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1.
Allergy ; 2024 Apr 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38563695

RESUMEN

The EAACI Guidelines on the impact of short-term exposure to outdoor pollutants on asthma-related outcomes provide recommendations for prevention, patient care and mitigation in a framework supporting rational decisions for healthcare professionals and patients to individualize and improve asthma management and for policymakers and regulators as an evidence-informed reference to help setting legally binding standards and goals for outdoor air quality at international, national and local levels. The Guideline was developed using the GRADE approach and evaluated outdoor pollutants referenced in the current Air Quality Guideline of the World Health Organization as single or mixed pollutants and outdoor pesticides. Short-term exposure to all pollutants evaluated increases the risk of asthma-related adverse outcomes, especially hospital admissions and emergency department visits (moderate certainty of evidence at specific lag days). There is limited evidence for the impact of traffic-related air pollution and outdoor pesticides exposure as well as for the interventions to reduce emissions. Due to the quality of evidence, conditional recommendations were formulated for all pollutants and for the interventions reducing outdoor air pollution. Asthma management counselled by the current EAACI guidelines can improve asthma-related outcomes but global measures for clean air are needed to achieve significant impact.

2.
Allergy ; 2024 Feb 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38375886

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Tape-strips, a minimally invasive method validated for the evaluation of several skin diseases, may help identify asthma-specific biomarkers in the skin of children with allergic asthma. METHODS: Skin tape-strips were obtained and analyzed with RNA-Seq from children with moderate allergic asthma (MAA) (n = 11, mean age 7.00; SD = 1.67), severe allergic asthma (SAA) (n = 9, mean age 9.11; SD = 2.37), and healthy controls (HCs) (n = 12, mean age 7.36; SD = 2.03). Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified by fold change ≥2 with a false discovery rate <0.05. Transcriptomic biomarkers were analyzed for their accuracy in distinguishing asthma from HCs, their relationships with asthma-related outcomes (exacerbation rate, lung function-FEV1, IOS-R5-20, and lung inflammation-FeNO), and their links to skin (barrier and immune response) and lung (remodeling, metabolism, aging) pathogenetic pathways. RESULTS: RNA-Seq captured 1113 in MAA and 2117 DEGs in SAA. Epidermal transcriptomic biomarkers for terminal differentiation (FLG/filaggrin), cell adhesion (CDH19, JAM2), lipid biosynthesis/metabolism (ACOT2, LOXL2) were significantly downregulated. Gene set variation analysis revealed enrichment of Th1/IFNγ pathways (p < .01). MAA and SAA shared downregulation of G-protein-coupled receptor (OR4A16, TAS1R3), upregulation of TGF-ß/ErbB signaling-related (ACVR1B, EGFR, ID1/2), and upregulation of mitochondrial-related (HIGD2A, VDAC3, NDUFB9) genes. Skin transcriptomic biomarkers correlated with the annualized exacerbation rate and with lung function parameters. A two-gene classifier (TSSC4-FAM212B) was able to differentiate asthma from HCs with 100% accuracy. CONCLUSION: Tape-strips detected epithelial barrier and asthma-associated signatures in normal-appearing skin from children with allergic asthma and may serve as an alternative to invasive approaches for evaluating asthma endotypes.

3.
Allergy ; 2024 Feb 17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38366695

RESUMEN

Systematic review using GRADE of the impact of exposure to volatile organic compounds (VOCs), cleaning agents, mould/damp, pesticides on the risk of (i) new-onset asthma (incidence) and (ii) adverse asthma-related outcomes (impact). MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science were searched for indoor pollutant exposure studies reporting on new-onset asthma and critical and important asthma-related outcomes. Ninety four studies were included: 11 for VOCs (7 for incidenceand 4 for impact), 25 for cleaning agents (7 for incidenceand 8 for impact), 48 for damp/mould (26 for incidence and 22 for impact) and 10 for pesticides (8 for incidence and 2 for impact). Exposure to damp/mould increases the risk of new-onset wheeze (moderate certainty evidence). Exposure to cleaning agents may be associated with a higher risk of new-onset asthma and with asthma severity (low level of certainty). Exposure to pesticides and VOCs may increase the risk of new-onset asthma (very low certainty evidence). The impact on asthma-related outcomes of all major indoor pollutants is uncertain. As the level of certainty is low or very low for most of the available evidence on the impact of indoor pollutants on asthma-related outcomes more rigorous research in the field is warranted.

