-emission tomography/computed tomography (F-FET PET/CT) is well known in brain tumor management. Our study aimed to identify the prognostic value of F-FET PET/CT in high-grade gliomas (HGG) according the current 2016 World Health Organization (WHO) classification.Patients with histologically proven WHO 2016 HGG were prospectively included. A dynamic F-FET PET/CT was performed allowing to obtain 2 static PET frames (static frame 1: 20-40 minutes and static frame 2: 2-22 minutes). We analyzed static parameters (standard uptake value [SUV]max, SUVmean, SUVpeak, TBRmax, TBRmean, tumoral lesion glycolysis, and metabolic tumoral volume) for various isocontours (from 10% to 90%). PET parameters, clinical features, and molecular biomarkers were compared with progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in univariate and multivariate analysis.Twenty-nine patients were included (grade III n = 3, grade IV n = 26). Mean PFS and OS were, respectively, 8.8 and 13.9 months. According to univariate analysis, SUVmean, SUVpeak, TBRmax, and TBRmean were significantly correlated with OS. In static 1 analysis, TBRmax seemed to be the best OS prognostic parameter (P = .004). In static 2 analysis, TBRmean was the best parameter (P = .01). In static 1 analysis, only SUVpeak was significant (P = .05) for PFS. Good performance status (PS < 2; P < .0001) and extent of resection (P = .019) identified the subgroup of patients with the best OS. Only TBRmax (P = .026) and extent of resection (P = .025) remained significant parameters in multivariate analysis.Our data suggested that high TBRmax seemed to be the most significant OS independent prognostic factor in patients with newly diagnosed HGG.


Asunto(s)
Glioma/diagnóstico por imagen , Tomografía Computarizada por Tomografía de Emisión de Positrones , Medios de Contraste , Femenino , Glioma/patología , Glioma/cirugía , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Clasificación del Tumor , Pronóstico , Estudios Prospectivos , Radiofármacos , Tasa de Supervivencia , Tirosina/análogos & derivados
2.
Cancer Med ; 9(7): 2309-2316, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32022459

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The KEYNOTE-024 trial demonstrated that pembrolizumab, a PD-1 inhibitor, significantly improves progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in selected patients with previously untreated advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) with a PD-L1 tumor proportion score (TPS) ≥50% and without EGFR/ALK aberrations. The main aim of this study was to report the efficacy and safety profile of pembrolizumab in real-life conditions. METHOD: This was a French retrospective multicenter longitudinal study of 108 consecutive patients with advanced NSCLC, a PD-L1 TPS ≥50% and without EGFR/ALK aberrations who were treated by pembrolizumab, in first line. Patient data were obtained from medical files. RESULTS: The main characteristics of the cohort were: median age [range] 66.7 [37-87] years, 64.8% male, 23.1% with a performance status (PS) of 2, and 88.9% current or former smokers. Eighty-seven percent had stage IV NSCLC at diagnosis, 9.2% untreated brain metastases at inclusion,. With a median follow-up of 8.2 months, the median PFS was 10.1 months (95% CI, 8.8-11.4). The objective response rate was 57.3% (complete response 2.7%, partial response 54.6%). Disease control rate was 71.1%. At 6 months, the OS rate estimated was 86.2%. Treatment-related adverse events (AE) of grade 3 occurred in 8% of patients. There were no grade 4 or 5 AEs. CONCLUSION: In a real-life cohort of advanced NSCLC patients (including PS 2 and untreated brain metastases), with PD-L1 TPS ≥50%, pembrolizumab demonstrates similar PFS to the pivotal clinical trial.

3.
J Nucl Cardiol ; 2020 Jan 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31898004

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Hybrid PET/MR imaging has significant potential in cardiology due to its combination of molecular PET imaging and cardiac MR. Multi-tissue-class MR-based attenuation correction (MRAC) is necessary for accurate PET quantification. Moreover, for thoracic PET imaging, respiration is known to lead to misalignments of MRAC and PET data that result in PET artifacts. These factors can be addressed by using multi-echo MR for tissue segmentation and motion-robust or motion-gated acquisitions. However, the combination of these strategies is not routinely available and can be prone to errors. In this study, we examine the qualitative and quantitative impacts of multi-class MRAC compared to a more widely available simple two-class MRAC for cardiac PET/MR. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a cohort of patients with cardiac sarcoidosis, we acquired MRAC data using multi-echo radial gradient-echo MR imaging. Water-fat separation was used to produce attenuation maps with up to 4 tissue classes including water-based soft tissue, fat, lung, and background air. Simultaneously acquired 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose PET data were subsequently reconstructed using each attenuation map separately. PET uptake values were measured in the myocardium and compared between different PET images. The inclusion of lung and subcutaneous fat in the MRAC maps significantly affected the quantification of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose activity in the myocardium but only moderately altered the appearance of the PET image without introduction of image artifacts. CONCLUSION: Optimal MRAC for cardiac PET/MR applications should include segmentation of all tissues in combination with compensation for the respiratory-related motion of the heart. Simple two-class MRAC is adequate for qualitative clinical assessment.

