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1.
Lancet HIV ; 11(4): e245-e254, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38467135

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In 2014, UNAIDS set a goal to end the AIDS epidemic by achieving targets for the percentage of people living with HIV who were aware of their status, on antiretroviral therapy (ART), and virally suppressed. In 2020, these targets were revised to 95% for each measure (known as 95-95-95), to be reached among people living with HIV by 2025. We used data from the Fifth Botswana AIDS Impact Survey (BAIS V) to measure progress towards these testing and treatment targets in Botswana. METHODS: BAIS V used a two-stage cluster design to obtain a nationally representative sample of people aged 15-64 years in Botswana. During March-August, 2021, 14 763 consenting participants were interviewed and tested for HIV in their households by survey teams. HIV-positive specimens were tested for viral load, presence of antiretroviral drugs, and recency of infection using the HIV-1 limiting antigen avidity enzyme immunoassay. Estimates of HIV-positive status and use of ART were based on self-report and the analysis of blood specimens for antiretroviral drugs. Viral load suppression was defined as an HIV RNA concentration of less than 1000 copies per mL. HIV incidence was calculated using the recent infection testing algorithm. Data were weighted to account for the complex survey design. FINDINGS: The national HIV prevalence in Botswana among people aged 15-64 years was 20·8% and the annual incidence of HIV infection was 0·2%. 95·1% (men 93·0%, women 96·4%) of people living with HIV aged 15-64 years were aware of their status, 98·0% (men 97·2%, women 98·4%) of those aware were on ART, and 97·9% (men 96·6%, women 98·6%) of those on ART had viral load suppression. Among young people (aged 15-24 years) living with HIV, 84·5% were aware of their status, 98·5% of those aware were on ART, and 91·6% of those on ART had viral load suppression. The prevalance of viral load suppression among all people living with HIV was 91·8%, and varied by district-ranging from 85·3% in Gaborone to 100·0% in Selibe Phikwe. INTERPRETATION: BAIS V is the first population-based survey worldwide to report the achievement of the UNAIDS 95-95-95 goals, both overall and among women. Strategies to reach undiagnosed men and young people, including young women, are needed. FUNDING: US President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida , Infecciones por VIH , Masculino , Humanos , Femenino , Adolescente , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/tratamiento farmacológico , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/epidemiología , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Botswana/epidemiología , Antirretrovirales/uso terapéutico , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Carga Viral , Prevalencia
2.
Microbiol Spectr ; 12(2): e0319023, 2024 Feb 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38230936

RESUMEN

Infants who are exposed to HIV but uninfected (iHEU) have higher risk of infectious morbidity than infants who are HIV-unexposed and uninfected (iHUU), possibly due to altered immunity. As infant gut microbiota may influence immune development, we evaluated the effects of HIV exposure on infant gut microbiota and its association with tetanus toxoid vaccine responses. We evaluated the gut microbiota of 82 South African (61 iHEU and 21 iHUU) and 196 Nigerian (141 iHEU and 55 iHUU) infants at <1 and 15 weeks of life by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Anti-tetanus antibodies were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at matched time points. Gut microbiota in the 278 included infants and its succession were more strongly influenced by geographical location and age than by HIV exposure. Microbiota of Nigerian infants, who were exclusively breastfed, drastically changed over 15 weeks, becoming dominated by Bifidobacterium longum subspecies infantis. This change was not observed among South African infants, even when limiting the analysis to exclusively breastfed infants. The Least Absolute Shrinkage and Selection Operator regression suggested that HIV exposure and gut microbiota were independently associated with tetanus titers at week 15, and that high passively transferred antibody levels, as seen in the Nigerian cohort, may mitigate these effects. In conclusion, in two African cohorts, HIV exposure minimally altered the infant gut microbiota compared to age and setting, but both specific gut microbes and HIV exposure independently predicted humoral tetanus vaccine responses.IMPORTANCEGut microbiota plays an essential role in immune system development. Since infants HIV-exposed and uninfected (iHEU) are more vulnerable to infectious diseases than unexposed infants, we explored the impact of HIV exposure on gut microbiota and its association with vaccine responses. This study was conducted in two African countries with rapidly increasing numbers of iHEU. Infant HIV exposure did not substantially affect gut microbial succession, but geographic location had a strong effect. However, both the relative abundance of specific gut microbes and HIV exposure were independently associated with tetanus titers, which were also influenced by baseline tetanus titers (maternal transfer). Our findings provide insight into the effect of HIV exposure, passive maternal antibody, and gut microbiota on infant humoral vaccine responses.


