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1.
Phys Rev Lett ; 126(13): 137402, 2021 Apr 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33861119

RESUMEN

We measure the spin-lattice relaxation of donor bound electrons in ultrapure, isotopically enriched, phosphorus-doped ^{28}Si:P. The optical pump-probe experiments reveal at low temperatures extremely long spin relaxation times which exceed 20 h. The ^{28}Si:P spin relaxation rate increases linearly with temperature in the regime below 1 K and shows a distinct transition to a T^{9} dependence which dominates the spin relaxation between 2 and 4 K at low magnetic fields. The T^{7} dependence reported for natural silicon is absent. At high magnetic fields, the spin relaxation is dominated by the magnetic field dependent single phonon spin relaxation process. This process is well documented for natural silicon at finite temperatures but the ^{28}Si:P measurements validate additionally that the bosonic phonon distribution leads at very low temperatures to a deviation from the linear temperature dependence of Γ as predicted by theory.

2.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 454, 2021 Jan 19.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33469024

RESUMEN

The ordinary Fano effect occurs in many-electron atoms and requires an autoionizing state. With such a state, photo-ionization may proceed via pathways that interfere, and the characteristic asymmetric resonance structures appear in the continuum. Here we demonstrate that Fano structure may also be induced without need of auto-ionization, by dressing the continuum with an ordinary bound state in any atom by a coupling laser. Using multi-photon processes gives complete, ultra-fast control over the interference. We show that a line-shape index q near unity (maximum asymmetry) may be produced in hydrogenic silicon donors with a relatively weak beam. Since the Fano lineshape has both constructive and destructive interference, the laser control opens the possibility of state-selective detection with enhancement on one side of resonance and invisibility on the other. We discuss a variety of atomic and molecular spectroscopies, and in the case of silicon donors we provide a calculation for a qubit readout application.

3.
Sci Rep ; 5: 10493, 2015 May 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25990870

RESUMEN

The push for a semiconductor-based quantum information technology has renewed interest in the spin states and optical transitions of shallow donors in silicon, including the donor bound exciton transitions in the near-infrared and the Rydberg, or hydrogenic, transitions in the mid-infrared. The deepest group V donor in silicon, bismuth, has a large zero-field ground state hyperfine splitting, comparable to that of rubidium, upon which the now-ubiquitous rubidium atomic clock time standard is based. Here we show that the ground state hyperfine populations of bismuth can be read out using the mid-infrared Rydberg transitions, analogous to the optical readout of the rubidium ground state populations upon which rubidium clock technology is based. We further use these transitions to demonstrate strong population pumping by resonant excitation of the bound exciton transitions, suggesting several possible approaches to a solid-state atomic clock using bismuth in silicon, or eventually in enriched (28)Si.

4.
Phys Rev Lett ; 113(26): 267604, 2014 Dec 31.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25615386

RESUMEN

We experimentally demonstrate the first inductive readout of optically hyperpolarized phosphorus-31 donor nuclear spins in an isotopically enriched silicon-28 crystal. The concentration of phosphorus donors in the crystal was 1.5×10(15) cm(-3), 3 orders of magnitude lower than has previously been detected via direct inductive detection. The signal-to-noise ratio measured in a single free induction decay from a 1 cm(3) sample (≈10(15) spins) was 113. By transferring the sample to an X-band ESR spectrometer, we were able to obtain a lower bound for the nuclear spin polarization at 1.7 K of ∼64%. The (31)P-T2 measured with a Hahn echo sequence was 420 ms at 1.7 K, which was extended to 1.2 s with a Carr Purcell cycle. The T1 of the (31)P nuclear spins at 1.7 K is extremely long and could not be determined, as no decay was observed even on a time scale of 4.5 h. Optical excitation was performed with a 1047 nm laser, which provided above-band-gap excitation of the silicon. The buildup of the hyperpolarization at 4.2 K followed a single exponential with a characteristic time of 577 s, while the buildup at 1.7 K showed biexponential behavior with characteristic time constants of 578 and 5670 s.