4.
Allergy ; 2024 Feb 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38311978

RESUMEN

Air pollution is one of the biggest environmental threats for asthma. Its impact is augmented by climate change. To inform the recommendations of the EAACI Guidelines on the environmental science for allergic diseases and asthma, a systematic review (SR) evaluated the impact on asthma-related outcomes of short-term exposure to outdoor air pollutants (PM2.5, PM10, NO2 , SO2 , O3 , and CO), heavy traffic, outdoor pesticides, and extreme temperatures. Additionally, the SR evaluated the impact of the efficacy of interventions reducing outdoor pollutants. The risk of bias was assessed using ROBINS-E tools and the certainty of the evidence by using GRADE. Short-term exposure to PM2.5, PM10, and NO2 probably increases the risk of asthma-related hospital admissions (HA) and emergency department (ED) visits (moderate certainty evidence). Exposure to heavy traffic may increase HA and deteriorate asthma control (low certainty evidence). Interventions reducing outdoor pollutants may reduce asthma exacerbations (low to very low certainty evidence). Exposure to fumigants may increase the risk of new-onset asthma in agricultural workers, while exposure to 1,3-dichloropropene may increase the risk of asthma-related ED visits (low certainty evidence). Heatwaves and cold spells may increase the risk of asthma-related ED visits and HA and asthma mortality (low certainty evidence).

5.
Int Immunol ; 36(5): 211-222, 2024 Apr 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38227765

RESUMEN

The epithelial barrier theory links the recent rise in chronic non-communicable diseases, notably autoimmune and allergic disorders, to environmental agents disrupting the epithelial barrier. Global pollution and environmental toxic agent exposure have worsened over six decades because of uncontrolled growth, modernization, and industrialization, affecting human health. Introducing new chemicals without any reasonable control of their health effects through these years has led to documented adverse effects, especially on the skin and mucosal epithelial barriers. These substances, such as particulate matter, detergents, surfactants, food emulsifiers, micro- and nano-plastics, diesel exhaust, cigarette smoke, and ozone, have been shown to compromise the epithelial barrier integrity. This disruption is linked to the opening of the tight-junction barriers, inflammation, cell death, oxidative stress, and metabolic regulation. Consideration must be given to the interplay of toxic substances, underlying inflammatory diseases, and medications, especially in affected tissues. This review article discusses the detrimental effect of environmental barrier-damaging compounds on human health and involves cellular and molecular mechanisms.


Asunto(s)
Material Particulado , Emisiones de Vehículos , Humanos , Material Particulado/efectos adversos , Emisiones de Vehículos/toxicidad , Uniones Estrechas , Alérgenos , Estrés Oxidativo , Células Epiteliales
7.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 12(1): 23-30, 2024 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38013158

RESUMEN

Allergen immunotherapy is a disease-modifying treatment for IgE-mediated allergies reducing disease burden and symptoms in patients with allergic rhinitis, with or without asthma. The growing evidence that allergen immunotherapy also has the potential to facilitate achieving asthma control in patients with allergic asthma resulted in its acknowledgment by international bodies (Global Initiative for Asthma and European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology) as add-on treatment for mild/moderate asthma. Although there have been promising developments in biomarkers for patient selection and for allergen immunotherapy efficacy evaluation in patients with asthma, a lot more data are still required.


Asunto(s)
Asma , Hipersensibilidad Inmediata , Rinitis Alérgica , Inmunoterapia Sublingual , Humanos , Asma/diagnóstico , Desensibilización Inmunológica/métodos , Rinitis Alérgica/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores , Alérgenos
9.
Allergy ; 2023 Dec 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38041429

RESUMEN

Efficacious, effective and efficient communication between healthcare professionals (HCP) and patients is essential to achieve a successful therapeutic alliance. Telemedicine (TM) has been used for decades but during the COVID-19 pandemic its use has become widespread. This position paper aims to describe the terminology and most important forms of TM among HCP and patients and review the existing studies on the uses of TM for asthma and allergy. Besides, the advantages and risks of TM are discussed, concluding that TM application reduces costs and time for both, HCP and patients, but cannot completely replace face-to-face visits for physical examinations and certain tests that are critical in asthma and allergy. From an ethical point of view, it is important to identify those involved in the TM process, ensure confidentiality and use communication channels that fully guarantee the security of the information. Unmet needs and directions for the future regarding implementation, data protection, privacy regulations, methodology and efficacy are described.