Asunto(s)
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Infecciones por VIH , Tétanos , Lactante , Humanos , Toxoide Tetánico , Sudáfrica , ARN Ribosómico 16S
3.
AIDS ; 38(6): 895-905, 2024 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38227572

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The Zambian government has implemented a public health response to control the HIV epidemic in the country. Zambia conducted a population-based HIV impact assessment (ZAMPHIA) survey in 2021 to assess the status of the HIV epidemic to guide its public health programs. METHODS: ZAMPHIA 2021 was a cross-sectional two-stage cluster sample household survey among persons aged ≥15 years conducted in Zambia across all 10 provinces. Consenting participants were administered a standardized questionnaire and whole blood was tested for HIV according to national guidelines. HIV-1 viral load (VL), recent HIV infection, and antiretroviral medications were tested for in HIV-seropositive samples. Viral load suppression (VLS) was defined as <1000 copies/ml. ZAMPHIA 2021 results were compared to ZAMPHIA 2016 for persons aged 15-59 years (i.e., the overlapping age ranges). All estimates were weighted to account for nonresponse and survey design. RESULTS: During ZAMPHIA 2021, of 25 483 eligible persons aged ≥15 years, 18 804 (73.8%) were interviewed and tested for HIV. HIV prevalence was 11.0% and VLS prevalence was 86.2% overall, but was <80% among people living with HIV aged 15-24 years and in certain provinces. Among persons aged 15-59 years, from 2016 to 2021, HIV incidence declined from 0.6% to 0.3% ( P -value: 0.07) and VLS prevalence increased from 59.2% to 85.7% ( P -value: <0.01). DISCUSSION: Zambia has made substantial progress toward controlling the HIV epidemic from 2016 to 2021. Continued implementation of a test-and-treat strategy, with attention to groups with lower VLS in the ZAMPHIA 2021, could support reductions in HIV incidence and improve overall VLS in Zambia.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH , Humanos , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , VIH , Zambia/epidemiología , Carga Viral , Prevalencia , Incidencia , Estudios Transversales
4.
Genome Med ; 15(1): 92, 2023 11 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37932809

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Biorepositories archive and distribute well-characterized biospecimens for research to support the development of medical diagnostics and therapeutics. Knowledge of biobanking and associated practices is incomplete in low- and middle-income countries where disease burden is disproportionately high. In 2011, the African Society of Human Genetics (AfSHG), the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and the Wellcome Trust founded the Human Heredity and Health in Africa (H3Africa) consortium to promote genomic research in Africa and established a network of three biorepositories regionally located in East, West, and Southern Africa to support biomedical research. This manuscript describes the processes established by H3Africa biorepositories to prepare research sites to collect high-quality biospecimens for deposit at H3Africa biorepositories. METHODS: The biorepositories harmonized practices between the biorepositories and the research sites. The biorepositories developed guidelines to establish best practices and define biospecimen requirements; standard operating procedures (SOPs) for common processes such as biospecimen collection, processing, storage, transportation, and documentation as references; requirements for minimal associated datasets and formats; and a template material transfer agreements (MTA) to govern biospecimen exchange. The biorepositories also trained and mentored collection sites in relevant biobanking processes and procedures and verified biospecimen deposit processes. Throughout these procedures, the biorepositories followed ethical and legal requirements. RESULTS: The 20 research projects deposited 107,982 biospecimens (76% DNA, 81,067), in accordance with the ethical and legal requirements and established best practices. The biorepositories developed and customized resources and human capacity building to support the projects. [The biorepositories developed 34 guidelines, SOPs, and documents; trained 176 clinicians and scientists in over 30 topics; sensitized ethical bodies; established MTAs and reviewed consent forms for all projects; attained import permits; and evaluated pilot exercises and provided feedback. CONCLUSIONS: Biobanking in low- and middle-income countries by local skilled staff is critical to advance biobanking and genomic research and requires human capacity and resources for global partnerships. Biorepositories can help build human capacity and resources to support biobanking by partnering with researchers. Partnerships can be structured and customized to incorporate document development, ethics, training, mentorship, and pilots to prepare sites to collect, process, store, and transport biospecimens of high quality for future research.