5.
Phys Rev Lett ; 110(17): 175502, 2013 Apr 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23679744

RESUMEN

A graded Si(1-x)Ge(x) crystal has been manufactured for operation with high-energy protons to excite coherent interactions of the particles with the crystal such as channeling and volume reflection. The crystal had the shape of a parallelepiped though its (111) atomic planes were curved at a radius of 25.6 m because of the graded Ge content. The crystal was exposed to a 400 GeV/c proton beam at the external lines of CERN Super Proton Synchrotron to probe its capability to steer high-energy particles. Measured deflection efficiency was 62.0% under planar channeling and 96.0% under volume reflection. Such values are critically compared to their counterparts for a standard bent Si crystal under peer conditions. A Monte Carlo simulation of the dynamics of channeled and volume reflected particles in a graded crystal including the effect of Ge impurities and of lattice dislocations has been carried out. We found that the effect of crystal imperfections spoiled the efficiency of channeling while it negligibly affected the performance of volume reflection. We finally propose the usage of the graded crystal as a primary scatterer to aid halo collimation for the new generation of hadronic machines. As a unique feature, a properly cut graded crystal circumvents the problem of the miscut angle, which is currently a severe limitation for implementation of crystal-assisted collimation.

6.
Nat Commun ; 4: 1469, 2013.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23403570

RESUMEN

Laboratory spectroscopy of atomic hydrogen in a magnetic flux density of 10(5) T (1 gigagauss), the maximum observed on high-field magnetic white dwarfs, is impossible because practically available fields are about a thousand times less. In this regime, the cyclotron and binding energies become equal. Here we demonstrate Lyman series spectra for phosphorus impurities in silicon up to the equivalent field, which is scaled to 32.8 T by the effective mass and dielectric constant. The spectra reproduce the high-field theory for free hydrogen, with quadratic Zeeman splitting and strong mixing of spherical harmonics. They show the way for experiments on He and H(2) analogues, and for investigation of He(2), a bound molecule predicted under extreme field conditions.

7.
Science ; 336(6086): 1280-3, 2012 Jun 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22679091

RESUMEN

A quantum computer requires systems that are isolated from their environment, but can be integrated into devices, and whose states can be measured with high accuracy. Nuclear spins in solids promise long coherence lifetimes, but they are difficult to initialize into known states and to detect with high sensitivity. We show how the distinctive optical properties of enriched (28)Si enable the use of hyperfine-resolved optical transitions, as previously applied to great effect for isolated atoms and ions in vacuum. Together with efficient Auger photoionization, these resolved hyperfine transitions permit rapid nuclear hyperpolarization and electrical spin-readout. We combine these techniques to detect nuclear magnetic resonance from dilute (31)P in the purest available sample of (28)Si, at concentrations inaccessible to conventional measurements, measuring a solid-state coherence time of over 180 seconds.

8.
Phys Rev Lett ; 105(6): 067601, 2010 Aug 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20868014

RESUMEN

Donors in silicon hold considerable promise for emerging quantum technologies, due to their uniquely long electron spin coherence times. Bismuth donors in silicon differ from more widely studied group V donors, such as phosphorous, in several significant respects: They have the strongest binding energy (70.98 meV), a large nuclear spin (I=9/2), and a strong hyperfine coupling constant (A=1475.4 MHz). These larger energy scales allow us to perform a detailed test of theoretical models describing the spectral diffusion mechanism that is known to govern the electron spin decoherence of P donors in natural silicon. We report the electron-nuclear double resonance spectra of the Bi donor, across the range 200 MHz to 1.4 GHz, and confirm that coherence transfer is possible between electron and nuclear spin degrees of freedom at these higher frequencies.

