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1.
Int J Infect Dis ; 2021 Feb 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647515

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The role of combination immunomodulatory therapy with systemic corticosteroids and tocilizumab (TCZ) for aged patients with COVID-19-associated cytokine release syndrome remains unclear. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective single-center study including consecutive patients ≥65 years that developed severe COVID-19 between March 3 and May 1, 2020 and were treated with corticosteroids at various doses (methylprednisolone [0.5 mg/Kg/12 hours to 250 mg/24 hours]), either alone ("CS group") or associated to intravenous tocilizumab (400-600 mg, one to three doses) ("CS-TCZ group"). Primary outcome was all-cause mortality by day +14, whereas secondary outcomes included mortality by day +28 and clinical improvement (discharge and/or a ≥2-point decrease on a six-point ordinal scale) by day +14. Propensity score (PS)-based adjustment and inverse probability of treatment weights (IPTW) were applied. RESULTS: Overall, 181 and 80 patients were included in the CS and CS-TCZ groups. All-cause 14-day mortality was lower in the CS-TCZ group, both in the PS-adjusted (hazard ratio [HR]: 0.34; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.17 - 0.68; P-value = 0.002) and IPTW-weighted models (odds ratio [OR]: 0.38; 95% CI: 0.21 - 0.68; P-value = 0.001). This protective effect was also observed for 28-day mortality (PS-adjusted HR: 0.38; 95% CI: 0.21 - 0.72; P-value = 0.003). Clinical improvement by day +14 was higher in the CS-TCZ group in the IPTW analysis only (OR: 2.26; 95% CI: 1.49 - 3.41; P-value <0.001). The occurrence of secondary infection was similar between both groups. CONCLUSIONS: The combination of corticosteroids and TCZ was associated with better outcomes among patients ≥65 years with severe COVID-19.

2.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33558295

RESUMEN

Current guidelines recommend against systematic screening or treating asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB) among kidney transplant (KT) recipients, although the evidence regarding episodes occurring early after transplantation or in the presence of anatomical abnormalities is inconclusive. Oral fosfomycin may constitute a good option for the treatment of post-transplant AB, particularly due to the emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) uropathogens. Available clinical evidence supporting its use in this specific setting, however, remains scarce. We performed a retrospective study in 14 Spanish institutions from January 2005 to December 2017. Overall, 137 episodes of AB diagnosed in 133 KT recipients treated with oral fosfomycin (calcium and trometamol salts) with a test-of-cure urine culture within the first 30 days were included. Median time from transplantation to diagnosis was 3.1 months (interquartile range [IQR]: 1.1 - 10.5). Most episodes (96.4% [132/137]) were caused by gram-negative bacteria (GNB), and 56.9% (78/137) were categorized as MDR (extended-spectrum ß-lactamase-producing Enterobacterales [20.4%] and carbapenem-resistant GNB [2.9%]). Rate of microbiological failure at month 1 was 40.1% (95% confidence interval [95%CI]: 31.9 - 48.9) for the whole cohort and 42.3% (95%CI: 31.2 - 54.0) for episodes due to MDR pathogens. Previous urinary tract infection (odds ratio [OR]: 2.42; 95%CI: 1.11 - 5.29; P-value = 0.027) and use of fosfomycin as salvage therapy (OR: 8.31; 95%CI: 1.67 - 41.35; P-value = 0.010) were predictors of microbiological failure. No severe treatment-related adverse event were detected. Oral fosfomycin appears to be a suitable and safe alternative for the treatment (if indicated) of AB after KT, including those episodes due to MDR uropathogens.