Asunto(s)
Bancos de Muestras Biológicas , Investigación Biomédica , Humanos , África , Investigación Biomédica/métodos , Genómica , Genoma
5.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 109(4): 890-894, 2023 10 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37580023

RESUMEN

Determination of previous SARS-COV-2 infection is hampered by the absence of a standardized test. The marker used to assess previous exposure is IgG antibody to the nucleocapsid (IgG anti-N), although it is known to wane quickly from peripheral blood. The accuracies of seven antibody tests (virus neutralization test, IgG anti-N, IgG anti-spike [anti-S], IgG anti-receptor binding domain [anti-RBD], IgG anti-N + anti-RBD, IgG anti-N + anti-S, and IgG anti-S + anti-RBD), either singly or in combination, were evaluated on 502 cryopreserved serum samples collected before the COVID-19 vaccination rollout in Kumasi, Ghana. The accuracy of each index test was measured using a composite reference standard based on a combination of neutralization test and IgG anti-N antibody tests. According to the composite reference, 262 participants were previously exposed; the most sensitive test was the virus neutralization test, with 95.4% sensitivity (95% CI: 93.6-97.3), followed by 79.0% for IgG anti-N + anti-S (95% CI: 76.3-83.3). The most specific tests were virus neutralization and IgG anti-N, both with 100% specificity. Viral neutralization and IgG anti-N + anti-S were the overall most accurate tests, with specificity/sensitivity of 100/95.2% and 79.0/92.1%, respectively. Our findings indicate that IgG anti-N alone is an inadequate marker of prior exposure to SARS COV-2 in this population. Virus neutralization assay appears to be the most accurate assay in discerning prior infection. A combination of IgG anti-N and IgG anti-S is also accurate and suited for assessment of SARS COV-2 exposure in low-resource settings.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Inmunoglobulina G , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2 , Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Anticuerpos Antivirales , Anticuerpos Neutralizantes
7.
Res Sq ; 2023 Jul 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37461449

RESUMEN

Introduction: Infants who are exposed to HIV but uninfected (iHEU) have higher risk of infectious morbidity than infants who are HIV-unexposed and uninfected (iHUU), possibly due to altered immunity. As infant gut microbiota may influence immune development, we evaluated the effects of HIV exposure on infant gut microbiota and its association with tetanus toxoid (TT) vaccine responses. Methods: We evaluated gut microbiota by 16S rRNA gene sequencing in 278 South African and Nigerian infants during the first and at 15 weeks of life and measured antibodies against TT vaccine by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) at matched time points. Results: Infant gut microbiota and its succession were more strongly influenced by geographical location and age than by HIV exposure. Microbiota of Nigerian infants drastically changed over 15 weeks, becoming dominated by Bifidobacterium longum subspecies infantis. This change was not observed among EBF South African infants. Lasso regression suggested that HIV exposure and gut microbiota were independently associated with TT vaccine responses at week 15, and that high passive antibody levels may mitigate these effects. Conclusion: In two African cohorts, HIV exposure minimally altered the infant gut microbiota compared to age and country, but both specific gut microbes and HIV exposure independently predicted humoral vaccine responses.

8.
BMC Endocr Disord ; 23(1): 160, 2023 Jul 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37507703

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Persons living with HIV (PLHIV) now live longer due to effective combination antiretroviral therapy. However, emerging evidence indicates that they may be at increased risk for some cardiometabolic disorders. We compared the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its component disorders between persons living with and without HIV in Nigeria. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional analysis of baseline data from a prospective cohort study of non-communicable diseases among PLHIV along with age- and sex-matched persons without HIV (PWoH) at the University of Abuja Teaching Hospital Nigeria. We collected sociodemographic and clinical data, including anthropometric measures and results of relevant laboratory tests. MetS was defined using a modification of the third report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel (NCEP ATP III) criteria. RESULTS: Of the 440 PLHIV and 232 PWoH, women constituted 50.5% and 51.3% respectively. The median age of the PLHIV was 45 years while that of the PWoH was 40 years. The prevalence of MetS was 30.7% (95% CI: 26.4%, 35.2%) and 22.8% (95% CI: 17.6%, 28.8%) among the PLHIV and PWoH respectively (P = 0.026). Independent associations were found for older age (P < 0.001), female sex (P < 0.001), family history of diabetes (P < 0.001), family history of hypertension (P = 0.013) and alcohol use (P = 0.015). The prevalence of component disorders for PLHIV versus PWoH were as follows: high blood pressure (22.3% vs 20.3%), prediabetes (33.8% vs 21.1%), diabetes (20.5% vs 8.2%), high triglycerides (24.5% vs 17.2%), low HDL-Cholesterol (51.1% vs 41.4%), and abdominal obesity (38.4% vs 37.1%). Adjusting for age and sex, prediabetes, diabetes, and low HDL-Cholesterol were significantly associated with HIV status. Duration on antiretroviral therapy, protease inhibitor-based regimen, CD4 count, and viral load were associated with some of the disorders mostly in unadjusted analyses. CONCLUSION: We found a high burden of MetS and its component disorders, with significantly higher prevalence of dysglycemia and dyslipidemia among PLHIV as compared to PWoH. Integration of strategies for the prevention and management of MetS disorders is needed in HIV treatment settings.