4.
Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging ; 47(1): 28-50, 2020 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31637482

RESUMEN

Positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) is a nuclear medicine functional imaging technique with proven clinical value in oncology. PET/CT indications are continually evolving with fresh advances made through research. French practice on the use of PET in oncology was framed in recommendations based on Standards-Options-Recommendations methodology and coordinated by the French federation of Comprehensive Cancer Centres (FNLCC). The recommendations were originally issued in 2002 followed by an update in 2003, but since then, a huge number of scientific papers have been published and new tracers have been licenced for market release. The aim of this work is to bring the 2003 version recommendations up to date. For this purpose, a focus group was set up in collaboration with the French Society for Nuclear Medicine (SFMN) to work on developing good clinical practice recommendations. These good clinical practice recommendations have been awarded joint French National Heath Authority (HAS) and French Cancer Institute (INCa) label status-the stamp of methodological approval. The present document is the outcome of comprehensive literature review and rigorous appraisal by a panel of experts, organ specialists, clinical oncologists, surgeons and imaging specialists. These data were also used for the EANM referral guidelines.

5.
Clin Nucl Med ; 45(2): 127-128, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31876811

RESUMEN

Paclitaxel-ramucirumab chemotherapy is indicated in second line of metastatic gastroesophageal junction cancer (mGEJC) after progression under platinum-5-FU chemotherapy. Nevertheless, the reported common response after treatment is only partial within series. To date, only 1 case report of negative posttreatment FDG PET/CT was published without baseline examination from RAINBOW trial. We illustrated the interest of FDG PET/CT to evaluate treatment especially paclitaxel-ramucirumab with 2 examples of complete metabolic responses in 2 patients having different HER2 biomarker profiles of mGEJC. As illustrated, FDG PET/CT emerges as a useful approach for therapeutic assessment of targeted drugs in mGEJC.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Monoclonales Humanizados/farmacología , Neoplasias Esofágicas/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias Esofágicas/metabolismo , Unión Esofagogástrica/diagnóstico por imagen , Fluorodesoxiglucosa F18 , Paclitaxel/farmacología , Tomografía Computarizada por Tomografía de Emisión de Positrones , Anticuerpos Monoclonales Humanizados/uso terapéutico , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/farmacología , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapéutico , Neoplasias Esofágicas/diagnóstico por imagen , Neoplasias Esofágicas/patología , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Paclitaxel/uso terapéutico
6.
J Nucl Cardiol ; 2019 Oct 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31667675

