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1.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 32(40): 405603, 2020 May 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32441274

RESUMEN

We investigate the extent to which the class of Dirac materials in two-dimensions provides general statements about the behavior of both fermionic and bosonic Dirac quasiparticles in the interacting regime. For both quasiparticle types, we find common features for the interaction induced renormalization of the conical Dirac spectrum. We perform the perturbative renormalization analysis and compute the self-energy for both quasiparticle types with different interactions and collate previous results from the literature whenever necessary. Guided by the systematic presentation of our results in table 1, we conclude that long-range interactions generically lead to an increase of the slope of the single-particle Dirac cone, whereas short-range interactions lead to a decrease. The quasiparticle statistics does not qualitatively impact the self-energy correction for long-range repulsion but does affect the behavior of short-range coupled systems, giving rise to different thermal power-law contributions. The possibility of a universal description of the Dirac materials based on these features is also mentioned.

2.
J Phys Condens Matter ; 32(37): 374013, 2020 Apr 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32289761

RESUMEN

The compound La2-2x Sr1+2x Mn2O7, x = 0.30-0.40, consists of bilayers of ferromagnetic metallic MnO2 sheets that are separated by insulating layers. The materials show colossal magnetoresistance-a reduction in resistivity of up to two orders of magnitude in a field of 7 T-at their three-dimensional ordering temperatures, T C = 90-126 K, and are the layered analogues of the widely studied pseudo-cubic perovskite manganites, R1-x A x MnO3 (R = rare earth, A = Ca, Sr, Ba, Pb). Two distinct short-range orderings-antiferromagnetic fluctuations and correlated polarons, which are related to the magnetic and the lattice degrees of freedom respectively-have previously been discovered in La2-2x Sr1+2x Mn2O7, x = 0.40, and have each been qualitatively connected to the resistivity. Here, in a comprehensive study as a function of both temperature and magnetic field for the different hole-concentrations per Mn site of x = 0.30 and 0.35, we show that antiferromagnetic fluctuations also appear at temperatures just above T C, and that the intensities of both the antiferromagnetic fluctuations and polaron correlations closely track the resistivity. In particular, for x = 0.35 we show that there is a simple scaling relation between the intensities of the antiferromagnetic fluctuations and the in-plane resistivity that applies for the temperatures and magnetic fields used in the experiments. The results show that antiferromagnetic fluctuations are a common feature of La2-2x Sr1+2x Mn2O7 with ferromagnetic bilayers, and that there is a close connection between the antiferromagnetic fluctuations and polarons in these materials.

3.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4001, 2019 Sep 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31488819

RESUMEN

Quantum states cohere and interfere. Atoms arranged imperfectly in a solid rarely display these properties. Here we demonstrate an exception in a disordered quantum magnet that divides itself into nearly isolated subsystems. We probe these coherent spin clusters by driving the system nonlinearly and measuring the resulting hole in the linear spectral response. The Fano shape of the hole encodes the incoherent lifetime as well as coherent mixing of the localized excitations. For the Ising magnet LiHo0.045Y0.955F4, the quality factor Q for spectral holes can be as high as 100,000. We tune the dynamics by sweeping the Fano mixing parameter q through zero via the ac pump amplitude as well as a dc transverse field. The zero crossing of q is associated with a dissipationless response at the drive frequency. Identifying localized two-level systems in a dense and disordered magnet advances the search for qubit platforms emerging from strongly interacting, many-body systems.

4.
Nat Commun ; 8: 16038, 2017 07 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28737173

RESUMEN

Superposition of orbital eigenstates is crucial to quantum technology utilizing atoms, such as atomic clocks and quantum computers, and control over the interaction between atoms and their neighbours is an essential ingredient for both gating and readout. The simplest coherent wavefunction control uses a two-eigenstate admixture, but more control over the spatial distribution of the wavefunction can be obtained by increasing the number of states in the wavepacket. Here we demonstrate THz laser pulse control of Si:P orbitals using multiple orbital state admixtures, observing beat patterns produced by Zeeman splitting. The beats are an observable signature of the ability to control the path of the electron, which implies we can now control the strength and duration of the interaction of the atom with different neighbours. This could simplify surface code networks which require spatially controlled interaction between atoms, and we propose an architecture that might take advantage of this.