3.
Int J Infect Dis ; 2021 Feb 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33592340

RESUMEN

OBJETIVES: A subgroup of patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection is considered to develop a cytokine release syndrome and have been treated with tocilizumab, but a significant percentage of patients evolve. Our objective was to determine the usefulness of anakinra as rescue treatment for patients with tocilizumab-refractory COVID-19 disease. METHODS: A prospective cohort of patients with COVID19 pneumonia who received anakinra as salvage therapy after failure of tocilizumab were compared (1:1) to selected controls in a historical cohort of patients treated with tocilizumab. Cases and controls were matched by age, comorbidities, pulse oximetry oxygen saturation to fraction of inspired oxygen (SpO2/FiO2) ratio at baseline and time elapsed since the initiation of treatment with tocilizumab. The primary outcome was the improvement in clinical status measured by a six-point ordinal scale, from baseline to day 21. RESULTS: The study included 20 cases and 20 controls (mean age 65.3±12.8 years, 65% males). No differences were found in the clinical improvement rates at 7, 14 and 21 days of follow-up. In-hospital mortality rate for patients receiving anakinra was 55% vs. 45% in the control group (P=0.527). CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with anakinra was not useful to improve the prognosis of patients with tocilizumab-refractory severe COVID-19.

4.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33409832

RESUMEN

The aim of our study was to elucidate if SARS-CoV-2 viral load on admission, measured by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) cycle threshold (Ct) value on nasopharyngeal samples, was a marker of disease severity. All hospitalized adult patients with a diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection by rRT-PCR performed on a nasopharingeal sample from March 1 to March 18 in our institution were included. The study population was divided according to the Ct value obtained upon admission in patients with high viral load (Ct < 25), intermediate viral load (Ct: 25-30) and low viral load (Ct > 30). Demographic, clinical and laboratory variables of the different groups were analyzed to assess the influence of viral load on the development of respiratory failure during admission. Overall, 455 sequential patients were included. The median Ct value was 28 (IQR: 24-32). One hundred and thirty patients (28.6%) had a high viral load, 175 (38.5%) an intermediate viral load and 150 (33%) a low viral load. Advanced age, male sex, presence of cardiovascular disease and laboratory markers such as lactate dehydrogenase, lymphocyte count and C-reactive protein, as well as a high viral load on admission, were predictive of respiratory failure. A Ct value < 25 was associated with a higher risk of respiratory failure during admission (OR: 2.99, 95%IC: 1.57-5.69). SARS-CoV-2 viral load, measured through the Ct value on admission, is a valuable tool to predict the development of respiratory failure in COVID-19 inpatients.

6.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2021 Jan 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33513221

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Although pre-surgical nasal decontamination with mupirocin (NDM) has been advocated as a measure for preventing post-surgical mediastinitis (PSM) due to Staphylococcus aureus, this strategy is not universally recommended due to the lack of robust supporting evidence. We aimed to evaluate the role of pre-operative NDM in the annual incidence of S. aureus PSM at our institution. METHODS: An interrupted time-series analysis, with autoregressive error model, was applied to our single-center cohort by comparing pre-intervention (1990-2003) and post-intervention period (2005 to 2018). Logistic regression was performed to analyze risk factors for S. aureus PSM. FINDINGS: 12,236 sternotomy procedures were analyzed (6,370 [52.1%] and 5,866 [47.9%] in the pre-intervention and post-intervention periods, respectively). The mean annual percentage adherence to NDM estimated over the post-interventional period was 90.2%. Only four out of 127 total cases of S. aureus PSM occurred during the 14-years post-intervention period (0.68/1,000 sternotomies vs. 19.31/1,000 in pre-interventional period [p<0.0001]). Interrupted time-series analysis demonstrated a statistically significant annual reduction of S. aureus PSM trend of -9.85 cases per 1,000 sternotomies (-13.17 to -6.5, P-value< 0·0001) in 2005, with a decreasing trend maintained over the following five years with an estimated relative reduction of 84.8% (95% CI: 89·25 to 74·09). Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was the single independent risk factor for S. aureus PSM (odds ratio: 3.7; 95% CI: 1.72-7.93) and was equally distributed in patients undergoing sternotomy during pre or post-intervention periods. INTERPRETATION: Our experience suggests that the implementation of pre-operative NDM reduces significantly the incidence of S. aureus PSM.