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The standard MR Dixon-based attenuation correction (AC) method in positron emission tomography/magnetic resonance (PET/MR) imaging segments only the air, lung, fat and soft-tissues (4-class), thus neglecting the highly attenuating bone tissues and affecting quantification in bones and adjacent vessels. We sought to address this limitation by utilizing the distinctively high bone uptake rate constant Ki expected from 18F-Sodium Fluoride (18F-NaF) to segment bones from PET data and support 5-class hybrid PET/MR-driven AC for 18F-NaF and 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) PET/MR cardiovascular imaging. METHODS: We introduce 5-class Ki/MR-AC for (i) 18F-NaF studies where the bones are segmented from Patlak Ki images and added as the 5th tissue class to the MR Dixon 4-class AC map. Furthermore, we propose two alternative dual-tracer protocols to permit 5-class Ki/MR-AC for (ii) 18F-FDG-only data, with a streamlined simultaneous administration of 18F-FDG and 18F-NaF at 4:1 ratio (R4:1), or (iii) for 18F-FDG-only or both 18F-FDG and 18F-NaF dual-tracer data, by administering 18F-NaF 90 minutes after an equal 18F-FDG dosage (R1:1). The Ki-driven bone segmentation was validated against computed tomography (CT)-based segmentation in rabbits, followed by PET/MR validation on 108 vertebral bone and carotid wall regions in 16 human volunteers with and without prior indication of carotid atherosclerosis disease (CAD). RESULTS: In rabbits, we observed similar (< 1.2% mean difference) vertebral bone 18F-NaF SUVmean scores when applying 5-class AC with Ki-segmented bone (5-class Ki/CT-AC) vs CT-segmented bone (5-class CT-AC) tissue. Considering the PET data corrected with continuous CT-AC maps as gold-standard, the percentage SUVmean bias was reduced by 17.6% (18F-NaF) and 15.4% (R4:1) with 5-class Ki/CT-AC vs 4-class CT-AC. In humans without prior CAD indication, we reported 17.7% and 20% higher 18F-NaF target-to-background ratio (TBR) at carotid bifurcations wall and vertebral bones, respectively, with 5- vs 4-class AC. In the R4:1 human cohort, the mean 18F-FDG:18F-NaF TBR increased by 12.2% at carotid bifurcations wall and 19.9% at vertebral bones. For the R1:1 cohort of subjects without CAD indication, mean TBR increased by 15.3% (18F-FDG) and 15.5% (18F-NaF) at carotid bifurcations and 21.6% (18F-FDG) and 22.5% (18F-NaF) at vertebral bones. Similar TBR enhancements were observed when applying the proposed AC method to human subjects with prior CAD indication. CONCLUSIONS: Ki-driven bone segmentation and 5-class hybrid PET/MR-driven AC is feasible and can significantly enhance 18F-NaF and 18F-FDG contrast and quantification in bone tissues and carotid walls.

7.
J Nucl Med ; 2019 Nov 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31732678

RESUMEN

Purpose: The aim of this retrospective multicentric study was to develop and evaluate a prognostic FDG PET/CT radiomics signature in early-stage non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients treated with stereotactic radiotherapy (SBRT). Material and Methods: Patients from 3 different centers (n = 27, 29 and 8) were pooled to constitute the training set, whereas the patients from a fourth center (n = 23) were used as the testing set. The primary endpoint was local control (LC). The primary tumour was semi-automatically delineated in the PET images using the Fuzzy locally adaptive Bayesian algorithm, and manually in the low-dose CT images. A total of 184 IBSI-compliant radiomic features were extracted. Seven clinical and treatment parameters were included. We used ComBat to harmonize radiomic features extracted from the four institutions relying on different PET/CT scanners. In the training set, variables found significant in the univariate analysis were fed into a multivariate regression model and models were built by combining independent prognostic factors. Results: Median follow-up was 21.1 (1.7 - 63.4) and 25.5 (7.7 - 57.8) months in training and testing sets respectively. In univariate analysis, none of the clinical variables, 2 PET and 2 CT features were significantly predictive of LC. The best predictive models in the training set were obtained by combining one feature from PET, namely information correlation 2 (IC2) and one from CT (Flatness), reaching a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 96%. Another model combining 2 PET features (IC2 and Strength), reached sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 88%, both with an undefined hazard ratio (HR) (p<0.001). The latter model obtained an accuracy of 0.91 (sensitivity 100%, specificity 81%), with a HR undefined (P = 0.023) in the testing set, however other models relying on CT radiomics features only or the combination of PET and CT features failed to validate in the testing set. Conclusion: We showed that two radiomic features derived from FDG PET were independently associated with LC in patients with NSCLC undergoing SBRT and could be combined in an accurate predictive model. This model could provide local relapse-related information and could be helpful in clinical decision-making.

8.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 98(29): e16417, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31335691

RESUMEN

We aimed to assess serial F-FDG PET/CT imaging according to morphological (RECIST1.1, iRECIST) and functional (PERCIST, PECRIT) criteria to predict clinical response to therapy in patients with advanced melanoma receiving immune checkpoint blocking agents.Retrospective data collection and analysis was done for 37 patients with unresectable metastatic cutaneous melanoma eligible for immunotherapy (cycles: 4 for ipilimumab and pembrolizumab/ 6 for nivolumab).F-FDG PET/CT imaging was performed prior to (F-FDG PET/CT 0) and 14 weeks after ICI onset (F-FDG PET/CT 1). Some cases during the follow-up required imaging (F-FDG PET/CT 2). Assessment of patient response to treatment was done according to RECIST1.1, iRECIST, PERCIST and PECRIT criteria.Among 37 assessed patients, 27 had 1 line of ICI, 8 had 2 lines of ICI and 2 patients had 3 lines of ICI: total of 49 PET/CTs. Mean time between initiation of ICI and F-FDG PET/CT (1 or 2) were respectively 13.82 ±â€Š4.32 and 24.73 ±â€Š9.53 weeks. Time between F-FDG PET/CT 1 and F-FDG PET/CT 2 was at mean +/- SD: 11.19w ±â€Š5.59. Median PFS was 29.62 months (range 22.52-36.71) (P = .001: RECIST 1.1), (P < .0001: iRECIST), (P = .000: PERCIST), (P = .072: PECRIT). Median OS was 36.62 months (30.46-42.78) (P = .005: RECIST 1.1), (P < .0001: iRECIST), (P = .001: PERCIST), (P = .082 PECRIT).F-FDG PET/CT could detect eventual ICI-response in patients with metastatic melanoma undergoing ICI using iRECIST and PERCIST criteria.