6.
Nat Commun ; 6: 6549, 2015 03 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25790967

RESUMEN

The ability to control dynamics of quantum states by optical interference, and subsequent electrical read-out, is crucial for solid state quantum technologies. Ramsey interference has been successfully observed for spins in silicon and nitrogen vacancy centres in diamond, and for orbital motion in InAs quantum dots. Here we demonstrate terahertz optical excitation, manipulation and destruction via Ramsey interference of orbital wavepackets in Si:P with electrical read-out. We show milliradian control over the wavefunction phase for the two-level system formed by the 1s and 2p states. The results have been verified by all-optical echo detection methods, sensitive only to coherent excitations in the sample. The experiments open a route to exploitation of donors in silicon for atom trap physics, with concomitant potential for quantum computing schemes, which rely on orbital superpositions to, for example, gate the magnetic exchange interactions between impurities.

7.
Nat Commun ; 5: 3439, 2014 Mar 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24619137

RESUMEN

A characteristic feature of spin ice is its apparent violation of the third law of thermodynamics. This leads to a number of interesting properties including the emergence of an effective vacuum for magnetic monopoles and their currents - magnetricity. Here we add a new dimension to the experimental study of spin ice by fabricating thin epitaxial films of Dy2Ti2O7, varying between 5 and 60 monolayers on an inert substrate. The films show the distinctive characteristics of spin ice at temperatures >2 K, but at lower temperature we find evidence of a zero entropy state. This restoration of the third law in spin ice thin films is consistent with a predicted strain-induced ordering of a very unusual type, previously discussed for analogous electrical systems. Our results show how the physics of frustrated pyrochlore magnets such as spin ice may be significantly modified in thin-film samples.

8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 111(10): 3689-94, 2014 Mar 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24567389

RESUMEN

The degree of contact between a system and the external environment can alter dramatically its proclivity to quantum mechanical modes of relaxation. We show that controlling the thermal coupling of cubic-centimeter-sized crystals of the Ising magnet LiHo(x)Y(1-x)F4 to a heat bath can be used to tune the system between a glassy state dominated by thermal excitations over energy barriers and a state with the hallmarks of a quantum spin liquid. Application of a magnetic field transverse to the Ising axis introduces both random magnetic fields and quantum fluctuations, which can retard and speed the annealing process, respectively, thereby providing a mechanism for continuous tuning between the destination states. The nonlinear response of the system explicitly demonstrates quantum interference between internal and external relaxation pathways.


Asunto(s)
Ingeniería Química/métodos , Imanes/química , Modelos Químicos , Teoría Cuántica , Temperatura
9.
Nat Commun ; 4: 1649, 2013.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23552064

RESUMEN

Individual atoms and ions are now routinely manipulated using scanning tunnelling microscopes or electromagnetic traps for the creation and control of artificial quantum states. For applications such as quantum information processing, the ability to introduce multiple atomic-scale defects deterministically in a semiconductor is highly desirable. Here we use a scanning tunnelling microscope to fabricate interacting chains of dangling bond defects on the hydrogen-passivated silicon (001) surface. We image both the ground-state and the excited-state probability distributions of the resulting artificial molecular orbitals, using the scanning tunnelling microscope tip bias and tip-sample separation as gates to control which states contribute to the image. Our results demonstrate that atomically precise quantum states can be fabricated on silicon, and suggest a general model of quantum-state fabrication using other chemically passivated semiconductor surfaces where single-atom depassivation can be achieved using scanning tunnelling microscopy.

10.
Nat Commun ; 4: 1535, 2013.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23443563

RESUMEN

Spin ice illustrates many unusual magnetic properties, including zero point entropy, emergent monopoles and a quasi liquid-gas transition. To reveal the quantum spin dynamics that underpin these phenomena is an experimental challenge. Here we show how crucial information is contained in the frequency dependence of the magnetic susceptibility and in its high frequency or adiabatic limit. The typical response of Dy(2)Ti(2)O(7) spin ice indicates that monopole diffusion is Brownian but is underpinned by spin tunnelling and is influenced by collective monopole interactions. The adiabatic response reveals evidence of driven monopole plasma oscillations in weak applied field, and unconventional critical behaviour in strong applied field. Our results clarify the origin of the relatively high frequency response in spin ice. They disclose unexpected physics and establish adiabatic susceptibility as a revealing characteristic of exotic spin systems.