10.
Allergy ; 2023 Nov 20.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37984449

RESUMEN

The importance of allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is multifaceted, encompassing both clinical and quality-of-life improvements and cost-effectiveness in the long term. Key mechanisms of allergen tolerance induced by AIT include changes in memory type allergen-specific T- and B-cell responses towards a regulatory phenotype with decreased Type 2 responses, suppression of allergen-specific IgE and increased IgG1 and IgG4 , decreased mast cell and eosinophil numbers in allergic tissues and increased activation thresholds. The potential of novel patient enrolment strategies for AIT is taking into account recent advances in biomarkers discoveries, molecular allergy diagnostics and mobile health applications contributing to a personalized approach enhancement that can increase AIT efficacy and compliance. Artificial intelligence can help manage and interpret complex and heterogeneous data, including big data from omics and non-omics research, potentially predict disease subtypes, identify biomarkers and monitor patient responses to AIT. Novel AIT preparations, such as synthetic compounds, innovative carrier systems and adjuvants, are also of great promise. Advances in clinical trial models, including adaptive, complex and hybrid designs as well as real-world evidence, allow more flexibility and cost reduction. The analyses of AIT cost-effectiveness show a clear long-term advantage compared to pharmacotherapy. Important research questions, such as defining clinical endpoints, biomarkers of patient selection and efficacy, mechanisms and the modulation of the placebo effect and alternatives to conventional field trials, including allergen exposure chamber studies are still to be elucidated. This review demonstrates that AIT is still in its growth phase and shows immense development prospects.

11.
Allergy ; 78(12): 3057-3076, 2023 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37815205

RESUMEN

This European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology guideline provides recommendations for diagnosing IgE-mediated food allergy and was developed using the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations (GRADE) approach. Food allergy diagnosis starts with an allergy-focused clinical history followed by tests to determine IgE sensitization, such as serum allergen-specific IgE (sIgE) and skin prick test (SPT), and the basophil activation test (BAT), if available. Evidence for IgE sensitization should be sought for any suspected foods. The diagnosis of allergy to some foods, such as peanut and cashew nut, is well supported by SPT and serum sIgE, whereas there are less data and the performance of these tests is poorer for other foods, such as wheat and soya. The measurement of sIgE to allergen components such as Ara h 2 from peanut, Cor a 14 from hazelnut and Ana o 3 from cashew can be useful to further support the diagnosis, especially in pollen-sensitized individuals. BAT to peanut and sesame can be used additionally. The reference standard for food allergy diagnosis is the oral food challenge (OFC). OFC should be performed in equivocal cases. For practical reasons, open challenges are suitable in most cases. Reassessment of food allergic children with allergy tests and/or OFCs periodically over time will enable reintroduction of food into the diet in the case of spontaneous acquisition of oral tolerance.


Asunto(s)
Hipersensibilidad a los Alimentos , Niño , Humanos , Hipersensibilidad a los Alimentos/diagnóstico , Pruebas Cutáneas , Inmunoglobulina E , Alérgenos , Polen
12.
Allergy ; 78(11): 2851-2874, 2023 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37814905

RESUMEN

The exponential growth of precision diagnostic tools, including omic technologies, molecular diagnostics, sophisticated genetic and epigenetic editing, imaging and nano-technologies and patient access to extensive health care, has resulted in vast amounts of unbiased data enabling in-depth disease characterization. New disease endotypes have been identified for various allergic diseases and triggered the gradual transition from a disease description focused on symptoms to identifying biomarkers and intricate pathogenetic and metabolic pathways. Consequently, the current disease taxonomy has to be revised for better categorization. This European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology Position Paper responds to this challenge and provides a modern nomenclature for allergic diseases, which respects the earlier classifications back to the early 20th century. Hypersensitivity reactions originally described by Gell and Coombs have been extended into nine different types comprising antibody- (I-III), cell-mediated (IVa-c), tissue-driven mechanisms (V-VI) and direct response to chemicals (VII). Types I-III are linked to classical and newly described clinical conditions. Type IVa-c are specified and detailed according to the current understanding of T1, T2 and T3 responses. Types V-VI involve epithelial barrier defects and metabolic-induced immune dysregulation, while direct cellular and inflammatory responses to chemicals are covered in type VII. It is notable that several combinations of mixed types may appear in the clinical setting. The clinical relevance of the current approach for allergy practice will be conferred in another article that will follow this year, aiming at showing the relevance in clinical practice where various endotypes can overlap and evolve over the lifetime.