Asunto(s)
Anticuerpos Monoclonales Humanizados , Ipilimumab , Melanoma , Nivolumab , Tomografía Computarizada por Tomografía de Emisión de Positrones/métodos , Neoplasias Cutáneas , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X/métodos , Anciano , Anticuerpos Monoclonales Humanizados/administración & dosificación , Anticuerpos Monoclonales Humanizados/efectos adversos , Antineoplásicos Inmunológicos/administración & dosificación , Antineoplásicos Inmunológicos/efectos adversos , Protocolos Antineoplásicos , Femenino , Fluorodesoxiglucosa F18/farmacología , Humanos , Ipilimumab/administración & dosificación , Ipilimumab/efectos adversos , Masculino , Melanoma/diagnóstico , Melanoma/tratamiento farmacológico , Melanoma/patología , Estadificación de Neoplasias , Nivolumab/administración & dosificación , Nivolumab/efectos adversos , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Pronóstico , Radiofármacos/farmacología , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Neoplasias Cutáneas/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Cutáneas/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias Cutáneas/patología
9.
Clin Nucl Med ; 44(7): 578-579, 2019 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31107745

RESUMEN

FOLFIRI-aflibercept chemotherapy is indicated in second-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) after progression under FOLFOX (±bevacizumab). Nevertheless, its proven therapeutic efficacy in clinical trials was based on partial responses. And to date, only 2 cases of complete response assessed by CT were reported in literature. We report a complete metabolic response assessed by FDG PET/CT in a 50-year-old woman with mCRC treated by FOLFIRI-aflibercept. This also confirms that FDG PET/CT is emerging as a useful approach for therapeutic assessment of targeted drugs in mCRC.


Asunto(s)
Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/uso terapéutico , Neoplasias Colorrectales/diagnóstico por imagen , Tomografía Computarizada por Tomografía de Emisión de Positrones , Neoplasias Colorrectales/tratamiento farmacológico , Neoplasias Colorrectales/patología , Femenino , Fluorodesoxiglucosa F18 , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Metástasis de la Neoplasia , Radiofármacos
10.
Clin Nucl Med ; 44(5): e370-e371, 2019 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30888990

RESUMEN

We report the case of a 27-year-old woman referred to our department for the characterization of a 7 × 6-cm left ischio-anal fossa mass by Ga-DOTATOC PET/CT. Several diagnoses were previously mentioned, in particular, myxoid sarcoma but also pelvic paraganglioma. Urinary methoxylated derivates and blood chromogranin A tests were negative. PET/CT showed a high Ga-DOTATOC uptake of the mass that was strongly consistent with paraganglioma diagnosis. Histopathological analysis surprisingly revealed a solitary fibrous tumor without aggressive criteria.


Asunto(s)
Paraganglioma/diagnóstico por imagen , Tomografía Computarizada por Tomografía de Emisión de Positrones , Neoplasias Retroperitoneales/diagnóstico por imagen , Tumores Fibrosos Solitarios/diagnóstico por imagen , Adulto , Diagnóstico Diferencial , Femenino , Humanos , Octreótido/análogos & derivados , Compuestos Organometálicos , Radiofármacos
11.
PLoS One ; 14(3): e0214299, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30921388