11.
Nat Commun ; 2: 558, 2011 Nov 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22127054

RESUMEN

Graphitic systems have an electronic structure that can be readily manipulated through electrostatic or chemical doping, resulting in a rich variety of electronic ground states. Here we report the first observation and characterization of electronic stripes in the highly electron-doped graphitic superconductor, CaC(6), by scanning tunnelling microscopy and spectroscopy. The stripes correspond to a charge density wave with a period three times that of the Ca superlattice. Although the positions of the Ca intercalants are modulated, no displacements of the carbon lattice are detected, indicating that the graphene sheets host the ideal charge density wave. This provides an exceptionally simple material-graphene-as a starting point for understanding the relation between stripes and superconductivity. Furthermore, our experiments suggest a strategy to search for superconductivity in graphene, namely in the vicinity of striped 'Wigner crystal' phases, where some of the electrons crystallize to form a superlattice.


Asunto(s)
Carbono/química , Grafito/química , Conductividad Eléctrica , Microscopía de Túnel de Rastreo , Nanoestructuras/química , Nanotecnología
12.
Nat Commun ; 2: 212, 2011.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21364551

RESUMEN

Manganites are technologically important materials, used widely as solid oxide fuel cell cathodes; they have also been shown to exhibit electroresistance. Oxygen bulk diffusion and surface exchange processes are critical for catalytic action, and numerous studies of manganites have linked electroresistance to electrochemical oxygen migration. Direct imaging of individual oxygen defects is needed to underpin understanding of these important processes. Currently, it is not possible to collect the required images in bulk, but scanning tunnelling microscopy (STM) could provide such data for surfaces. Here, we report the first atomic resolution images of oxygen defects at a manganite surface. Our experiments also reveal defect dynamics, including oxygen adatom migration, vacancy-adatom recombination and adatom bistability. Beyond providing an experimental basis for testing models describing the microscopics of oxygen migration at transition-metal oxide interfaces, our work resolves the long-standing puzzle of why STM is more challenging for layered manganites than for cuprates.

13.
Nature ; 465(7301): 1057-61, 2010 Jun 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20577211

RESUMEN

Laser cooling and electromagnetic traps have led to a revolution in atomic physics, yielding dramatic discoveries ranging from Bose-Einstein condensation to the quantum control of single atoms. Of particular interest, because they can be used in the quantum control of one atom by another, are excited Rydberg states, where wavefunctions are expanded from their ground-state extents of less than 0.1 nm to several nanometres and even beyond; this allows atoms far enough apart to be non-interacting in their ground states to strongly interact in their excited states. For eventual application of such states, a solid-state implementation is very desirable. Here we demonstrate the coherent control of impurity wavefunctions in the most ubiquitous donor in a semiconductor, namely phosphorus-doped silicon. In our experiments, we use a free-electron laser to stimulate and observe photon echoes, the orbital analogue of the Hahn spin echo, and Rabi oscillations familiar from magnetic resonance spectroscopy. As well as extending atomic physicists' explorations of quantum phenomena to the solid state, our work adds coherent terahertz radiation, as a particularly precise regulator of orbitals in solids, to the list of controls, such as pressure and chemical composition, already familiar to materials scientists.

14.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 107(7): 2797-800, 2010 Feb 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20133728

RESUMEN

The intended use of a magnetic material, from information storage to power conversion, depends crucially on its domain structure, traditionally crafted during materials synthesis. By contrast, we show that an external magnetic field, applied transverse to the preferred magnetization of a model disordered uniaxial ferromagnet, is an isothermal regulator of domain pinning. At elevated temperatures, near the transition into the paramagnet, modest transverse fields increase the pinning, stabilize the domain structure, and harden the magnet, until a point where the field induces quantum tunneling of the domain walls and softens the magnet. At low temperatures, tunneling completely dominates the domain dynamics and provides an interpretation of the quantum phase transition in highly disordered magnets as a localization/delocalization transition for domain walls. While the energy scales of the rare earth ferromagnet studied here restrict the effects to cryogenic temperatures, the principles discovered are general and should be applicable to existing classes of highly anisotropic ferromagnets with ordering at room temperature or above.


Asunto(s)
Compuestos Férricos/química , Dureza , Temperatura , Imanes , Teoría Cuántica
15.
Phys Rev Lett ; 101(15): 157205, 2008 Oct 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18999636

RESUMEN

The inability of systems of interacting objects to satisfy all constraints simultaneously leads to frustration. A particularly important consequence of frustration is the ability to access certain protected parts of a system without disturbing the others. For magnets such "protectorates" have been inferred from theory and from neutron scattering, but their practical consequences have been unclear. We show that a magnetic analogue of optical hole-burning can address these protected spin clusters in a well-known, geometrically frustrated Heisenberg system, gadolinium gallium garnet. Our measurements additionally provide a resolution of a famous discrepancy between the bulk magnetometry and neutron diffraction results for this magnetic compound.