Asunto(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , Infecciones por VIH , Hipertensión , Síndrome Metabólico , Estado Prediabético , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Síndrome Metabólico/epidemiología , Síndrome Metabólico/complicaciones , VIH , Factores de Riesgo , Prevalencia , Nigeria/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Estudios Prospectivos , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Hipertensión/epidemiología , Colesterol
9.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 78(8): 2000-2007, 2023 08 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37367727

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Due to the high prevalence of resistance to NNRTI-based ART since 2018, consolidated recommendations from the WHO have indicated dolutegravir as the preferred drug of choice for HIV treatment globally. There is a paucity of resistance outcome data from HIV-1 non-B subtypes circulating across West Africa. AIMS: We characterized the mutational profiles of persons living with HIV from a cross-sectional cohort in North-East Nigeria failing a dolutegravir-based ART regimen. METHODS: WGS of plasma samples collected from 61 HIV-1-infected participants following virological failure of dolutegravir-based ART were sequenced using the Illumina platform. Sequencing was successfully completed for samples from 55 participants. Following quality control, 33 full genomes were analysed from participants with a median age of 40 years and median time on ART of 9 years. HIV-1 subtyping was performed using SNAPPy. RESULTS: Most participants had mutational profiles reflective of exposure to previous first- and second-line ART regimens comprised NRTIs and NNRTIs. More than half of participants had one or more drug resistance-associated mutations (DRMs) affecting susceptibility to NRTIs (17/33; 52%) and NNRTIs (24/33; 73%). Almost a quarter of participants (8/33; 24.4%) had one or more DRMs affecting tenofovir susceptibility. Only one participant, infected with HIV-1 subtype G, had evidence of DRMs affecting dolutegravir susceptibility-this was characterized by the T66A, G118R, E138K and R263K mutations. CONCLUSIONS: This study found a low prevalence of resistance to dolutegravir; the data are therefore supportive of the continual rollout of dolutegravir as the primary first-line regimen for ART-naive participants and the preferred switch to second-line ART across the region. However, population-level, longer-term data collection on dolutegravir outcomes are required to further guide implementation and policy action across the region.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH , Inhibidores de Integrasa VIH , Humanos , Adulto , Estudios Transversales , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Compuestos Heterocíclicos con 3 Anillos/uso terapéutico , Compuestos Heterocíclicos con 3 Anillos/farmacología , Oxazinas/uso terapéutico , Piridonas/uso terapéutico , Inhibidores de Integrasa VIH/uso terapéutico , Inhibidores de Integrasa VIH/farmacología , Mutación , Farmacorresistencia Viral/genética , Integrasas/genética
10.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 109(1): 60-68, 2023 07 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37253444

RESUMEN

Mycobacterium tuberculosis and HIV constitute a public health challenge. Health workers (HWs) in HIV clinics maybe at greater risk of M. tuberculosis infection, considering the high rates of HIV/tuberculosis (TB) coinfection among patients. Hence, we measured the prevalence of M. tuberculosis infection and the effect of working in an HIV clinic. We conducted a cross-sectional study in high-HIV burden health-care facilities in Abuja and Nasarawa states and recruited HWs over 4 months. We administered questionnaires and screened for M. tuberculosis infection using QuantiFERON-TB Gold-Plus. A total of 1,043 HWs were enrolled, with the majority being clinical staff (77.4%). Prevalence of interferon gamma release assay (IGRA) positivity was 44.8% (43.8% among HWs from HIV clinic and 45.3% from non-HIV clinics, P = 0.24). Nonoccupational factors such as living in a moderately (odds ratio [OR] = 0.71] or sparsely populated neighborhood (OR = 0.56), remained associated with a reduced risk of IGRA positivity, whereas male gender (OR = 1.37) and having high blood pressure (HBP) (OR = 1.52) remained associated with an increased risk after adjusting. Occupational factors such as length of career as a HW of 10 to 20 years (OR = 1.45) or 20 to 30 years (OR = 1.74) remained associated with an increased risk of IGRA positivity after adjusting. In a final multivariate model, the factors of age between 20 to < 30 years (OR = 0.61), having HBP (OR = 1.56), having a length of career as a HW of 10 to 20 years (OR = 1.66) or 20 to 30 years (OR = 2.09) and being a clinical HW (OR = 0.62) remained associated with IGRA positivity. There is a high prevalence of IGRA positivity among HWs in Nigeria. Working in HIV clinics, however, is not associated with increased risk.


