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1.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 340: 109042, 2021 Feb 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33461002

RESUMEN

The development of antimicrobial resistance in foodborne pathogens is a growing public health concern. This study was undertaken to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica isolated from the Australian commercial egg layer industry. S. enterica subspecies enterica (n=307) isolated from Australian commercial layer flock environments (2015-2018) were obtained from reference, research and State Government laboratories from six Australian states. All Salmonella isolates were serotyped. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing (AST) for 16 antimicrobial agents was performed by broth microdilution. Antimicrobial resistance genes and sequence types (STs) were identified in significant isolates by whole genome sequencing (WGS). Three main serotypes were detected, S. Typhimurium (n=61, 19.9%), S. Senftenburg (n=45, 14.7%) and S. Agona (n=37, 12.1%). AST showed 293/307 (95.4%) isolates were susceptible to all tested antimicrobial agents and all isolates were susceptible to amoxicillin-clavulanate, azithromycin, ceftiofur, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, colistin, florfenicol, gentamicin, kanamycin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole. Low levels of non-susceptibility were observed to streptomycin (2.3%, n=7), sulfisoxazole (2.0%, n=6), chloramphenicol (1.3%, n=4) and tetracycline (1.0%, n=3). Very low levels of non-susceptibility were observed to ampicillin (2/307; 0.7%) and cefoxitin (2/307; 0.7%). Two isolates (S. Havana and S. Montevideo), exhibited multidrug-resistant phenotypes to streptomycin, sulfisoxazole and tetracycline and possessed corresponding antimicrobial resistance genes (aadA4, aac(6')-Iaa, sul1, tetB). One S. Typhimurium isolate was resistant to ampicillin and tetracycline, and possessed both tetA and blaTEM-1B. WGS also identified these isolates as belonging to ST4 (S. Montevideo), ST578 (S. Havana) and ST19 (S. Typhimurium). The absence of resistance to highest priority critically important antimicrobials as well as the extremely low level of AMR generally among Australian commercial egg layer Salmonella isolates likely reflect Australia's conservative antimicrobial registration policy in food-producing animals and low rates of antimicrobial use within the industry.

2.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 340: 109054, 2021 Feb 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33465549

RESUMEN

Foodborne exposure to antimicrobial-resistant bacteria is a growing global health concern. Escherichia coli (E. coli) is well recognised as an indicator of food contamination with faecal materials. In the present study, we investigated the occurrence of E. coli in table eggs sold at retail supermarkets in Western Australia (WA). A total of 2172 visually clean and intact retail eggs were purchased between October 2017 and June 2018. A single carton containing a dozen eggs was considered as a single sample resulting a total of 181 samples. The shells and contents of each sample were separately pooled and tested using standard culture-based methods. Overall, generic E. coli was detected in 36 (19.8%; 95% confidence interval: 14.3; 26.4) of the 181 tested retail egg samples. We characterised 100 of the recovered E. coli isolates for their phenotypic antimicrobial resistance using minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). A subset of E. coli isolates (n = 14) were selected on the basis of their MIC patterns, and were further characterised using whole genome sequencing (WGS). Fifty-seven (57%) of the recovered generic E. coli isolates (n = 100) were resistant to at least one of the 14 antimicrobials included in the MIC testing panel, of which 22 isolates (22%) showed multi-class resistance. The highest frequencies of non-susceptibility of E. coli isolated from WA retailed eggs were against tetracycline (49%) and ampicillin (36%). WGS revealed that tet(A) and blaTEM-1B genes were present in most of the isolates exhibiting phenotypic resistance to tetracycline and ampicillin, respectively. The majority (98%) of the characterised E. coli isolates were susceptible to ciprofloxacin and azithromycin, and none were resistant to the cephalosporin antimicrobials included in the MIC panel. Two isolates demonstrated reduced susceptibility to ciprofloxacin, with MICs of 0.125 and 0.25 mg/L, and WGS revealed the presence of plasmid mediated qnrs1 gene in both isolates. This is the first report on detection of non-wild-type resistance to fluoroquinolones in supermarket eggs in Australia; one of the two isolates was from a cage-laid eggs sample while the other was from a barn-laid retail eggs sample. Fluoroquinolones have never been permitted for use in poultry farms in Australia. Thus, the detection of low-level ciprofloxacin-resistant E. coli in the absence of local antimicrobial selection pressure at the Australian layer farms warrants further research on the potential role of the environment or human-related factors in the transmission of antimicrobial resistance. The results of this study add to the local and global understanding of antimicrobial resistance spread in foods of animal origin.