7.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(1)2021 Jan.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33352085

RESUMEN

Invasive fusariosis (IF) is associated with severe neutropenia in patients with concurrent hematologic conditions. We conducted a retrospective observational study to characterize the epidemiology of IF in 18 Spanish hospitals during 2000-2015. In that time, the frequency of IF in nonneutropenic patients increased from 0.08 cases per 100,000 admissions in 2000-2009 to 0.22 cases per 100,000 admissions in 2010-2015. Nonneutropenic IF patients often had nonhematologic conditions, such as chronic cardiac or lung disease, rheumatoid arthritis, history of solid organ transplantation, or localized fusariosis. The 90-day death rate among nonneutropenic patients (28.6%) and patients with resolved neutropenia (38.1%) was similar. However, the death rate among patients with persistent neutropenia (91.3%) was significantly higher. We used a multivariate Cox regression analysis to characterize risk factors for death: persistent neutropenia was the only risk factor for death, regardless of antifungal therapy.

8.
Artículo en Inglés, Español | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33339658

RESUMEN

Over the past decades, the advent of targeted and biological therapies has revolutionized the management of cancer and autoimmune, hematological and inflammatory conditions. Although a large amount of information is now available on the risk of opportunistic infections associated with some of these agents, the evidence regarding the susceptibility to bacterial infections is more limited. Biological agents have been shown to entail a variable risk of bacterial infections in pivotal randomized clinical trials and post-marketing studies. Recommendations on risk minimization strategies and therapeutic interventions are therefore scarce and often based on expert opinion, with only a few clear statements for some particular agents (i.e. meningococcal vaccination for patients receiving eculizumab). In the present review the available information regarding the incidence of and risk factors for bacterial infection associated with the use of different groups of biological agents is summarized according to their mechanisms of action, and recommendations based on this evidence are provided. Additional information coming from clinical research and real-world studies is required to address unmet questions in this emerging field.

9.
Transpl Infect Dis ; : e13520, 2020 Nov 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33222379

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Whether active therapy with ß-lactam/ß-lactamase inhibitors (BLBLI) is as affective as carbapenems for extended-spectrum ß-lactamase-producing Enterobacterales (ESBL-E) bloodstream infection (BSI) secondary to urinary tract infection (UTI) in kidney transplant recipients (KTR) remains unclear. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated 306 KTR admitted to 30 centers from January 2014 to October 2016. Therapeutic failure (lack of cure or clinical improvement and/or death from any cause) at days 7 and 30 from ESBL-E BSI onset were primary and secondary study outcomes, respectively. RESULTS: Therapeutic failure at days 7 and 30 occurred in 8.2% (25/306) and 13.4% (41/306) of patients. Hospital-acquired BSI (adjusted OR [aOR]: 4.10; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.50-11.20) and Pitt score (aOR: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.21-1.77) were independently associated with therapeutic failure at day 7. Age-adjusted Charlson Index (aOR: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.05-1.48), Pitt score (aOR: 1.72; 95% CI: 1.35-2.17) and lymphocyte count ≤500 cells/µL at presentation (aOR: 3.16; 95% CI: 1.42-7.06) predicted therapeutic failure at day 30. Carbapenem monotherapy (68.6%, primarily meropenem) was the most frequent active therapy, followed by BLBLI monotherapy (10.8%, mostly piperacillin-tazobactam). Propensity score-adjusted models revealed no significant impact of the choice of active therapy (carbapenem-containing versus any other regimen, BLBLI- versus carbapenem-based monotherapy) within the first 72 hours on any of the study outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that active therapy based on BLBLI may be as effective as carbapenem-containing regimens for ESBL-E BSI secondary to UTI in the specific population of KTR. Potential residual confounding and unpowered sample size cannot be excluded (ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT02852902).