Asunto(s)
Infecciones por VIH , Tuberculosis Latente , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculosis , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Joven , Adulto , Tuberculosis Latente/epidemiología , Ensayos de Liberación de Interferón gamma , Prevalencia , Estudios Transversales , Nigeria/epidemiología , Tuberculosis/epidemiología , Tuberculosis/complicaciones , Factores de Riesgo , Infecciones por VIH/complicaciones , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Prueba de Tuberculina
11.
Vaccine ; 41(20): 3171-3177, 2023 05 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37088603

RESUMEN

The widespread outbreak of the monkeypox virus (MPXV) recognized in 2022 poses new challenges for public healthcare systems worldwide. With more than 86,000 people infected, there is concern that MPXV may become endemic outside of its original geographical area leading to repeated human spillover infections or continue to be spread person-to-person. Fortunately, classical public health measures (e.g., isolation, contact tracing and quarantine) and vaccination have blunted the spread of the virus, but cases are continuing to be reported in 28 countries in March 2023. We describe here the vaccines and drugs available for the prevention and treatment of MPXV infections. However, although their efficacy against monkeypox (mpox) has been established in animal models, little is known about their efficacy in the current outbreak setting. The continuing opportunity for transmission raises concerns about the potential for evolution of the virus and for expansion beyond the current risk groups. The priorities for action are clear: 1) more data on the efficacy of vaccines and drugs in infected humans must be gathered; 2) global collaborations are necessary to ensure that government authorities work with the private sector in developed and low and middle income countries (LMICs) to provide the availability of treatments and vaccines, especially in historically endemic/enzootic areas; 3) diagnostic and surveillance capacity must be increased to identify areas and populations where the virus is present and may seed resurgence; 4) those at high risk of severe outcomes (e.g., immunocompromised, untreated HIV, pregnant women, and inflammatory skin conditions) must be informed of the risk of infection and be protected from community transmission of MPXV; 5) engagement with the hardest hit communities in a non-stigmatizing way is needed to increase the understanding and acceptance of public health measures; and 6) repositories of monkeypox clinical samples, including blood, fluids, tissues and lesion material must be established for researchers. This MPXV outbreak is a warning that pandemic preparedness plans need additional coordination and resources. We must prepare for continuing transmission, resurgence, and repeated spillovers of MPXV.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas , Embarazo , Animales , Humanos , Femenino , /prevención & control , Virus de la Viruela de los Monos , Vacunación , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control
12.
PLoS Pathog ; 19(4): e1010893, 2023 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37014917

RESUMEN

In settings with high tuberculosis (TB) endemicity, distinct genotypes of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex (MTBC) often differ in prevalence. However, the factors leading to these differences remain poorly understood. Here we studied the MTBC population in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania over a six-year period, using 1,082 unique patient-derived MTBC whole-genome sequences (WGS) and associated clinical data. We show that the TB epidemic in Dar es Salaam is dominated by multiple MTBC genotypes introduced to Tanzania from different parts of the world during the last 300 years. The most common MTBC genotypes deriving from these introductions exhibited differences in transmission rates and in the duration of the infectious period, but little differences in overall fitness, as measured by the effective reproductive number. Moreover, measures of disease severity and bacterial load indicated no differences in virulence between these genotypes during active TB. Instead, the combination of an early introduction and a high transmission rate accounted for the high prevalence of L3.1.1, the most dominant MTBC genotype in this setting. Yet, a longer co-existence with the host population did not always result in a higher transmission rate, suggesting that distinct life-history traits have evolved in the different MTBC genotypes. Taken together, our results point to bacterial factors as important determinants of the TB epidemic in Dar es Salaam.


Asunto(s)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculosis , Humanos , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/genética , Tanzanía/epidemiología , Tuberculosis/epidemiología , Genotipo , Virulencia
13.
HIV Med ; 24(7): 827-837, 2023 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36945183