3.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 2020 Dec 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33289474

RESUMEN

Diarrhea remains a significant cause of child morbidity and mortality in Iraq. The objective of this study was to examine the current practices of home-based management of diarrheal illnesses among Iraqi children. We surveyed mothers of children aged less than 5 years to identify the sociodemographic factors associated with maternal healthcare-seeking practices. A total of 500 mother-child pairs were interviewed in a cross-sectional household survey in Thi-Qar Governorate, southeastern Iraq, between March 2016 and February 2017. Logistic and multinomial regression models were used to infer sociodemographic predictors of the healthcare-seeking and alternative management practices adopted by the mothers. The interviewees reported that 35.2% of their children had diarrhea in the 2 weeks before the survey. The least likelihood of reported occurrence of diarrhea was among mother-child pairs where the mothers had received university education, as compared with mothers who were illiterate or received only primary or secondary education. Lower odds (odds ratio = 0.4, P-value < 0.001) of reported childhood diarrhea was revealed among mothers aged > 25 years than among those younger. Self-ordered medicine from a pharmacy was the most preferred alternative management option in almost half (52.4% [262/500]) of the interviewed mothers in Thi-Qar. Interestingly, 69.6% (348/500) of the mothers reported supplying their children suffering from diarrhea with antibiotics. Relative to mothers with university education, those with high school education had more likelihood of selecting medical center (relative risk ratio [rrr] = 2.4) and pharmacy (rrr = 3.7) as against no treatment. Lower maternal educational level, mothers' age < 25 years, and the district of residence were important factors associated with diarrhea occurrence among children younger than 5 years. In light of the findings from this study, intervention aimed at improving healthcare seeking for managing diarrhea in Iraqi children should jointly consider the influence of mothers age, education, as well as the level of economic status of the communities in which mothers of these children reside. The results of this study indicate the need for enhancing public health education to improve the maternal management of diarrheal disease and the avoidance of unnecessary use of antimicrobials.

4.
Health Care Manag (Frederick) ; 39(4): 144-149, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33079765

RESUMEN

Falls can have lasting psychological and physical consequences, particularly fractures and slow- healing processes, and patients may also lose confidence in walking. Injuries from falls lead to functional decline, institutionalization, higher health care costs, and decreased quality of life. The process related to the problem of patient falls in the hospital, using the nursing model developed by the theorist, Ida Jean Orlando, is explained in this article. The useful tool that provides guidance to marketers in this endeavor is Maslow's hierarchy of needs. During acute illness, individuals are greatly in need of satisfying their physiological needs. If these needs are not met, patients leave the hospital lacking a positive experience. Initial fall risk assessment is critical to plan intervention and individualize care plan. Interventions depend on the severity of fall risk factors.

5.
Vet Microbiol ; 250: 108850, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33011663

RESUMEN

The aim of this study was to investigate antimicrobial resistance and population structure of bovine mastitis-associated Staphylococcus aureus isolates, and compare them to human isolates obtained from Western Australian hospitals and overseas strains to determine relatedness to human isolates from a zoonotic or reverse zoonotic aspect. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed on 202 S. aureus isolates of which 166 isolates underwent whole genome sequencing. Only resistance to penicillin (12.4%) and erythromycin (0.5%) was identified and of note, no resistance was demonstrated to oxacillin. Genomic characterisation identified 14 multilocus sequence types (STs), with most isolates belonging to clonal complexes 97, 705, and 1. Four distinct clades based on virulence gene composition were identified. The four clades were predominantly ST based, consisting of ST352, ST97, ST81/ST1, and ST705. Core genome comparison of the bovine and human S. aureus isolates demonstrated defined clustering by ST, with the Australian bovine S. aureus isolates clustering together according to their ST separately from human isolates. In addition, a bovine specific cluster comprising Australian ST151 and ST705 isolates, and ST151 isolates from Irish dairy cattle was clearly delineated. Examination of a detailed ST352 phylogeny provided evidence for geographical clustering of Australian strains into a distinct grouping separate from international strains. This study has identified Australian S. aureus isolates have limited genetic diversity and are genetically distinct from human and international bovine S. aureus isolates. Current first line therapies for bovine mastitis in Australian dairy cattle remain appropriate.