10.
Enferm. infecc. microbiol. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 38(9): 425-430, nov. 2020. tab
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS-Express | IBECS | ID: ibc-ET6-1460

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Data concerning the use of peripherally inserted central catheters (PICC) for the administration of intravenous (IV) antimicrobials in the acute care setting is scarce. METHODS: We performed a single-center retrospective case-control study (1:1). Case subjects were defined as patients who received IV antimicrobial treatment through a PICC line placed and maintained by specifically trained nurses (PICC group). Control subjects were defined as patients who received antimicrobial therapy by a peripheral or a central venous catheter (CVC) (control group). Control subjects were matched by type of antimicrobial, causative microorganism of the infection that was being treated and duration of treatment. An event leading to undesired catheter removal (ELUCR) was defined as any circumstance which lead to the removal of the indwelling catheter other than the completion of the scheduled course of antimicrobial therapy. RESULTS: The study included 50 patients in each group. The total follow-up time was 1376 catheter-days for the PICC group and 1362 catheter-days for the control group. We observed a significantly lower incidence of ELUCR in the PICC group (0.2 versus 7.7 events per 100 catheter-days; P < 0.001). When the incidence of ELUCR was analyzed according to the duration of indwelling catheterisation for each type of catheter (divided into one-week intervals), differences between both groups were also significant (P-values ≤ 0.001 for the first three weeks of treatment). During the second week of IV treatment, only one patient in the PICC group (2.1%) developed an ELUCR compared to 19 (38.8%) in the control group (P < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: A PICC placed and maintained by a dedicated nursing team is an excellent alternative to peripheral venous catheters or CVCs for administrating antimicrobial therapy for both short and long periods of treatment


INTRODUCCIÓN: Existe escasa información disponible sobre el empleo de catéteres venosos centrales de inserción periférica (PICC en sus siglas en inglés) para la administración de antimicrobianos por vía intravenosa (IV) en la atención a pacientes con procesos agudos. MÉTODOS: Realizamos un estudio unicéntrico retrospectivo de casos y controles (1:1). Los casos estaban constituidos por pacientes que recibieron tratamiento antimicrobiano IV a través de un catéter tipo PICC que fue insertado y cuidado por un equipo de enfermería especialmente entrenado a tal efecto (grupo PICC). Los controles estaban constituidos por pacientes que recibieron el tratamiento antimicrobiano a través de un catéter venoso periférico o a través de un catéter venoso central (CVC) (grupo control). Los controles fueron emparejados con los casos considerando el tipo de antimicrobiano administrado, el microorganismo causal de la infección que se estaba tratando y la duración del tratamiento. Se definió como un evento que condujo a la retirada no deseada del catéter (ECRDC) a cualquier circunstancia que obligara a la retirada del catéter insertado antes del tiempo programado para completar el tratamiento antimicrobiano establecido. RESULTADOS: El estudio incluyó 50 pacientes en cada grupo. El tiempo total de seguimiento fue de 1.376 días de catéter en el grupo PICC y de 1.362 días de catéter en el grupo control. Se observó una incidencia de ECRDC significativamente menor en el grupo PICC que en el grupo control (0,2 versus 7,7 eventos por cada 100 días de catéter; P < 0,001). Cuando la incidencia de ECRDC se analizó según la duración del tiempo de inserción de cada tipo de catéter (dividido en intervalos de una semana), se pudo constatar que las diferencias entre ambos grupos también eran significativas (P ≤ 0.001 para las tres primeras semanas de tratamiento). Durante la segunda semana de tratamiento IV, solamente un paciente en el grupo PICC (2,1%) desarrolló un ECRDC en comparación con 19 (38,8%) en el grupo control (P (P < 0,001). CONCLUSIONES: Un catéter tipo PICC insertado y cuidado por un equipo de enfermería entrenado es una excelente alternativa a los catéteres venosos periféricos o a los CVC para la administración de antimicrobianos tanto para periodos cortos como para periodos largos de tiempo