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Viral load suppression (VLS) is critical in reducing morbidity and mortality associated with HIV as well as minimizing the likelihood of HIV transmission to uninfected persons. The objective of this study was to identify factors associated with VLS among people living with HIV (PLWH) on antiretroviral (ARV) therapy to inform HIV programme strategies in Nigeria. METHODS: Adult participants, aged 15-64 years, from the 2018 Nigeria HIV/AIDS Indicator and Impact Survey (NAIIS), who self-reported to be a PLWH or had detectable ARVs, were analysed to examine factors associated with VLS defined as HIV RNA <1000 copies/mL. NAIIS measured HIV prevalence, viral load, ARV and hepatitis B in PLWH. Logistic regression models were used and reported weighted prevalence. RESULTS: Of 1322 participants, 949 (68.25%) were women and 1287 (96.82%) had detectable ARVs. The median age was 39.31 [interquartile range (IQR): 31.47-47.63] years. Prevalence of VLS was 80.88%. Compared with participants with detectable ARVs, those with undetectable ARVs in their blood specimens had lower odds of VLS [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 0.24, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.08-0.64). Coinfection with hepatitis B and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor metabolites were also associated with lower odds of VLS. Older people (45-54 vs 15-24 years) had increased odds of VLS (aOR = 2.81, 95% CI: 1.14-6.90). CONCLUSION: Young people and those with undetectable ARVs had lower odds of virological suppression. Targeted interventions focusing on young people and adherence to medication are needed to achieve the UNAIDS 95-95-95 goals for HIV epidemic control.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida , Infecciones por VIH , Hepatitis B , Adulto , Humanos , Femenino , Anciano , Adolescente , Masculino , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Nigeria/epidemiología , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/tratamiento farmacológico , Inhibidores de la Transcriptasa Inversa/uso terapéutico , Hepatitis B/tratamiento farmacológico , Carga Viral
14.
BMJ Glob Health ; 8(1)2023 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36650016

RESUMEN

Nigeria began administering COVID-19 vaccines on 5 March 2021 and is working towards the WHO's African regional goal to fully vaccinate 70% of their eligible population by December 2022. Nigeria's COVID-19 vaccination information system includes a surveillance system for COVID-19 adverse events following immunisation (AEFI), but as of April 2021, AEFI data were being collected and managed by multiple groups and lacked routine analysis and use for action. To fill this gap in COVID-19 vaccine safety monitoring, between April 2021 and June 2022, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in collaboration with other implementing partners led by the Institute of Human Virology Nigeria, supported the Government of Nigeria to triangulate existing COVID-19 AEFI data. This paper describes the process of implementing published draft guidelines for data triangulation for COVID-19 AEFI data in Nigeria. Here, we focus on the process of implementing data triangulation rather than analysing the results and impacts of triangulation. Work began by mapping the flow of COVID-19 AEFI data, engaging stakeholders and building a data management system to intake and store all shared data. These datasets were used to create an online dashboard with key indicators selected based on existing WHO guidelines and national guidance. The dashboard went through an iterative review before dissemination to stakeholders. This case study highlights a successful example of implementing data triangulation for rapid use of AEFI data for decision-making and emphasises the importance of stakeholder engagement and strong data governance structures to make data triangulation successful.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Estados Unidos , Humanos , Vacunas contra la COVID-19/efectos adversos , Nigeria/epidemiología , Sistemas de Registro de Reacción Adversa a Medicamentos , Vigilancia de la Población , COVID-19/prevención & control , Vacunación , Inmunización/efectos adversos
15.
AIDS ; 37(2): 333-339, 2023 02 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36541644

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: HIV drug resistance (HIVDR) surveillance is an important tool to monitor threats to progress towards epidemic control. The characterization of HIVDR in Nigeria at the national level is needed to inform both clinical decisions and population-level HIV policy strategies. This study uses data obtained from the Nigeria HIV/AIDS Indicator and Impact Survey (NAIIS) to describe the prevalence and distribution of HIVDR in Nigeria. METHODS: NAIIS was a cross-sectional, population-based survey of households throughout Nigeria in 2018. NAIIS was designed to provide estimates of HIV prevalence and related health indicators from a nationally representative sample. The study population included participants aged 15-64 years who tested positive for HIV, had a viral load at least 1000 copies/ml, and had available HIV drug resistance genotypes. HIV isolates were genotyped to detect drug resistance mutations. Individual characteristics of study participants associated with HIVDR were identified using a weighted multivariable logistic regression model. RESULTS: Of 1355 respondents with available HIV genotypes, 293 (19%) had evidence of drug-resistant mutations (DRMs) that conferred resistance to at least one antiretroviral drug. The majority of DRMs observed conferred resistance to NNRTIs (17.6%) and NRTIs (11.2%). HIVDR was associated with being ART-experienced, longer duration on ART, and lower CD4+ count but not sociodemographic characteristics. CONCLUSION: The population level DRM prevalence in Nigeria was consistent with what would be expected in a mature HIV treatment landscape. The continued roll out of dolutegravir-anchored regimens should mitigate the impact of NNRTI resistance on population viral load suppression and progress towards epidemic control.