6.
Front Microbiol ; 11: 1968, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32983008

RESUMEN

Escherichia coli sequence types 131 (ST131) and 1193 are multidrug-resistant extraintestinal pathogens that have recently spread epidemically among humans and are occasionally isolated from companion animals. This study characterized a nationwide collection of fluoroquinolone-resistant (FQ R ) E. coli isolates from extraintestinal infections in Australian cats and dogs. For this, 59 cat and dog FQ R clinical E. coli isolates (representing 6.9% of an 855-isolate collection) underwent PCR-based phylotyping and whole-genome sequencing (WGS). Isolates from commensal-associated phylogenetic groups A (14/59, 24%) and B1 (18/59, 31%) were dominant, with ST224 (10/59, 17%), and ST744 (8/59, 14%) predominating. Less prevalent were phylogenetic groups D (12/59, 20%), with ST38 (8/59, 14%) predominating, and virulence-associated phylogenetic group B2 (7/59, 12%), with ST131 predominating (6/7, 86%) and no ST1193 isolates identified. In a WGS-based comparison of 20 cat and dog-source ST131 isolates with 188 reference human and animal ST131 isolates, the cat and dog-source isolates were phylogenetically diverse. Although cat and dog-source ST131 isolates exhibited some minor sub-clustering, most were closely related to human-source ST131 strains. Furthermore, the prevalence of ST131 as a cause of FQ R infections in Australian companion animals was relatively constant between this study and the 5-year-earlier study of Platell et al. (2010) (9/125 isolates, 7.2%). Thus, although the high degree of clonal commonality among FQ R clinical isolates from humans vs. companion animals suggests the possibility of bi-directional between-species transmission, the much higher reported prevalence of ST131 and ST1193 among FQ R clinical isolates from humans as compared to companion animals suggests that companion animals are spillover hosts rather than being a primary reservoir for these lineages.

7.
Vet Microbiol ; 248: 108783, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32827920

RESUMEN

This study investigated the prevalence of extraintestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC)-associated sequence types (STs) from phylogenetic group B2 among 449 fluoroquinolone-susceptible dog clinical isolates from Australia. Isolates underwent PCR-based phylotyping and random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis to determine clonal relatedness. Of the 317 so-identified group B2 isolates, 77 underwent whole genome sequencing (WGS), whereas the remainder underwent PCR-based screening for ST complexes (STc) STc12, STc73, STc372, and ST131. The predominant ST was ST372 according to both WGS (31 % of 77) and ST-specific PCR (22 % of 240), followed by (per WGS) ST73 (17 %), ST12 (7 %), and ST80 (7 %). A WGS-based phylogenetic comparison of ST73 isolates from dogs, cats, and humans showed considerable overall phylogenetic diversity. Although most clusters were species-specific, some contained closely related human and animal (dog > cat) isolates. For dogs in Australia these findings both confirm ST372 as the predominant E. coli clonal lineage causing extraintestinal infections and clarify the importance of human-associated group B2 lineage ST73 as a cause of UTI, with some strains possibly being capable of bi-directional (i.e., dog-human and human-dog) transmission.

8.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 86(20)2020 10 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32801178

RESUMEN

Globally, gulls have been associated with carriage of high levels of Escherichia coli strains resistant to critically important antimicrobials (CIAs), a major concern, as these antimicrobials are the sole alternative or one among only a few alternatives available to treat severe life-threatening infections in humans. Previous studies of Australian silver gulls demonstrated high levels of resistance to CIAs, particularly fluoroquinolone and extended-spectrum cephalosporins, among E. coli strains (carriage at 24% and 22%, respectively). This study aimed to identify and characterize strains from four distinct bird species inhabiting a common coastal environment, determine the frequency of carriage of CIA-resistant E. coli strains, and examine if these resistant clones and their resistance-encoding mobile genetic elements (MGEs) could be transmitted between species. CIA-resistant E. coli was detected in silver gulls (53%), little penguins (11%), and feral pigeons (10%), but not in bridled terns. In total, 37 different sequence types (STs) were identified, including clinically significant human-associated lineages, such as ST131, ST95, ST648, ST69, ST540, ST93, ST450, and ST10. Five main mobile genetic elements associated with bla CTX-M-positive E. coli strains isolated from three bird species were detected. Examination of clonal lineages and MGEs provided indirect evidence of transfer of resistance between bird species. The carriage of CIA-resistant E. coli by gulls and pigeons with proximity to humans, and in some instances food-producing animals, increases the likelihood of further bidirectional dissemination.IMPORTANCE It has been shown that 20% of Australian silver gulls carry drug-resistant Escherichia coli strains of anthropogenic origin associated with severe diseases, such as sepsis and urinary tract infections, in humans. To further characterize the dynamics of drug-resistant E. coli in wildlife populations, we investigated the carriage of critically important antimicrobial (CIA) drug-resistant E. coli in four bird species in a common environment. Our results indicated that gulls, pigeons, and penguins carried drug-resistant E. coli strains, and analysis of mobile genetic elements associated with resistance genes indicated interspecies resistance transfer. Terns, representing a bird species that forages on natural food sources at sea and distant from humans, did not test positive for drug-resistant E. coli This study demonstrates carriage of CIA-resistant bacteria in multiple bird species living in areas commonly inhabited by humans and provides further evidence for a leapfrog effect of resistance in wildlife, facilitated by feeding habits.