Asunto(s)
Hipersensibilidad , Humanos , Hipersensibilidad/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores
13.
Eur. respir. j ; 62: 1-12, 20231001.
Artículo en Inglés | BIGG - guías GRADE | ID: biblio-1524150

RESUMEN

Recent clinical trials of as-needed fixed-dose combination of inhaled corticosteroid (ICS)/formoterol have provided new evidence that may warrant a reconsideration of current practice. A Task Force was set up by the European Respiratory Society to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of as-needed ICS/formoterol as treatment for mild asthma. The Task Force defined two questions that were assessed using the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) approach. The Task Force utilised the outcomes to develop recommendations for a pragmatic guideline for everyday clinical practice. The Task Force suggests that adults with mild asthma use as-needed ICS/formoterol instead of regular ICS maintenance treatment plus as-needed short-acting ß2-antagonist (SABA) and that adolescents with mild asthma use either as-needed ICS/formoterol or ICS maintenance treatment plus as-needed SABA (conditional recommendation; low certainty of evidence). The recommendation for adults places a relatively higher value on the reduction of systemic corticosteroid use and the outcomes related to exacerbations, and a relatively lower value on the small differences in asthma control. Either treatment option is suggested for adolescent patients as the balance is very close and data more limited. The Task Force recommends that adult and adolescent patients with mild asthma use as-needed ICS/formoterol instead of as-needed SABA (strong recommendation; low certainty of evidence). This recommendation is based on the benefit of as-needed ICS/formoterol in mild asthma on several outcomes and the risks related to as-needed SABA in the absence of anti-inflammatory treatment. The implementation of this recommendation is hampered in countries (including European Union countries) where as-needed ICS/formoterol is not approved for mild asthma.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Adolescente , Adulto , Asma/tratamiento farmacológico , Nebulizadores y Vaporizadores , Fumarato de Formoterol/uso terapéutico
14.
Eur Respir J ; 62(4)2023 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37678955

RESUMEN

Recent clinical trials of as-needed fixed-dose combination of inhaled corticosteroid (ICS)/formoterol have provided new evidence that may warrant a reconsideration of current practice. A Task Force was set up by the European Respiratory Society to provide evidence-based recommendations on the use of as-needed ICS/formoterol as treatment for mild asthma. The Task Force defined two questions that were assessed using the GRADE (Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation) approach. The Task Force utilised the outcomes to develop recommendations for a pragmatic guideline for everyday clinical practice. The Task Force suggests that adults with mild asthma use as-needed ICS/formoterol instead of regular ICS maintenance treatment plus as-needed short-acting ß2-antagonist (SABA) and that adolescents with mild asthma use either as-needed ICS/formoterol or ICS maintenance treatment plus as-needed SABA (conditional recommendation; low certainty of evidence). The recommendation for adults places a relatively higher value on the reduction of systemic corticosteroid use and the outcomes related to exacerbations, and a relatively lower value on the small differences in asthma control. Either treatment option is suggested for adolescent patients as the balance is very close and data more limited. The Task Force recommends that adult and adolescent patients with mild asthma use as-needed ICS/formoterol instead of as-needed SABA (strong recommendation; low certainty of evidence). This recommendation is based on the benefit of as-needed ICS/formoterol in mild asthma on several outcomes and the risks related to as-needed SABA in the absence of anti-inflammatory treatment. The implementation of this recommendation is hampered in countries (including European Union countries) where as-needed ICS/formoterol is not approved for mild asthma.

15.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 34(9): e14019, 2023 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37747742

RESUMEN

Following a diagnosis of IgE-mediated food allergy, to secure the best outcome, the patient should receive individualized advice tailored to their specific needs, which considers the type and presentation of the food involved, level of exclusion required, risk of cross-contamination and any variance required for age, ethnicity, financial issues, and lifestyle. Issues such as food labels "may contain" statements, and variation in the threshold of reaction and impact of cofactors should also be considered. Most important is the need to ensure that the diagnosis is robust, especially given the nutritional, psychological, and socioeconomic issues that can affect an individual with a diagnosis of food allergy. Unnecessary exclusion of one or more foods that have not triggered allergic reactions, especially in individuals with allergic comorbidities, can result in severe IgE-mediated reactions on re-exposure. Given that food allergies may change over time, the diagnosis should be reviewed, to determine whether resolution is likely, or new-food triggers are reported. Regular assessment is vital, especially during childhood, to ensure reintroduction occurs at an appropriate time, thus enabling increased diversity of the diet and improvement in the quality of life. For some, an IgE-mediated food allergy may necessitate the life-long exclusion of foods, and for others, a food habitually eaten suddenly triggers an allergic reaction in adult life. People of all ages, ethnicities, and socioeconomic backgrounds deserve individual advice on the management of their food allergy to support a healthy diet and improve quality of life.