RESUMEN

AIM: Characterizing tumor heterogeneity with textural indices extracted from 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG PET/CT) is of growing interest in oncology. Several series showed promising results to predict survival in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), analyzing various tumor segmentation methods and textural indices. This preliminary study aimed at assessing the inter-observer and inter-segmentation method variability of textural indices in HNSCC pre-therapeutic FDG PET/CT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Consecutive patients with HNSCC referred in our department for a pre-therapeutic FDG PET/CT from January to March 2016 were retrospectively included. Two nuclear medicine physicians separately segmented all tumors using 3 different segmentation methods: a relative standardized uptake value (SUV) threshold (40%SUVmax), a signal-to-noise adaptive SUV threshold (DAISNE) and an image gradient-based method (PET-EDGE). SUV and metabolic tumor volume were recorded. Thirty-one textural indices were calculated using LIFEx software (www.lifexsoft.org). After correlation analysis, selected indices' inter-segmentation method and inter-observer variability were calculated. RESULTS: Forty-three patients (mean age 63.8±9.3y) were analyzed. Due to a too small segmented tumor volume of interest, textural analysis could not be performed in 6, 11 and 15 cases with respectively DAISNE, 40%SUVmax and PET-EDGE segmentation methods. Five independent textural indices were selected (Homogeneity, Correlation, Entropy, Busyness and LZLGE). There was a high inter-contouring method variability for Homogeneity, Correlation, Entropy and LZLGE (p<0.0001 for each index). The inter-observer reproducibility analysis revealed an excellent agreement for 3 indices (Homogeneity, Correlation and Entropy) with an intraclass correlation coefficient higher than 0.90 for the 3 methods. CONCLUSIONS: This preliminary study showed a high variability of 4 out of 5 textural indices (Homogeneity, Correlation, Entropy and LZLGE) extracted from pre-therapeutic FDG PET/CT in HNSCC using 3 different contouring methods. However, for each method, there was an excellent agreement between observers for 3 of these textural indices (Homogeneity, Correlation and Entropy).


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias de Cabeza y Cuello/diagnóstico , Procesamiento de Imagen Asistida por Computador/métodos , Tomografía Computarizada por Tomografía de Emisión de Positrones , Anciano , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/diagnóstico , Femenino , Fluorodesoxiglucosa F18/química , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Estudios Retrospectivos , Relación Señal-Ruido , Programas Informáticos
12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30916534

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: PET Textural indices could have an add-on diagnostic value for diagnosis of malignancy in patients with FDG-avid adrenal lesions. METHODS: Consecutive patients referred for a FDG-PET/CT to our nuclear medicine department from June 2012 to June 2017 were retrospectively screened. Inclusion criteria were: patients with a FDG-avid adrenal lesion (uptake≥liver background); malignant/benign lesion confirmed histologically or with follow-up imaging examination. Pheochromocytomas were not included in the analysis. For each adrenal lesion, 5 quantitative PET parameters (SUVmax, MTV, TLG, TLRmax and TLRmean) were calculated. Thirty-seven textural indices were extracted using LIFEx software®. Diagnostic performance to determine malignancy was assessed with a ROC analysis. Parameters with a significantly AUC>0.5 were selected and groups of highly correlated (r>0.8) parameters were created. A scoring system combining PET and textural indices was examined. RESULTS: PET textural indices were calculated for 53 lesions (37 malignant, 16 benign). Three PET metabolic parameters (SUVmax, TLRmax, TLRmean) and 13 textural indices had an AUC>0.5. Seven groups of highly correlated parameters (r>0.8) were extracted. For PET parameters, SUVmax had the best AUC (0.89 CI95%[0.79-0.98]; cut-off=7.0). For textural indices, ZLNU had the best AUC (0.87 CI95%[0.78-0.96]; cut-off=34.7) and specificity of 100%. Three scores combining the best four textural indices alone (ContrastGLCM, LRHGE, SZE and ZLNU) or with one PET parameters (SUVmax, TLRmax) were developed but did not increase the diagnostic performance (AUC≤0.89). ZLNU was the best parameter to distinguish primary adrenal cancer from adrenal metastases in malignant lesions (p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Our study highlighted excellent diagnostic performance of several PET textural indices comparable to that of PET metabolic parameters. However, our results did not find any additional diagnostic value of textural indices when combined with metabolic parameters.