11.
Curr Transplant Rep ; : 1-11, 2020 Oct 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33110739

RESUMEN

Purpose of Review: Severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is characterized by the development of a deleterious hyperinflammatory response, in which the pleiotropic cytokine interleukin (IL)-6 plays a pivotal role. The administration of immunomodulatory therapies has been proposed to revert the tissue damage induced by COVID-19-related cytokine release syndrome (CRS). The present review summarizes the biological rationale and available clinical experience with this therapeutic strategy in the specific scenario solid organ transplantation (SOT). Recent Findings: A number of case reports, case series, and non-controlled cohort studies have assessed the efficacy and safety of the anti-IL-6-receptor monoclonal tocilizumab in SOT (namely kidney transplantation) recipients with COVID-19 pneumonia and CRS. Although the heterogeneity in patient management and the lack of a control group limit the interpretation of these results, tocilizumab therapy appears to provide some clinical benefit in post-transplant COVID-19 and to be reasonably safe in terms of bacterial superinfection. A large randomized clinical trial (RCT) has shown survival benefit with adjuvant corticosteroids in non-transplant patients, but supporting evidence is scarce for SOT recipients and confounded by the variable adjustment of baseline immunosuppression. Anecdotal experiences have been reported with the use of the anti-IL-1 agent anakinra and the NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitor colchicine in this population. Summary: Immunomodulation has emerged as a promising option for SOT recipients with COVID-19-related CRS, with available experience mainly restricted to the anti-IL-6 agent tocilizumab. However, the supporting evidence is scarce and of low quality. In the absence of RCT, observational studies including well-matched control groups should be designed in future.

12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33042855

RESUMEN

Enterobacteria species are common causes of hospital-acquired infections, which are associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Immunocompromised patients such as solid organ transplant (SOT) recipients are especially at risk because they are frequently exposed to antibiotics in the course of their treatments. In this work, we used a collection of 106 Escherichia coli, 78 Klebsiella pneumoniae, 25 Enterobacter spp., and 24 Citrobacter spp. multidrug resistant strains isolated from transplant patients (hepatic, renal or renal/pancreatic) in order to examine their ability to adhere in vitro to HT-29 human colon cells, and to determine if some adhesive characteristics are associated with prevalence and persistence of these strains. A total of 33 E. coli (31%), 21 K. pneumoniae (27%), 7 Enterobacter spp. (28%), and 5 Citrobacter spp. (21%), adhered to the colon epithelial cells. Two main adherence patterns were observed in the four species analyzed, diffuse adherence, and aggregative adherence. Under transmission electronic microscopy (TEM), most bacteria lacked visible fimbria on their surface, despite their strong adherence to epithelial cells. None of the strains studied was able to induce any cytotoxic effect on HT-29 cells although some of them strongly colonizing both cells and glass coverslips at high density. Some of the strains failed to adhere to the epithelial cells but adhered strongly to the cover-slide, which shows that microscopy studies are mandatory to elucidate the adherence of bacteria to epithelial cells in vitro, and that quantitative assays using colony forming unit (CFUs) counting need to be supplemented with pictures to determine definitively if a bacterial strain adheres or not to animal cells in vitro. We report here, for the first time, the aggregative adherence pattern of two multidrug resistant (MDR) Citrobacter freundii strains isolated from human patients; importantly, biofilm formation in Citrobacter is totally dependent on the temperature; strong biofilms were formed at room temperature (RT) but not at 37°C, which can play an important role in the colonization of hospital surfaces. In conclusion, our results show that there is a great variety of adhesion phenotypes in multidrug-resistant strains that colonize transplanted patients.