16.
Phys Rev Lett ; 101(5): 057201, 2008 Aug 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18764428

RESUMEN

When performed in the proper low-field, low-frequency limits, measurements of the dynamics and the nonlinear susceptibility in the model Ising magnet in a transverse field LiHo(x)Y(1-x)F(4) prove the existence of a spin-glass transition for x=0.167 and 0.198. The classical behavior tracks for the two concentrations, but the behavior in the quantum regime at large transverse fields differs because of the competing effects of quantum entanglement and random fields.

17.
Nature ; 454(7207): 976-80, 2008 Aug 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-18719585

RESUMEN

Landau-Fermi liquid theory, with its pivotal assertion that electrons in metals can be simply understood as independent particles with effective masses replacing the free electron mass, has been astonishingly successful. This is true despite the Coulomb interactions an electron experiences from the host crystal lattice, lattice defects and the other approximately 10(22) cm(-3) electrons. An important extension to the theory accounts for the behaviour of doped semiconductors. Because little in the vast literature on materials contradicts Fermi liquid theory and its extensions, exceptions have attracted great attention, and they include the high-temperature superconductors, silicon-based field-effect transistors that host two-dimensional metals, and certain rare-earth compounds at the threshold of magnetism. The origin of the non-Fermi liquid behaviour in all of these systems remains controversial. Here we report that an entirely different and exceedingly simple class of materials-doped small-bandgap semiconductors near a metal-insulator transition-can also display a non-Fermi liquid state. Remarkably, a modest magnetic field functions as a switch which restores the ordinary disordered Fermi liquid. Our data suggest that we have found a physical realization of the only mathematically rigorous route to a non-Fermi liquid, namely the 'undercompensated Kondo effect', where there are too few mobile electrons to compensate for the spins of unpaired electrons localized on impurity atoms.

18.
Phys Rev Lett ; 99(13): 137201, 2007 Sep 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17930627

RESUMEN

Elemental chromium orders antiferromagnetically near room temperature, but the ordering temperature can be driven to zero by applying large pressures. We combine diamond anvil cell and synchrotron x-ray diffraction techniques to measure directly the spin and charge order in the pure metal at the approach to its quantum critical point. Both spin and charge order are suppressed exponentially with pressure, well beyond the region where disorder cuts off such a simple evolution, and they maintain a harmonic scaling relationship over decades in scattering intensity. By comparing the development of the order parameter with that of the magnetic wave vector, it is possible to ascribe the destruction of antiferromagnetism to the growth in electron kinetic energy relative to the underlying magnetic exchange interaction.

19.
Phys Rev Lett ; 99(5): 057203, 2007 Aug 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17930784

RESUMEN

A transverse magnetic field is used to scan the diagonal and off-diagonal susceptibility of the uniaxial quantum magnet, LiHo(0.045) Y(0.955)F(4). Clusters of strongly coupled spins act as the primary source for the response functions, which result from a field-induced quantum projection of the system into a classically forbidden (meaning non-Ising) regime. Calculations based on spin pairs reproduce only some features of the data and fail to predict the measured off-diagonal response, providing evidence of a multispin collective state.

20.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 104(39): 15264-9, 2007 Sep 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17884986

RESUMEN

Bulk magnetism in solids is fundamentally quantum mechanical in nature. Yet in many situations, including our everyday encounters with magnetic materials, quantum effects are masked, and it often suffices to think of magnetism in terms of the interaction between classical dipole moments. Whereas this intuition generally holds for ferromagnets, even as the size of the magnetic moment is reduced to that of a single electron spin (the quantum limit), it breaks down spectacularly for antiferromagnets, particularly in low dimensions. Considerable theoretical and experimental progress has been made in understanding quantum effects in one-dimensional quantum antiferromagnets, but a complete experimental description of even simple two-dimensional antiferromagnets is lacking. Here we describe a comprehensive set of neutron scattering measurements that reveal a non-spin-wave continuum and strong quantum effects, suggesting entanglement of spins at short distances in the simplest of all two-dimensional quantum antiferromagnets, the square lattice Heisenberg system.


Asunto(s)
Cobre/química , Teoría Cuántica , Cristalización , Magnetismo , Modelos Teóricos , Método de Montecarlo , Fenómenos Físicos , Física
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