13.
Nucl Med Commun ; 40(6): 576-582, 2019 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30741839

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Following the implementation of single-photon emission computed tomography ventilation/perfusion (SPECT V/Q) in our department, we previously carried out an observational study over the period 2011-2013 that showed the safety of SPECT V/Q to rule out pulmonary embolism (PE). However, PE prevalence (28%) was high compared with some studies. Our hypothesis was that the use of SPECT V/Q may be responsible for an overdiagnosis of PE, especially at the implementation phase of the test. The aim was to carry out a time trend analysis of the evolution over the years of PE diagnosis with SPECT V/Q. PATIENTS AND METHODS: To evaluate the time trend of SPECT V/Q results, the conclusions of all SPECT V/Q scans performed for a suspected acute PE in our department from April 2011 to December 2016 were collected. To confirm the safety of a diagnostic management on the basis of SPECT V/Q to rule out PE, a retrospective observational study of the outcome of patients assessed with SPECT V/Q for suspected acute PE was carried out during the period 2014-2016. SPECT V/Q was interpreted using a diagnostic cutoff of one segmental or two subsegmental mismatches. The final diagnostic conclusion was established by the physician responsible for patient care. The safety of SPECT V/Q was assessed by monitoring the risk of thromboembolic events during the 3-month follow-up period in patients left untreated on the basis of a negative SPECT V/Q. RESULTS: Over the period 2011-2016, an average 16% (95% confidence interval: 10-22%) annual reduction in the proportion of positive SPECT V/Q results was observed. The percentage of positive SPECT V/Q results was 25.3% over the period 2011-2013 compared with 16.3% in 2014-2016 (P<0.0001). Out of the 696 patients analyzed over the period 2014-2016, the SPECT V/Q was positive, indeterminate, and negative in 118, 3, and 575 patients, respectively. The 3-month thromboembolic risk in patients in whom PE was deemed absent according to the SPECT V/Q was 3/543=0.55% (95% confidence interval 0.19-1.61). CONCLUSION: A continuous decrease in the annual proportion of positive SPECT V/Q results was mainly observed while maintaining the safety of the test to rule out PE. Explanatory factors include the introduction of a combined SPECT/CT scan, increased experience and familiarity with the test, and an increased awareness of the risks and consequences of overdiagnosing PE.


Asunto(s)
Embolia Pulmonar/diagnóstico por imagen , Tomografía Computarizada de Emisión de Fotón Único , Relación Ventilacion-Perfusión , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Humanos , Interpretación de Imagen Asistida por Computador , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Embolia Pulmonar/fisiopatología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Tiempo , Adulto Joven
14.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 6: 24, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30809525

RESUMEN

Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic value of FDG PET-CT metabolic parameters and Deauville-like 5 point-scale to predict malignancy in a population of patients presenting focal thyroid incidentaloma (fTI). Design: This retrospective study included 41 fTI, classified according to cytological and histological data as benign (BL) or malignant lesion (ML). FDG PET-CT semi-quantitative parameters (SUVmax, SUVmean, SUVpeak, MTV, TLG), tumor to liver SUVmean ratio (TLRmax and TLRmean), tumor to blood-pool SUVmean ratio (TBRmax and TBRmean) were calculated. Each fTI was also classified on a Deauville-like 5-point scale (DS) currently used in lymphoma. Comparison between BL and ML was performed for each parameter and a ROC analysis was conducted. Results: All quantitative PET metabolic parameters (SUV parameters, volume based parameters and SUV ratio) were higher in ML compared with BL, yet no significant difference was reported. fTI (uptake) malignancy rate according to DS grades 2, 3, 4, and 5 was, respectively, 25% (1 of 4), 28.6% (2 of 7), 8.3% (1 of 12), and 33.3% (6 of 18) with no significant difference between ML and BL groups. Results of ROC analysis showed that mean TBR had the highest AUC in our cohort (0.66 95%CI [0.41; 0.91]) with a cut-off value of 2.2. Specificity of MTV and TLG was 100% (cut-off values: MTV 9.6 ml, TLG 22.9 g) and their sensitivity was 30 and 40%, respectively. Conclusion: Our study did not highlight any FDG PET/CT parameter predictor of fTI malignancy.

15.
Circ Cardiovasc Imaging ; 12(2): e008513, 2019 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30712363

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Mitral annular calcification (MAC) is associated with cardiovascular events and mitral valve dysfunction. However, the underlying pathophysiology remains incompletely understood. In this prospective longitudinal study, we used a multimodality approach including positron emission tomography, computed tomography, and echocardiography to investigate the pathophysiology of MAC and assess factors associated with disease activity and progression. METHODS: A total of 104 patients (age 72±8 years, 30% women) with calcific aortic valve disease, therefore predisposed to MAC, underwent 18F-sodium fluoride (calcification activity) and 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose (inflammation activity) positron emission tomography, computed tomography calcium scoring, and echocardiography. Sixty patients underwent repeat computed tomography and echocardiography after 2 years. RESULTS: MAC (mitral annular calcium score >0) was present in 35 (33.7%) patients who had increased 18F-fluoride (tissue-to-background ratio, 2.32 [95% CI, 1.81-3.27] versus 1.30 [1.22-1.49]; P<0.001) and 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose activity (tissue-to-background ratio, 1.44 [1.37-1.58] versus 1.17 [1.12-1.24]; P<0.001) compared with patients without MAC. MAC activity (18F-fluoride uptake) was closely associated with the local calcium score and 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose uptake, as well as female sex and renal function. Similarly, MAC progression was closely associated with local factors, in particular, baseline MAC. Traditional cardiovascular risk factors and calcification activity in bone or remote atherosclerotic areas were not associated with disease activity nor progression. CONCLUSIONS: MAC is characterized by increased local calcification activity and inflammation. Baseline MAC burden was associated with disease activity and the rate of subsequent progression. This suggests a self-perpetuating cycle of calcification and inflammation that may be the target of future therapeutic interventions.