13.
Enferm. infecc. microbiol. clín. (Ed. impr.) ; 38(8): 379-389, oct. 2020. tab
Artículo en Inglés | IBECS-Express | IBECS | ID: ibc-ET5-2276

RESUMEN

The immunosuppressive treatment that recipients receive from a solid organ transplantation hinders the defensive response to infection. Its transmission from the donor can cause dysfunction or loss of the graft and even death of the recipient if proper preventive measures are not established. This potential risk should be thoroughly evaluated to minimise the risk of infection transmission from donor to recipient, especially with organ transplantation from donors with infections, without increasing graft dysfunction and morbidity and mortality in the recipient. This document aims to review current knowledge about infection screening in potential donors and offer clinical and microbiological recommendations about the use of organs from donors with infection based on available scientific evidence


El tratamiento inmunosupresor que recibe el receptor de un trasplante de órgano sólido dificulta la respuesta defensiva frente a la infección. La transmisión de la misma desde un donante puede provocar la disfunción o pérdida del injerto e, incluso, la muerte del receptor si no se establecen las medidas preventivas oportunas. Este riesgo potencial debe ser evaluado minuciosamente para minimizar el riesgo de transmisión de infección del donante al receptor, especialmente con el trasplante de órganos de donantes con infecciones, sin aumentar la disfunción del injerto y la morbimortalidad en el receptor. Este documento pretende revisar los conocimientos actuales sobre la detección sistemática de infecciones en los donantes potenciales y ofrecer recomendaciones clínicas y microbiológicas acerca del uso de órganos procedentes de donantes con infección basadas en la evidencia científica disponible

14.
Clin Transplant ; 34(11): e14072, 2020 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862472

RESUMEN

A potential benefit of immunomodulatory agents such as tocilizumab (TCZ) has been reported in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and severe pulmonary involvement. However, this therapy has been scarcely studied in kidney transplant (KT) recipients. Herein, we describe the clinical course and outcome of 10 KT patients with severe COVID-19 that were treated with TCZ. Mean age of the study group was 54 ± 10 years (70% females), and 30% of the cases were within 6 months from transplant. Mycophenolate mofetil was discontinued in all cases upon admission, whereas baseline steroids were maintained and tacrolimus dose was reduced. Initial treatment included hydroxychloroquine, antibiotics, and prophylactic anticoagulation. Before treatment with TCZ, 3 patients were receiving high-flow oxygen, 4 patients low-flow oxygen and 1 case non-invasive ventilation. All patients received a single dose of intravenous TCZ within a mean time of 7 ± 4 days since admission. During a median follow-up of 16 days (IQR: 10-29), 7 patients (70%) gradually improved and were finally discharged while three cases (30%) did not exhibited clinical improvement and ultimately died. In conclusion, although treatment with TCZ could be associated with improved clinical outcomes in a subset of KT recipients with COVID-19, further studies are warranted before drawing firm conclusions.

15.
Am J Transplant ; 2020 Aug 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32780498

RESUMEN

To investigate risk factors for invasive aspergillosis (IA) after kidney transplantation (KT), we conducted a systematic search in PubMed and EMBASE to identify studies published until June 2020. We included case-control or cohort design studies comprising KT recipients with a diagnosis of IA, defined according to the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer/Invasive Fungal Infections Cooperative Group criteria, and assessed risk factors for the development of IA. Random-effect models meta-analysis served to pool data. We identified eleven case-control studies (319 IA cases and 835 controls). There was an increased risk of IA among recipients with underlying chronic lung diseases (odds ratio [OR] = 7.26; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.05-50.06) and among those with diabetic nephropathy (OR = 1.65; 95% CI = 1.10-2.48). Requiring posttransplant hemodialysis (OR = 3.69; 95% CI = 2.13-6.37) or surgical reintervention (OR = 6.28; 95% CI = 1.67-23.66) were also associated with an increased risk. Moreover, a positive link was identified between IA and posttransplant bacterial infection (OR = 7.51; 95% CI = 4.37-12.91), respiratory tract viral infection (OR = 7.75; 95% CI = 1.60-37.57), cytomegalovirus infection or disease (OR = 2.67; 95% CI = 1.12-6.32), and acute graft rejection (OR = 3.01; 95% CI = 1.78-5.09). In contrast, receiving a kidney from a living donor was associated with a reduced risk (OR = 0.65; 95% CI = 0.46-0.93). KT recipients that accumulate several of these conditions should be closely monitored and a low threshold of suspicion for IA should be maintained. Future studies should explore the benefit of mold-active prophylaxis to this subgroup of KT recipients at highest risk.