9.
Health Care Manag (Frederick) ; 39(3): 122-127, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701608

RESUMEN

The purpose of this research was to study night shift work and its health effects on nurses. This was a quantitative study using descriptive design; it also incorporated three qualitative open-ended questions to complement the study. The data were collected using Survey Monkey, with an Internet based confidential data collection tool. The population of relevance to this study was nurses employed in hospital settings in the United States. E-mail addresses and Facebook were used to recruit participants. Results indicated that there is an increased risk of sleep deprivation, family stressors, and mood changes because of working the night shift. Rotating shifts were mentioned as a major concern for night shift nurses. Respondents agreed that complaints about fatigue and fatigue related illnesses in night shift workers were ignored. There was also a general perception among nurses working the night shift that sleep deprivation leads to negative health consequences including obesity; however, they were not as high a concern as rotating shifts or fatigue.

10.
Vet Microbiol ; 245: 108685, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32456818

RESUMEN

Extraintestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli (ExPEC) can cause urinary tract and other types of infection in cats, but the relationship of cat ExPEC to human ExPEC remains equivocal. This study investigated the prevalence of ExPEC-associated sequence types (STs) from phylogenetic group B2 among fluoroquinolone-susceptible cat clinical isolates. For this, 323 fluoroquinolone-susceptible cat clinical E. coli isolates from Australia underwent PCR-based phylotyping and random amplified polymorphic DNA analysis to determine clonal relatedness. Of the 274 group B2 isolates, 53 underwent whole genome sequencing (WGS), whereas 221 underwent PCR-based screening for (group B2) sequence type complexes (STc) STc12, STc73, ST131, and STc372. Group B2 was the dominant phylogenetic group (274/323, 85 %), whereas within group B2 ST73 dominated, according to both WGS (43 % of 53; followed by ST127, ST12, and ST372 [4/53, 8 % each]) and ST-specific PCR (20 % of 221). In WGS-based comparisons of cat and reference human ST73 isolates, cat isolates had a relatively conserved virulence gene profile but were phylogenetically diverse. Although in the phylogram most cat and human ST73 isolates occupied host species-specific clusters within serotype-specific clades (O2:H1, O6:H1, O25:H1, O50/O2:H1), cat and human isolates were intermingled within two serotype-specific clades: O120:H31 (3 cat and 2 human isolates) and O22:H1 (3 cat and 5 human isolates). These findings confirm the importance of human-associated group B2 lineages as a cause of urinary tract infections in cats. The close genetic relationship of some cat and human ST73 strains suggests bi-directional transmission may be possible.