Asunto(s)
Calcinosis/diagnóstico por imagen , Enfermedades de las Válvulas Cardíacas/diagnóstico por imagen , Válvula Mitral/diagnóstico por imagen , Imagen Multimodal/métodos , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Válvula Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagen , Válvula Aórtica/patología , Válvula Aórtica/fisiopatología , Estenosis de la Válvula Aórtica/diagnóstico por imagen , Estenosis de la Válvula Aórtica/epidemiología , Estenosis de la Válvula Aórtica/fisiopatología , Calcinosis/epidemiología , Calcinosis/fisiopatología , Angiografía por Tomografía Computarizada , Angiografía Coronaria/métodos , Progresión de la Enfermedad , Ecocardiografía , Femenino , Enfermedades de las Válvulas Cardíacas/epidemiología , Enfermedades de las Válvulas Cardíacas/fisiopatología , Humanos , Incidencia , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Válvula Mitral/fisiopatología , Tomografía Computarizada por Tomografía de Emisión de Positrones , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Prevalencia , Pronóstico , Factores de Tiempo
16.
Bull Cancer ; 106(3): 262-274, 2019 Mar.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30683308

RESUMEN

Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is a functional nuclear medicine imaging technique which clinical value in oncology has been demonstrated. PET indications are constantly evolving, thanks to the contribution of research. The use of PET in oncology has been the subject of recommendations according to the Standard-Options-Recommendations methodology from the Fédération Nationale des Centres de Lutte Contre le Cancer in 2002, updated in 2003. However, many scientific works have been published since 2003 and new tracers have also obtained a marketing authorization in France. The objective of this work was therefore to update the recommendations established in 2003. In this context, in collaboration with the Société française de médecine nucléaire, a working group was set up for the development of good clinical practice recommendations under the HAS-INCA methodological label. The present document is issued from a comprehensive review of the literature and rigorous appraisal by a panel of national experts, organ specialists, clinical oncologists, surgeons, and imaging specialists. It is intended to be used as a guide to decision-making for those oncology teams that are able to manage patients in various situations in which the AMM label is not sufficiently precise.


Asunto(s)
Neoplasias/diagnóstico por imagen , Tomografía de Emisión de Positrones/normas , Francia , Humanos , Recurrencia Local de Neoplasia/diagnóstico por imagen , Medicina Nuclear , Sociedades Médicas
17.
Head Neck ; 41(2): 495-502, 2019 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30549149

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This study aimed at assessing the prognostic value of textural indices extracted from 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron-emission tomography (FDG-PET)/CT in a large cohort of patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) of any anatomic subsite and staging. METHODS: Consecutive patients with HNSCC referred for a pretreatment FDG-PET/CT were retrospectively included and followed up for a minimum of 2 years. Standardized uptake value, metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and textural indices were calculated using LIFEx software. Prognostic significance of parameters was assessed in univariate and multivariate analysis. RESULTS: Textural indices were extracted in 284 patients (mean age = 63.7±9.6 years). In univariate analysis, MTV and 4 textural indices-Correlation, Entropy, Energy, and Coarseness-were significantly correlated with overall survival (OS). In multivariate analysis, MTV (P = .008) and Correlation (P = .028) remained independently correlated to OS. CONCLUSION: This study showed that MTV and 1 textural index extracted from pretherapeutic FDG-PET/CT (Correlation) were independent prognostic factors of OS in patients with HNSCC.