16.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2020 Jul 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32725216

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: We aimed to determine whether daptomycin plus fosfomycin provides higher treatment success than daptomycin alone for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteremia and endocarditis. METHODS: A randomized (1:1) phase III superiority, open-label, and parallel group clinical trial of adult inpatients with MRSA bacteremia was conducted at 18 Spanish hospitals. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either 10 mg of daptomycin intravenously per kilogram daily plus 2 g of fosfomycin intravenously every six hours, or 10 mg of daptomycin intravenously per kilogram daily. Primary endpoint was treatment success six weeks after the end of therapy. RESULTS: Of 167 patients randomized, 155 completed the trial and were assessed for the primary endpoint. Treatment success at six weeks after the end of therapy was achieved in 40 of 74 patients who received daptomycin plus fosfomycin and in 34 of 81 patients who were given daptomycin alone (54.1% vs. 42.0%; relative risk: 1.29, 95%CI 0.93 to 1.8, p=0.135). At six weeks, daptomycin plus fosfomycin was associated with lower microbiologic failure (0 vs. 9 patients, p=0.003) and lower complicated bacteremia (16.2% vs. 32.1%; p=0.022). Adverse events leading to treatment discontinuation occurred in 13 of 74 patients (17.6%) receiving daptomycin plus fosfomycin, and in four of 81 patients (4.9%) receiving daptomycin alone (p=0.018). CONCLUSION: Daptomycin plus fosfomycin provided 12% higher rate of treatment success than daptomycin alone, but this difference did not reach statistical significance. This antibiotic combination prevented microbiological failure and complicated bacteremia, but it was more often associated with adverse events.

17.
EClinicalMedicine ; 23: 100407, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32632417

RESUMEN

Background: Information regarding the incidence and characteristics of COVID-19 pneumonia amongst pregnant women is scarce. Methods: Single-centre experience with 32 pregnant women diagnosed with COVID-19 between March 5 to April 5, 2020 at Madrid, Spain. Findings: COVID-19 pneumonia was diagnosed in 61·5% (32/52) women. Only 18·7% (6/32) had some underlying condition (mostly asthma). Supplemental oxygen therapy was required in 18 patients (56·3%), with high-flow requirements in six (18·7%). Eight patients (25·0%) fulfilled the criteria for acute distress respiratory syndrome. Invasive mechanical ventilation was required in two patients (6·2%). Tocilizumab was administered in five patients (15·6%). Delivery was precipitated due to COVID-19 in three women (9·4%). All the newborns had a favourable outcome, with no cases of neonatal SARS-CoV-2 transmission. Severe cases of pneumonia requiring supplemental oxygen were more likely to exhibit bilateral alveolar or interstitial infiltrates on chest X-ray (55·6% vs. 0·0%; P-value = 0·003) and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) levels >10 mg/dL (33·0% vs. 0·0%; P-value = 0·05) at admission than those with no oxygen requirements. Interpretation: Pregnant women with COVID-19 have a high risk of developing pneumonia, with a severe course in more than half of cases. The presence of bilateral kung infiltrates and elevated serum CRP at admission may identify women at-risk of severe COVID-19 pneumonia. Funding: Instituto de Salud Carlos III (COV20/00,181), Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation.

18.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 7(7): ofaa216, 2020 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32665958