Asunto(s)
Hipersensibilidad a los Alimentos , Calidad de Vida , Adulto , Humanos , Hipersensibilidad a los Alimentos/diagnóstico , Hipersensibilidad a los Alimentos/terapia , Alimentos , Etnicidad , Inmunoglobulina E
16.
Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol ; 131(6): 703-712, 2023 Dec.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37619777

RESUMEN

The epithelial barrier represents the point of contact between the host and the external environment. It is the first line of defense against external insults in the skin and in the gastrointestinal and upper and lower respiratory tracts. The steep increase in chronic disorders in recent decades, including allergies and autoimmune disorders, has prompted studies to investigate the immune mechanisms of their underlying pathogeneses, all of which point to a thought-provoking shared finding: disrupted epithelial barriers. Climate change with global warming has increased the frequency of unpredictable extreme weather events, such as wildfires, droughts, floods, and aberrant and longer pollination seasons, among many others. These increasingly frequent natural disasters can synergistically damage the epithelial barrier integrity in the presence of environmental pollution. A disrupted epithelial barrier induces proinflammatory activation of epithelial cells and alarmin production, namely, epithelitis. The "opened" epithelial barrier facilitates the entry of the external exposome into and underneath the epithelium, triggering an expulsion response driven by inflammatory cells in the area and chronic inflammation. These changes are associated with microbial dysbiosis with colonizing opportunistic pathogens and decreased commensals. These cellular and molecular events are key mechanisms in the pathogenesis of numerous chronic inflammatory disorders. This review summarizes the impact of global warming on epithelial barrier functions in the context of allergic diseases. Further studies in the impact of climate change on the dysfunction of the epithelial barriers are warranted to improve our understanding of epithelial barrier-related diseases and raise awareness of the environmental insults that pose a threat to our health.


Asunto(s)
Calentamiento Global , Hipersensibilidad , Humanos , Epitelio , Inflamación , Células Epiteliales
17.
Allergy ; 78(10): 2606-2622, 2023 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37584433

RESUMEN

Health care professionals (HCPs) and researchers in the health care sector dedicate their professional life to maintaining and optimizing the health of their patients. To achieve this, significant amounts of resources are used and currently it is estimated that the health care sector contributes to more than 4% of net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. GHG emissions adversely impact planetary health and consequently human health, as the two are intricately linked. There are many factors of health care that contribute to these emissions. Hospitals and research labs also use high amounts of consumables which require large amounts of raw materials and energy to produce. They are further responsible for polluting the environment via disposal of plastics, drug products, and other chemicals. To maintain and develop state-of-the-art best practices and treatments, medical experts exchange and update their knowledge on methods and technologies in the respective fields at highly specialized scientific meetings. These meetings necessitate thousands of attendants traveling around the globe. Therefore, while the goal of HCPs is to care for the individual, current practices have an enormous (indirect) impact on the health of the patients by their negative environmental impacts. There is an urgent need for HCPs and researchers to mitigate these detrimental effects. The installation of a sustainability-manager at health care facilities and research organizations to implement sustainable practices while still providing quality health care is desirable. Increased use of telemedicine, virtual/hybrid conferences and green chemistry have recently been observed. The benefits of these practices need to be evaluated and implemented as appropriate. With this manuscript, we aim to increase the awareness about the negative impacts of the health care system (including health care research) on planetary and human health. We suggest some easy and highly impactful steps and encourage health care professionals and research scientists of all hierarchical levels to immediately implement them in their professional as well as private life to counteract the health care sector's detrimental effects on the environment.