18.
Phys Med Biol ; 63(22): 225011, 2018 11 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30426968

RESUMEN

Cardiac positron emission tomography (PET) imaging suffers from image blurring due to the constant motion of the heart that can impact interpretation. Hybrid PET/magnetic resonance (MR) has the potential to use radiation-free MR imaging to correct for the effects of cardio-respiratory motion in the PET data, improving qualitative and quantitative PET imaging in the heart. The purpose of this study was (i) to implement a MR image-based motion-corrected PET/MR method and (ii) to perform a proof-of-concept study of quantitative myocardial PET data in patients. The proposed method takes reconstructions of respiratory and cardiac gated PET data and applies spatial transformations to a single reference frame before averaging to form a single motion-corrected PET (MC-PET) image. Motion vector fields (MVFs) describing the transformations were derived from affine or non-rigid registration of respiratory and cardiac gated MR data. Eight patients with suspected cardiac sarcoidosis underwent cardiac PET/MR imaging after injection of 5 MBq kg-1 of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG). Myocardial regions affected by motion were identified by expert readers within which target-to-background ratios (TBR) and contrast-to-noise ratios (CNR) were measured on non-MC-non-gated, MC-PET, and double respiratory and cardiac gated PET images. Paired t-tests were used to determine statistical differences in quantitative uptake-measures between the different types of PET images. MC-PET images showed less blurring compared to non-MC-non-gated PET and tracer activity qualitatively aligned better with the underlying myocardial anatomy when fused with MR. TBR and CNR were significantly greater for MC-PET (2.8 ± 0.9; 21 ± 22) compared to non-MC-non-gated PET (2.4 ± 0.9, p = 0.0001; 15 ± 13, p = 0.02), while TBR was lower and CNR greater compared to double-gated PET (3.2 ± 0.9, p = 0.04; 6 ± 3, p = 0.004). This study demonstrated in a patient cohort that motion-corrected (MC) cardiac PET/MR is feasible using a retrospective MR image-based method and that improvement in TBR and CNR are achievable. MC PET/MR holds promise for improving interpretation and quantification in cardiac PET imaging.


Asunto(s)
Técnicas de Imagen Sincronizada Cardíacas/métodos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética/métodos , Tomografía de Emisión de Positrones/métodos , Anciano , Técnicas de Imagen Sincronizada Cardíacas/normas , Fluorodesoxiglucosa F18 , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética/normas , Persona de Mediana Edad , Movimiento (Física) , Imagen Multimodal/métodos , Imagen Multimodal/normas , Tomografía de Emisión de Positrones/normas , Radiofármacos
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 97(43): e12928, 2018 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30412098

RESUMEN

RATIONALE: Ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) single-photon-emission computed tomography (SPECT) has arisen as an alternative to computed tomography pulmonary angiography (CTPA) in patients with pulmonary embolism (PE) suspicion. The addition of low dose CT (ldCT) to V/Q SPECT improves the specificity of the test, allowing for potential alternative diagnosis. PATIENT CONCERNS AND DIAGNOSIS: Here we presented a case of an aortic intramural hematoma (IMH) diagnosed on the ldCT portion of V/Q SPECT combined with CT. A 74-year-old man suffering from sudden-onset chest pain was referred to our nuclear medicine department for PE suspicion. INTERVENTION AND OUTCOME: A V/Q SPECT combined with nonenhanced ldCT ruled out PE diagnosis. Nevertheless, ldCT revealed high attenuation aortic wall thickening suggestive of aortic IMH. Chest CT angiography showed mild dilatation and circumferential thickening of aortic wall confirming Stanford type A IMH involving the entire ascending aorta. LESSON: This case illustrates the potential usefulness of combining ldCT to V/Q SPECT in providing alternative diagnosis in suspected PE patients.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades de la Aorta/diagnóstico por imagen , Hematoma/diagnóstico por imagen , Tomografía Computarizada por Tomografía Computarizada de Emisión de Fotón Único , Anciano , Dolor en el Pecho/etiología , Angiografía por Tomografía Computarizada , Humanos , Masculino , Tomografía Computarizada de Emisión de Fotón Único
20.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 5: 275, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30349818

RESUMEN

Schwannoma is a rare source of false-positive 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG) uptake in Positron-emission tomography (PET/CT), inducing potential errors in staging of several solid cancer, with implications for patient management. This clinical case reports the situation of a patient undergoing an 18F-FDG-PET/CT for initial staging of an ovarian adenocarcinoma. We found a high paramediastinal hypermetabolic mass suspicious of remote extension or secondary synchronous primitive tumor. The biopsy finally reveals a histopathology of Schwannoma, allowing the patient to be eligible for a surgical procedure of her ovarian adenocarcinoma by rejecting the hypothesis of malignancy.

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