11.
Zoonoses Public Health ; 67(5): 576-586, 2020 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32458580

RESUMEN

This observational study aimed to determine MRSA prevalence using strain-specific real-time PCR at the pig level, stratified by age groupings, within a pig enterprise. A total of 658 samples were collected from individual pigs (n = 618) and the piggery environment (n = 40), distributed amongst five different pig age groups. Presumptive MRSA isolates were confirmed by the presence of mecA, and MALDI-TOF was performed for species verification. All isolates were tested against 18 different antimicrobials. MRSA was isolated from 75.2% (95% CI 71.8-78.6) of samples collected from pigs, and 71% of the MRSA isolates from this source were identified as community-associated (CA)-MRSA ST93, while the remainder were livestock-associated (LA)-MRSA ST398. Amongst environmental isolates, 80% (CI 64.3-95.7) were ST93 and the remainder ST398. All MRSA isolates from pigs and the environment were susceptible to ciprofloxacin, gentamicin, linezolid, mupirocin, rifampicin, sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, teicoplanin and vancomycin. Phenotypic rates of resistance were penicillin (100%), clindamycin (97.6%), erythromycin (96.3%), ceftiofur (93.7%), chloramphenicol (81.2%), tetracycline (63.1%) and amoxicillin-clavulanate (63.9%). A low prevalence of resistance (9.2%) was observed against neomycin and quinupristin-dalfopristin. The probability of MRSA carriage in dry sows (42.2%) was found to be significantly lower (p < .001) when compared to other age groups: farrowing sows (76.8%, RR1.82), weaners (97.8%, RR 2.32), growers (94.2%, RR 2.23) and finishers (98.3%, RR 2.33). Amongst different production age groups, a significant difference was also found in antimicrobial resistance for amoxicillin-clavulanate, neomycin, chloramphenicol and tetracycline. Using the RT-PCR assay adopted in this study, filtering of highly prevalent ST93 and non-ST93 isolates was performed at high throughput and low cost. In conclusion, this study found that weaner pigs presented a higher risk for CA-MRSA and antimicrobial resistance compared to other age groups. These findings have major implications for how investigations of MRSA outbreaks should be approached under the One-Health context.

12.
Health Care Manag (Frederick) ; 39(2): 66-76, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32345940

RESUMEN

Concerns about patient bedside change-of-shift reporting at a community hospital in northern Indiana stimulated the development of this qualitative phenomenological study. A review of the literature revealed a research deficit in acute care nurses' perceptions of bedside reporting in relation to compliance. The research question addressed in this study was, "What are acute care nurses' perceptions of the change-of-shift report at the patients' bedside?" Personal interviews were conducted on 7 medical, surgical, and intensive care unit nurse participants at a community hospital in northern Indiana. Five themes were identified from the collected data, which included the time factor, continuity of care, visualization, and challenges in the communication of discreet information.

13.
Health Care Manag (Frederick) ; 39(2): 85-99, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32345942

RESUMEN

Recruiting and training 1 newly hired registered nurse can cost thousands of dollars. With a high percentage of these newly hired nurses leaving their first place of employment within their first year, the financial implications may be enormous. It is imperative that health care facilities invest in recruiting and retention programs that retain high-quality nurses. Mentorship programs in retaining and easing the transition to practice for new graduate nurses, re-entry nurses, and nurses new to a specialty area are critical in nurse retention. Discussion in this study includes the effect of implementing a mentor program into the critical care services area of a 325-bed not-for-profit community hospital in northern Indiana. Based on this study, nurses with a mentor were retained at a 25% higher rate than those not mentored. Implementation of a mentor program reduced the training cost to the facility and increased retention and morale.

14.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 86(8)2020 04 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32033955