Asunto(s)
Ambiente , Laboratorios , Humanos , Atención a la Salud
18.
Allergy ; 78(11): 2835-2850, 2023 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37449468

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: In allergic asthma patients, one of the more common phenotypes might benefit from allergen immunotherapy (AIT) as add-on intervention to pharmacological treatment. AIT is a treatment with disease-modifying modalities, the evidence for efficacy is based on controlled clinical trials following standardized endpoint measures. However, so far there is a lack of a consensus for asthma endpoints in AIT trials. The aim of a task force (TF) of the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is evaluating several outcome measures for AIT in allergic asthma. METHODS: The following domains of outcome measures in asthmatic patients have been evaluated for this position paper (PP): (i) exacerbation rate, (ii) lung function, (iii) ICS withdrawal, (iv) symptoms and rescue medication use, (v) questionnaires (PROMS), (vi) bronchial/nasal provocation, (vii) allergen exposure chambers (AEC) and (viii) biomarkers. RESULTS: Exacerbation rate can be used as a reliable objective primary outcome; however, there is limited evidence due to different definitions of exacerbation. The time after ICS withdrawal to first exacerbation is considered a primary outcome measure. Besides, the advantages and disadvantages and clinical implications of further domains of asthma endpoints in AIT trials are elaborated in this PP. CONCLUSION: This EAACI-PP aims to highlight important aspects of current asthma measures by critically evaluating their applicability for controlled trials of AIT.


Asunto(s)
Alérgenos , Asma , Humanos , Desensibilización Inmunológica , Asma/diagnóstico , Biomarcadores , Estándares de Referencia
19.
Front Allergy ; 4: 1129248, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37324781

RESUMEN

The reasons behind the onset and continuation of chronic inflammation in individuals with severe allergies are still not understood. Earlier findings indicated that there is a connection between severe allergic inflammation, systemic metabolic alterations and impairment of regulatory functions. Here, we aimed to identify transcriptomic alterations in T cells associated with the degree of severity in allergic asthmatic patients. T cells were isolated from severe (n = 7) and mild (n = 9) allergic asthmatic patients, and control (non-allergic, non-asthmatic healthy) subjects (n = 8) to perform RNA analysis by Affymetrix gene expression. Compromised biological pathways in the severe phenotype were identified using significant transcripts. T cells' transcriptome of severe allergic asthmatic patients was distinct from that of mild and control subjects. A higher count of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) was observed in the group of individuals with severe allergic asthma vs. control (4,924 genes) and vs. mild (4,232 genes) groups. Mild group also had 1,102 DEGs vs. controls. Pathway analysis revealed alterations in metabolism and immune response in the severe phenotype. Severe allergic asthmatic patients presented downregulation in genes related to oxidative phosphorylation, fatty acid oxidation and glycolysis together with increased expression of genes coding inflammatory cytokines (e.g. IL-19, IL-23A and IL-31). Moreover, the downregulation of genes involved in TGFß pathway together with a decreased tendency on the percentage of T regulatory cell (CD4 + CD25+), suggest a compromised regulatory function in severe allergic asthmatic patients. This study demonstrates a transcriptional downregulation of metabolic and cell signalling pathways in T cells of severe allergic asthmatic patients associated with diminished regulatory T cell function. These findings support a link between energy metabolism of T cells and allergic asthmatic inflammation.

20.
Clin Transl Allergy ; 13(6): e12250, 2023 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37357552

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Although it has been shown that allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is well-tolerated in children, systematic and prospective surveillance of AIT safety in real life settings is needed. METHODS: The multinational Allergen Immunotherapy Adverse Events Registry (ADER) was designed to address AIT safety in real life clinical practice. Data on children ≤18 years old with respiratory allergies undergoing AIT were retrieved. Patient- and AIT-related features were collected and analyzed. The characteristics of adverse events (AE) and risk factors were evaluated. RESULTS: A total of 851 patients, 11.3 ± 3.4 years old, with rhinitis only (47.6%); asthma and rhinitis (44.5%); asthma (7.9%), receiving 998 AIT courses were analyzed. Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) accounted for 51% of the courses. In 84.5% of patients only one AIT treatment was prescribed. Pollen was the most frequent sensitizer (57.1%), followed by mites (53.4%), molds (18.2%) and epithelia (16.7%). Local and systemic AEs were reported in 85 patients (9.9%). Most AEs (83.1%) were mild and occurred in <30 min (87%). Respiratory and cutaneous symptoms were more frequent. Only 4 patients (0.47%) had severe AE (none after 6 weeks of maintenance). The risk of AE was higher in patients undergoing SCIT. CONCLUSIONS: AIT is safe and well tolerated in children and adolescents with respiratory allergies in real-life clinical practice. Though SCIT is more prone to AE compared to SLIT, overall severe reactions are rare and occur during build-up and early maintenance.

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