Asunto(s)
Fármacos Anti-VIH , Infecciones por VIH , VIH-1 , Humanos , Adulto , Fármacos Anti-VIH/uso terapéutico , Fármacos Anti-VIH/farmacología , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Carga Viral , Estudios Transversales , Prevalencia , Nigeria/epidemiología , Farmacorresistencia Viral/genética , Mutación
16.
Afr J Lab Med ; 11(1): 1814, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35937766

RESUMEN

Background: Despite Kenya's roll-out of the Strengthening Laboratory Management Towards Accreditation programme in 2010, most laboratories had not made significant or tangible improvements towards accreditation by 2016. In April 2016, the University of Maryland, Baltimore enrolled 27 facilities in the standard Strengthening Laboratory Management Towards Accreditation programme. Objective: This study aimed to describe and evaluate the implementation of an intensified mentorship strategy on laboratory accreditation. Methods: In October 2017, the University of Maryland, Baltimore implemented intensive mentorship in 27 hospital laboratories in Nairobi, Kiambu, Meru, Embu, Muranga, Nyeri, Laikipia, Nyandarua, Tharaka-Nithi, and Kirinyaga counties in Kenya. Laboratories were paired with competent mentors whose skills were matched to facility gaps. Baseline and follow-up assessments were done between April 2016 and March 2019 using the World Health Organization's Stepwise Laboratory Quality Improvement Process Towards Accreditation Checklist and overall scores of the 12 Quality System Essentials and star ratings (from zero to five, based on scores) used to evaluate the effectiveness of the intensified mentorship. Results: In September 2017, 14 laboratories scored zero stars, three scored one star, eight scored two stars, one scored three stars, and one laboratory was accredited. By March 2019, eight laboratories were accredited, five scored four stars, 10 scored three stars, three scored two stars, and only one scored one star. The average score change with the intensified approach was 81.5 versus 53.9 for the standard approach. Conclusion: The intensified mentorship strategy resulted in fast-tracked progress towards laboratory accreditation and can be adopted in similar resource-limited settings.

17.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0273748, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36037201

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Data on awareness of HIV status among people living with HIV (PLHIV) are critical to estimating progress toward epidemic control. To ascertain the accuracy of self-reported HIV status and antiretroviral drug (ARV) use in the Nigeria HIV/AIDS Indicator and Impact Survey (NAIIS), we compared self-reported HIV status with HIV rapid diagnostic test (RDT) results and self-reported ARV use with detectable blood ARV levels. METHODS: On the basis of responses and test results, participants were categorized by HIV status and ARV use. Self-reported HIV status and ARV use performance characteristics were determined by estimating sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV). Proportions and other analyses were weighted to account for complex survey design. RESULTS: During NAIIS, 186,405 participants consented for interview out of which 58,646 reported knowing their HIV status. Of the 959 (weighted, 1.5%) who self-reported being HIV-positive, 849 (92.1%) tested HIV positive and 64 (7.9%) tested HIV negative via RDT and polymerase chain reaction test for discordant positive results. Of the 849 who tested HIV positive, 743 (89.8%) reported using ARV and 72 (10.2%) reported not using ARV. Of 57,687 who self-reported being HIV negative, 686 (1.2%) tested HIV positive via RDT, with ARV biomarkers detected among 195 (25.1%). ARV was detected among 94.5% of those who self-reported using ARV and among 42.0% of those who self-reported not using ARV. Overall, self-reported HIV status had sensitivity of 52.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 49.4%-56.0%) with specificity of 99.9% (95% CI: 99.8%-99.9%). Self-reported ARV use had sensitivity of 95.2% (95% CI: 93.6%-96.7%) and specificity of 54.5% (95% CI: 48.8%-70.7%). CONCLUSIONS: Self-reported HIV status and ARV use screening tests were found to be low-validity measures during NAIIS. Laboratory tests to confirm self-reported information may be necessary to determine accurate HIV and clinical status for HIV studies in Nigeria.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida , Infecciones por VIH , Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida/tratamiento farmacológico , Antirretrovirales/uso terapéutico , Infecciones por VIH/diagnóstico , Infecciones por VIH/tratamiento farmacológico , Infecciones por VIH/epidemiología , Humanos , Nigeria/epidemiología , Autoinforme
18.
PLoS One ; 17(4): e0266184, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35363818