RESUMEN

In a structured survey of all major chicken-meat producers in Australia, we investigated the antimicrobial resistance (AMR) and genomic characteristics of Campylobacter jejuni (n = 108) and C. coli (n = 96) from cecal samples of chickens at slaughter (n = 200). The majority of the C. jejuni (63%) and C. coli (86.5%) samples were susceptible to all antimicrobials. Fluoroquinolone resistance was detected among both C. jejuni (14.8%) and C. coli (5.2%), although this only included three sequence types (STs) and one ST, respectively. Multidrug resistance among strains of C. jejuni (0.9%) and C. coli (4.1%) was rare, and fluoroquinolone resistance, when present, was never accompanied by resistance to any other agent. Comparative genome analysis demonstrated that Australian isolates were found dispersed on different branches/clusters within the international collection. The major fluoroquinolone-resistant STs of C. jejuni (ST7323, ST2083, and ST2343) and C. coli (ST860) present in Australian chickens were similar to those of international isolates and have been reported previously in humans and animals overseas. The detection of a subpopulation of Campylobacter isolates exclusively resistant to fluoroquinolone was unexpected since most critically important antimicrobials such as fluoroquinolones are excluded from use in Australian livestock. A number of factors, including the low level of resistance to other antimicrobials, the absence of fluoroquinolone use, the adoption of measures for preventing spread of contagion between flocks, and particularly the genomic identities of isolates, all point to humans, pest species, or wild birds as being the most plausible source of organisms. This study also demonstrates the need for vigilance in the form of surveillance for AMR based on robust sampling to manage AMR risks in the food chain.IMPORTANCE Campylobacter is one of the most common causes of gastroenteritis in humans, with infections frequently resulting from exposure to undercooked poultry products. Although human illness is typically self-limiting, a minority of cases do require antimicrobial therapy. Ensuring that Campylobacter originating from meat chickens does not acquire resistance to fluoroquinolones is therefore a valuable outcome for public health. Australia has never legalized the use of fluoroquinolones in commercial chickens and until now fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter has not been detected in the Australian poultry. This structured survey of meat chickens derived from all major Australian producers describes the unexpected emergence of fluoroquinolone resistance in Campylobacter jejuni and C. coli Genetic characterization suggests that these isolates may have evolved outside the Australian poultry sector and were introduced into poultry by humans, pest species, or wild birds. The findings dramatically underline the critical role of biosecurity in the overall fight against antimicrobial resistance.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Infecciones por Campylobacter/veterinaria , Campylobacter coli/efectos de los fármacos , Campylobacter jejuni/efectos de los fármacos , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana , Fluoroquinolonas/farmacología , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/epidemiología , Animales , Australia/epidemiología , Infecciones por Campylobacter/epidemiología , Infecciones por Campylobacter/microbiología , Campylobacter coli/fisiología , Campylobacter jejuni/fisiología , Pollos , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Enfermedades de las Aves de Corral/microbiología
15.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0228781, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32059020

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Over the last three decades, hospital adapted clonal complex (CC) 17 strains of Enterococcus faecium have acquired and exchanged antimicrobial resistance genes leading to the widespread resistance to clinically important antimicrobials globally. In Australia, a high prevalence of vancomycin resistance has been reported in E. faecium in the last decade. METHODS: In this study, we determined the phylogenetic relationship and genetic characteristics of E. faecium collected from hospitalized patients with blood stream infections throughout Australia from 2015 to 2017 using high throughput molecular techniques. RESULTS: Using single nucleotide polymorphism based phylogenetic inference, three distinct clusters of isolates were observed with additional sub-clustering. One cluster harboured mostly non-CC17 isolates while two clusters were dominant for the vanA and vanB operons. CONCLUSION: The gradual increase in dominance of the respective van operon was observed in both the vanA and vanB dominant clusters suggesting a strain-van operon affinity. The high prevalence of the van operon within isolates of a particular sub-cluster was linked to an increased number of isolates and 30-day all-cause mortality. Different dominant sub-clusters were observed in each region of Australia. Findings from this study can be used to put future surveillance data into a broader perspective including the detection of novel E. faecium strains in Australia as well as the dissemination and evolution of each strain.


Asunto(s)
Enterococcus faecium/genética , Enterococcus faecium/fisiología , Sepsis/microbiología , Secuenciación Completa del Genoma , Australia , Enterococcus faecium/efectos de los fármacos , Humanos , Filogenia , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple , Resistencia a la Vancomicina/genética
17.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0224281, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31644602