9.
Phys Rev Lett ; 104(13): 137402, 2010 Apr 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20481913

RESUMEN

As the deepest group-V donor in Si, Bi has by far the largest hyperfine interaction and also a large I = 9/2 nuclear spin. At zero field this splits the donor ground state into states having total spin 5 and 4, which are fully resolved in the photoluminescence spectrum of Bi donor bound excitons. Under a magnetic field, the 60 expected allowed transitions cannot be individually resolved, but the effects of the nuclear spin distribution, -9/2 < or = I(z) < or = 9/2, are clearly observed. A strong hyperpolarization of the nuclear spin towards I(z) = -9/2 is observed to result from the nonresonant optical excitation. This is very similar to the recently reported optical hyperpolarization of P donors observed by EPR at higher magnetic fields. We introduce a new model to explain this effect, and predict that it may be very fast.

10.
Phys Rev Lett ; 102(25): 257401, 2009 Jun 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19659118

RESUMEN

We demonstrate a method which can hyperpolarize both the electron and nuclear spins of 31P donors in Si at low field, where both would be essentially unpolarized in equilibrium. It is based on the selective ionization of donors in a specific hyperfine state by optically pumping donor bound exciton hyperfine transitions, which can be spectrally resolved in 28Si. Electron and nuclear polarizations of 90% and 76%, respectively, are obtained in less than a second, providing an initialization mechanism for qubits based on these spins, and enabling further ESR and NMR studies on dilute 31P in 28Si.

11.
Phys Rev Lett ; 100(17): 177402, 2008 May 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18518336

RESUMEN

Dramatic reductions of the linewidths of well-known deep centers in 28Si reveal "isotopic fingerprints" of the constituents. The approximately 1014 meV Cu center, thought to be either a Cu pair or an isolated Cu, is shown to contain four Cu atoms, and the approximately 780 meV Ag center is shown to contain four Ag. The approximately 944 meV ;{*}Cu center, thought to be a different configuration of a Cu pair, in fact contains three Cu and one Ag, and a new two-Cu two-Ag center is found. The approximately 735 meV center, previously assigned to Fe, actually contains Au and three Cu. This suggests a family of four-atom (Cu, Ag, Au) centers.

12.
Phys Rev Lett ; 97(22): 227401, 2006 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17155840

RESUMEN

We resolve the remarkably sharp bound exciton transitions of highly enriched 28Si using a single-frequency laser and photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy, as well as photocurrent spectroscopy. Well-resolved doublets in the spectrum of the 31P donor reflect the hyperfine coupling of the electronic and nuclear donor spins. The optical detection of the nuclear spin state, and selective pumping and ionization of donors in specific electronic and nuclear spin states, suggests a number of new possibilities which could be useful for the realization of silicon-based quantum computers.

13.
J Synchrotron Radiat ; 5(Pt 3): 239-45, 1998 May 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15263485

RESUMEN

Using X-ray diffractometry and spectral measurements, the structure and properties of graded X-ray optical elements have been examined. Experimental and theoretical data on X-ray supermirrors, which were prepared by the magnetron sputtering technique using precise thickness control, are reported. Measurements on graded aperiodic Si(1-x)Ge(x) single crystals, which were grown by the Czochralski technique, are also presented. The lattice parameter of such a crystal changes almost linearly with increasing Ge concentration. The measurements indicate that Si(1-x)Ge(x) crystals with concentrations up to 7 at.% Ge can be grown with a quality comparable to that of pure Si crystals.

14.
Vestn Ross Akad Med Nauk ; (4): 29-32, 1996.
Artículo en Ruso | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-8754076

RESUMEN

The platelet parameters of the functional status of the serotonin-reuptake complex were studied in drug-resistant depressive patients given various regimens of complex therapy or selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (fluvoxamine and fluoxetine). The most persistent and marked clinical effect was seen in electroconvulsive therapy and it was due to the normalization of the serotonin-reuptake system.


Asunto(s)
Plaquetas/metabolismo , Trastorno Depresivo/sangre , Serotonina/sangre , Adulto , Transporte Biológico , Trastorno Bipolar/sangre , Trastorno Bipolar/terapia , Terapia Combinada , Trastorno Depresivo/terapia , Resistencia a Medicamentos , Terapia Electroconvulsiva , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Esquizofrenia/sangre , Esquizofrenia/terapia
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