RESUMEN

Background: Staphylococcus aureus bloodstream infection (SABSI) arising from a urinary tract source (UTS) is poorly understood. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis in 3 major teaching hospitals in Spain of prospectively collected data of hospitalized patients with SABSI. SABSI-UTS was diagnosed in patients with urinary tract symptoms and/or signs, no evidence of an extra-urinary source of infection, and a urinary S. aureus count of ≥105 cfu/mL. Susceptibility of S. aureus strains and patient mortality were compared between SABSI from UTS (SABSI-UTS) and other sources (SABSI-other). Results: Of 4181 episodes of SABSI, we identified 132 (3.16%) cases of SABSI-UTS that occurred predominantly in patients who were male, had high Charlson comorbidity scores, were dependent for daily life activities, and who had undergone urinary catheterization and/or urinary manipulation before the infection. SABSI-UTS was more often caused by MRSA strains compared with SABSI-other (40.9% vs 17.5%; P < .001). Patients with SABSI-UTS caused by MRSA more often received inadequate empirical treatment compared with those caused by susceptible strains (59.7% vs 23.1%; P < .001). The 30-day case fatality rate was lower in patients with SABSI-UTS than in those with SABSI-other (14.4% vs 23.8%; P = .02). Factors independently associated with mortality were dependence for daily activities (aOR, 3.877; 95% CI, 1.08-13.8; P = .037) and persistent bacteremia (aOR, 7.88; 95% CI, 1.57-39.46; P = .012). Conclusions: SABSI-UTS occurs predominantly in patients with severe underlying conditions and in those who have undergone urinary tract manipulation. Moreover, it is frequently due to MRSA strains and causes significant mortality.

19.
J Med Virol ; 2020 Jul 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32672860

RESUMEN

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can lead to a massive cytokine release. The use of the anti-interleukin-6 receptor monoclonal antibody tocilizumab (TCZ) has been proposed in this hyperinflammatory phase, although supporting evidence is limited. We retrospectively analyzed 88 consecutive patients with COVID-19 pneumonia that received at least one dose of intravenous TCZ in our institution between 16 and 27 March 2020. Clinical status from day 0 (first TCZ dose) through day 14 was assessed by a 6-point ordinal scale. The primary outcome was clinical improvement (hospital discharge and/or a decrease of ≥2 points on the 6-point scale) by day 7. Secondary outcomes included clinical improvement by day 14 and dynamics of vital signs and laboratory values. Rates of clinical improvement by days 7 and 14 were 44.3% (39/88) and 73.9% (65/88). Previous or concomitant receipt of subcutaneous interferon-ß (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 0.23; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.06-0.94; P = .041) and serum lactate dehydrogenase more than 450 U/L at day 0 (aOR: 0.25; 95% CI: 0.06-0.99; P = .048) were negatively associated with clinical improvement by day 7. All-cause mortality was 6.8% (6/88). Body temperature and respiratory and cardiac rates significantly decreased by day 1 compared to day 0. Lymphocyte count and pulse oximetry oxygen saturation/FiO2 ratio increased by days 3 and 5, whereas C-reactive protein levels dropped by day 2. There were no TCZ-attributable adverse events. In this observational single-center study, TCZ appeared to be useful and safe as immunomodulatory therapy for severe COVID-19 pneumonia.

20.
Eur J Haematol ; 105(5): 597-607, 2020 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32710500

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in haematological patients (HP) has not been comprehensively reported. METHODS: We analysed 39 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and haematological malignancies. Clinical characteristics and outcomes were compared to a matched control group of 53 non-cancer patients with COVID-19. Univariate and multivariate analyses were carried out to assess the risk factors associated with poor outcome. RESULTS: The most frequent haematological diseases were lymphoma (30%) and multiple myeloma (30%). Eighty-seven % HP developed moderate or severe disease. Patients with haematological malignancies had a significantly higher mortality rate compared to non-cancer patients (35.9% vs 13.2%; P = .003 (odds ratio 6.652). The worst outcome was observed in chronic lymphocytic leukaemia patients. Only age >70 years and C reactive protein >10 mg/dl at admission were associated with higher risk of death (odds ratio 34.86, P = .003 and 13.56,P = .03). Persistent viral sheddind was detected in 5 HP. Active chemotherapy, viral load at diagnosis and COVID-19 therapy were not predictors of outcome. CONCLUSION: Mortality of COVID-19 is significantly higher in patients with haematological malignancies compared to non-cancer patients. The impact of persistent viral shedding must be considered in order to re-start therapies and maintain infectious control measures.

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