RESUMEN

The World Health Organisation has defined "highest priority critically important antimicrobials" (CIAs) as those requiring the greatest control during food production. Evidence demonstrating that restricted antimicrobial usage prevents the emergence of resistance to CIA's amongst pathogenic and commensal organisms on a production system-wide scale would strengthen international efforts to control antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Therefore, in a designed survey of all major chicken-meat producers in Australia, we investigated the phenotypic AMR of E. coli (n = 206) and Salmonella (n = 53) from caecal samples of chickens at slaughter (n = 200). A large proportion of E. coli isolates (63.1%) were susceptible to all tested antimicrobials. With regards to CIA resistance, only two E.coli isolates demonstrated resistance to fluoroquinolones, attributed to mutations in the quinolone resistance-determining regions of gyrA. Antimicrobial resistance was observed for trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (8.7%), streptomycin (9.7%), ampicillin (14.1%), tetracycline (19.4%) and cefoxitin (0.5%). All Salmonella isolates were susceptible to ceftiofur, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, colistin, florfenicol, gentamicin and tetracycline. A low frequency of Salmonella isolates exhibited resistance to streptomycin (1.9%), ampicillin (3.8%), and cefoxitin (11.3%). AMR was only observed among Salmonella Sofia serovars. None of the Salmonella isolates exhibited a multi-class-resistant phenotype. Whole genome sequencing did not identify any known resistance mechanisms for the Salmonella isolates demonstrating resistance to cefoxitin. The results provide strong evidence that resistance to highest priority CIA's is absent in commensal E. coli and Salmonella isolated from Australian meat chickens, and demonstrates low levels of resistance to compounds with less critical ratings such as cefoxitin, trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole, and tetracycline. Apart from regulated exclusion of CIAs from most aspects of livestock production, vaccination against key bacterial pathogens and stringent biosecurity are likely to have contributed to the favorable AMR status of the Australian chicken meat industry. Nevertheless, industry and government need to proactively monitor AMR and antimicrobial stewardship practices to ensure the long-term protection of both animal and human health.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Escherichia coli/efectos de los fármacos , Escherichia coli/aislamiento & purificación , Carne/microbiología , Salmonella/efectos de los fármacos , Salmonella/aislamiento & purificación , Animales , Australia , Pollos/microbiología , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana , Escherichia coli/genética , Microbiología de Alimentos , Salmonella/genética , Secuenciación Completa del Genoma
18.
Prev Vet Med ; 172: 104782, 2019 Nov 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586718

RESUMEN

Reliable assessment of the susceptibility of animal bacterial pathogens to antimicrobials is of paramount importance in the fight against antimicrobial resistance. This work aims to estimate the repeatability (intra-laboratory agreement) and reproducibility (inter-laboratory agreement) of the disc diffusion assay in veterinary laboratories to understand further if the assay has a role in the surveillance of antimicrobial resistance in animals. Seven major veterinary laboratories from all States in Australia participated, and each tested the same panel of isolates five times at three to four-week intervals, against six antimicrobial agents using Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute protocols. The panel consisted of twenty different isolates from porcine Escherichia coli from clinical cases and a single reference strain (ATCC 25922). Laboratories were blinded to the identity of the isolates, replicates, and to each other. In total, 4200 inhibition zone diameters (mm) were collected, and analysed descriptively, graphically, and with linear mixed models. Regardless of the laboratories and isolate/antimicrobial combinations, the overall very major error rate (proportion of isolates classified as susceptible when actual status is resistant) was 1.6%; the major error rate (proportion of isolates classified as resistant when actual status is susceptible) was 1.6%; and the 'minor error' rate (proportion of isolates with intermediate susceptibility that measure fully susceptible or resistant or vice versa) was 2.4%. The variation between repeated measurements ranged between 4.4-7.2 mm depending on the antimicrobial agent assessed. The reproducibility was always more variable than the repeatability, which suggested some laboratory effects. The repeatability coefficient of disc diffusion was lowest for tetracycline (4.4 mm, 95% CI: 3.8-5.0 mm) and ampicillin (4.6 mm, 95% CI: 4.2-5.2 mm) and highest for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (6.6 mm, 95% CI: 5.9-7.4 mm). The reproducibility coefficient of disc diffusion was lowest for gentamicin (5.4, 95% CI: 4.0-7.2) and highest for trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (7.2 mm, 95%CI: 4.5-11.7 mm). The precision of the disc diffusion assay was deemed satisfactory for use in a national surveillance program for clinical porcine E. coli isolates. However, measurement variation of the disc diffusion assay is of concern for isolates with marginal susceptibility or resistance due to increased risk of misclassification.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Pruebas Antimicrobianas de Difusión por Disco/veterinaria , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana , Escherichia coli/aislamiento & purificación , Sus scrofa/microbiología , Animales , Pruebas Antimicrobianas de Difusión por Disco/métodos , Escherichia coli/efectos de los fármacos , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados
19.
PLoS One ; 14(9): e0222765, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31553747