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: There is a need for reliable serological assays to determine accurate estimates of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) seroprevalence. Most single target antigen assays have shown some limitations in Africa. To assess the performance of a multi-antigen assay, we evaluated a commercially available SARS-CoV-2 Multi-Antigen IgG assay for human coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Nigeria. METHODS: Validation of the xMAP SARS-CoV-2 Multi-Antigen IgG assay was carried out using well-characterized SARS-CoV-2 reverse transcription polymerase chain reactive positive (97) and pre-COVID-19 pandemic (86) plasma panels. Cross-reactivity was assessed using pre-COVID-19 pandemic plasma specimens (213) from the 2018 Nigeria HIV/AIDS Indicator and Impact Survey (NAIIS). RESULTS: The overall sensitivity of the xMAP SARS-CoV-2 Multi-Antigen IgG assay was 75.3% [95% CI: 65.8%- 82.8%] and specificity was 99.0% [95% CI: 96.8%- 99.7%]. The sensitivity estimate increased to 83.3% [95% CI: 70.4%- 91.3%] for specimens >14 days post-confirmation of diagnosis. However, using the NAIIS pre-pandemic specimens, the false positivity rate was 1.4% (3/213). CONCLUSIONS: Our results showed overall lower sensitivity and a comparable specificity with the manufacturer's validation. There appears to be less cross-reactivity with NAIIS pre-pandemic COVID-19 specimens using the xMAP SARS-CoV-2 Multi-Antigen IgG assay. In-country SARS-CoV-2 serology assay validation can help guide the best choice of assays in Africa.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Anticuerpos Antivirales , COVID-19/diagnóstico , COVID-19/epidemiología , Humanos , Inmunoglobulina G , Nigeria/epidemiología , SARS-CoV-2 , Sensibilidad y Especificidad , Estudios Seroepidemiológicos
19.
PLOS Glob Public Health ; 2(6): e0000363, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36962359

RESUMEN

The observed epidemiology of SARS-CoV-2 in sub-Saharan Africa has varied greatly from that in Europe and the United States, with much lower reported incidence. Population-based studies are needed to estimate true cumulative incidence of SARS-CoV-2 to inform public health interventions. This study estimated SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in four selected states in Nigeria in October 2020. We implemented a two-stage cluster sample household survey in four Nigerian states (Enugu, Gombe, Lagos, and Nasarawa) to estimate age-stratified prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. All individuals in sampled households were eligible for interview, blood draw, and nasal/oropharyngeal swab collection. We additionally tested participants for current/recent malaria infection. Seroprevalence estimates were calculated accounting for the complex survey design. Across all four states, 10,629 (96·5%) of 11,015 interviewed individuals provided blood samples. The seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was 25·2% (95% CI 21·8-28·6) in Enugu State, 9·3% (95% CI 7·0-11·5) in Gombe State, 23·3% (95% CI 20·5-26·4) in Lagos State, and 18·0% (95% CI 14·4-21·6) in Nasarawa State. Prevalence of current/recent malaria infection ranged from 2·8% in Lagos to 45·8% in Gombe and was not significantly related to SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence. The prevalence of active SARS-CoV-2 infection in the four states during the survey period was 0·2% (95% CI 0·1-0·4). Approximately eight months after the first reported COVID-19 case in Nigeria, seroprevalence indicated infection levels 194 times higher than the 24,198 officially reported COVID-19 cases across the four states; however, most of the population remained susceptible to COVID-19 in October 2020.

20.
PLOS Glob Public Health ; 2(7): e0000466, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36962526

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The Nigeria AIDS Indicator and Impact Survey (NAIIS), a cross-sectional household survey, was conducted in 2018 with primary objectives to estimate HIV prevalence, HIV-1 incidence, and status of UNAIDS 90-90-90 cascade. We conducted retrospective analysis of the performance of HIV rapid tests and the national HIV testing algorithm used in Nigeria. METHODS: The national algorithm included Determine HIV-1/2 as test 1 (T1), Unigold HIV-1/2 as test 2 (T2), and StatPak HIV-1/2 as the tie-breaker test (T3). Individuals reactive with T1 and either T2 or T3 were considered HIV-positive. HIV-positive specimens from the algorithm were further confirmed for the survey using supplemental test Geenius HIV-1/2. If Geenius did not confirm HIV-positive status, HIV-1 Western blot was performed. We calculated the concordance between tests and positive predictive value (PPV) of the algorithm on unweighted data. RESULTS: Of 204,930 participants (ages ≥18 months) 5,103 (2.5%) were reactive on T1. Serial testing of T1 reactive specimens with T2 or if needed by tiebreaker T3 identified 2958 (1.44%) persons as HIV-positive. Supplemental testing confirmed 2,800 (95%) as HIV-positive (HIV-1 = 2,767 [98.8%]; HIV-2 = 5 [0.2%]; dual infections = 22 [0.8%]). Concordance between T1 and T2 was 56.6% while PPV of the national algorithm was 94.5%. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show high discordant rates and poor PPV of the national algorithm with a false-positive rate of about 5.5% in the NAIIS survey. Considering our findings have major implications for HIV diagnosis in routine HIV testing services, additional evaluation of testing algorithm is warranted in Nigeria.

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