RESUMEN

An electrochemically activated solution (ECAS), generated by electrolysis of a dilute sodium chloride solution in a four-chamber electrolytic cell (Ecas4), was tested as a sanitising aerosol in eliminating bacteria from the environment of a weaning room vacated 24-48h earlier, at a continuous flow pig farm. An ultrasonic humidifier was used to fill the environment with a fog (droplets with diameters of 1-5 µm) containing 0.25 ppm of hypochlorous acid. The weaning room was fogged for 3 min at 30 min intervals during five hours of aerosol disinfection. An innovative sample treatment with propidium monoazide dye in conjunction with cyclonic air sampling was optimised and adapted for discerning live/dead bacteria in subsequent molecular quantification steps. Without fogging, total bacterial load ranged from 5.06 ± 0.04 to 5.75 ± 0.04 Log10 CFU/m3. After the first hour of fogging, a 78% total bacterial reduction was observed, which further increased to > 97% after the second hour, > 99.4% after the third and 99.8% after the fourth hour, finally resulting in a 99.99% reduction from the farm environment over five hours. Unlike the current formaldehyde spray disinfection protocol, which requires a long empty period because of its hazardous properties, this economically viable and environmentally friendly disinfection protocol may significantly lower downtime. Moreover, ECAS fogging can be easily adapted to a variety of applications, including the elimination of pathogens from livestock farm air environment for disease prevention, as well as decontamination after disease outbreaks.


Asunto(s)
Bacterias/efectos de los fármacos , Infecciones Bacterianas/prevención & control , Descontaminación/métodos , Desinfectantes/administración & dosificación , Granjas , Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae/efectos de los fármacos , Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae/aislamiento & purificación , Aerosoles , Microbiología del Aire , Animales , Bacterias/aislamiento & purificación , Infecciones Bacterianas/microbiología , Infecciones Bacterianas/veterinaria , Carga Bacteriana , Desinfectantes/química , Electrólisis , Fumigación/métodos , Humidificadores , Concentración de Iones de Hidrógeno , Ácido Hipocloroso/administración & dosificación , Ácido Hipocloroso/química , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente a Meticilina/efectos de los fármacos , Staphylococcus aureus Resistente a Meticilina/aislamiento & purificación , Porcinos/microbiología
20.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 308: 108305, 2019 Nov 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31476731

RESUMEN

In recent years, the number of human salmonellosis cases in Western Australia (WA) has increased more dramatically than in any other Australian state. In 2017, the number of cases in WA was more than double the five-year average, and eggs had emerged as the key culprit for several Salmonella foodborne disease outbreaks. To better understand such an epidemiologically intriguing situation, our research goal was to investigate the prevalence, serovar diversity, multilocus sequence types, and antimicrobial resistance of non-typhoidal Salmonella contamination in retail eggs produced and sold in WA. A total of 200 visually clean and intact retail egg samples (each containing a dozen eggs) were purchased for one year (2017-2018) from supermarkets in metropolitan Perth, the capital of WA. For each sample, the contents and shells of the 12 eggs were separately pooled and cultured according to standard methods. Overall, Salmonella was detected in 11.5% (23/200) of the tested egg samples. Salmonella was isolated from 4.5% (9/200) and 3% (6/200) of eggshells and egg contents, respectively. In 4% (8/200) of the samples, Salmonella was recovered from both eggshell and egg contents. Isolates from positive retail egg samples were serotyped as either S. Typhimurium (52.2% [12/23]) or S. Infantis (39.1% [9/23]). Both serotypes were concurrently recovered from two different retail egg samples. We retained a set of both S. Typhimurium (n = 29) and S. Infantis (n = 12) isolates from all Salmonella-positive retail packs (n = 23) for further characterization. Only two (S. Typhimurium) isolates showed resistance to ampicillin, of which one carried ß-lactamase resistance gene blaTEM-1b. The remaining isolates (39/41) were susceptible to all 14 antimicrobials included in the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) testing panel. Multilocus sequence typing and serotyping were perfectly mirrored, as all S. Typhimurium isolates were characterized as sequence type (ST)-19, and all S. Infantis isolates were ST-32. This study points to the noteworthy Salmonella prevalence rate in retail egg samples in WA. Our results illustrate minimal public health risks arising from antimicrobial resistance Salmonella from Australian eggs.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos/farmacología , Farmacorresistencia Bacteriana/genética , Cáscara de Huevo/microbiología , Huevos/microbiología , Microbiología de Alimentos/métodos , Salmonella/aislamiento & purificación , Animales , Australia , Genómica , Humanos , Pruebas de Sensibilidad Microbiana , Tipificación de Secuencias Multilocus , Salmonella/clasificación , Salmonella/genética , Intoxicación Alimentaria por Salmonella/epidemiología , Infecciones por Salmonella/epidemiología , Serogrupo , Serotipificación , Australia Occidental/epidemiología
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