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1.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35529587

RESUMEN

Sugarcane farming and bioethanol production are water-intensive activities that result in high water competition. The competition, in turn, can exacerbate water scarcity. Therefore, this study aims to evaluate the water footprint (WF) of the sugar and bioethanol production at the Finchaa and Metehara sugarcane farms, which are located in different river basins in Ethiopia. The climatic data (minimal and maximum temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, and sunshine duration), meteorological data (rainfall), CROPWAT 8.0 model, nitrogen fertilizer application rates, sugarcane yield, and sugar and bioethanol production over 12 years (2008-2019) were used. Penman-Monteith method-based sugarcane water requirements of Finchaa and Metehara were found to be 2021.1 and 3605.4 mm/growing period, respectively. The sugarcane WF of Finchaa was 188.01 m3/t, which was composed of green (67.45 m3/t), blue (113.42 m3/t), and grey (7.14 m3/t) components, whereas the WF of Metehara was 239.11 m3/t consisting of green (29.42 m3/t), blue (204.13 m3/t), and grey (5.56 m3/t). The low sugarcane WF recorded was attributed to the high yield of sugarcane that was harvested in the study areas. Hence, the irrigation (blue WF) requirement is the major concern of water management in the basins. Similarly, the WF of bioethanol at the Finchaa distillery (2067.62 L/L) was much higher than that of the Metehara distillery (1441.54 L/L). However, both WFs were within the global range. Significant differences were observed between the two water basins. The sugarcane estate farm and bioethanol production processes require water management intervention to reduce the impact of WF in the basins.

2.
J Periodontol ; 2022 May 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35533310

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This study investigated the association between menopausal hormone therapy (HT) use and the subgingival microbiome, for which published information is limited. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 1,270 postmenopausal women, aged 53-81 years, who completed clinical examinations. Detailed information on HT use (type, delivery mode, duration) was obtained from questionnaires. HT use was categorized into three groups (never, former, current). 16S rRNA sequencing was performed on subgingival plaque samples obtained during dental examinations. Operational Taxonomic Units were centered log2-ratio (CLR) transformed to account for the compositional data structure. Analysis of variance was used to compare mean microbial relative abundances across HT categories with Benjamini-Hochberg correction. RESULTS: Significantly higher alpha diversity (Shannon Index) and beta diversity (Aitchison distance) was observed in never compared to current HT users (P<0.05, each). Of the total 245 microbial taxa identified, 18 taxa differed significantly among the three HT groups, 11 of which were higher in current users and 7 of which were lower in current users as compared to never users (P<0.05, each). Differences in relative abundance between never and current HT users were materially unchanged after adjustment for age, BMI, and oral hygiene. CONCLUSION: Relative abundance of several subgingival bacteria differed significantly between never and current HT users in a cohort of postmenopausal women. Additional studies are needed to determine the extent that these relationships might account for the previously reported inverse association between HT use and periodontal disease in older women. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

3.
Comput Electr Eng ; : 108055, 2022 Apr 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35505976

RESUMEN

As people all over the world are vulnerable to be affected by the COVID-19 virus, the automatic detection of such a virus is an important concern. The paper aims to detect and classify corona virus using machine learning. To spot and identify corona virus in CT-Lung screening and Computer-Aided diagnosis (CAD) system is projected to distinguish and classifies the COVID-19. By utilizing the clinical specimens obtained from the corona-infected patients with the help of some machine learning techniques like Decision Tree, Support Vector Machine, K-means clustering, and Radial Basis Function. While some specialists believe that the RT-PCR test is the best option for diagnosing Covid-19 patients, others believe that CT scans of the lungs can be more accurate in diagnosing corona virus infection, as well as being less expensive than the PCR test. The clinical specimens include serum specimens, respiratory secretions, and whole blood specimens. Overall, 15 factors are measured from these specimens as the result of the previous clinical examinations. The proposed CAD system consists of four phases starting with the CT lungs screening collection, followed by a pre-processing stage to enhance the appearance of the ground glass opacities (GGOs) nodules as they originally lock hazy with fainting contrast. A modified K-means algorithm will be used to detect and segment these regions. Finally, the use of detected, infected areas that obtained in the detection phase with a scale of 50×50 and perform segmentation of the solid false positives that seem to be GGOs as inputs and targets for the machine learning classifiers, here a support vector machine (SVM) and Radial basis function (RBF) has been utilized. Moreover, a GUI application is developed which avoids the confusion of the doctors for getting the exact results by giving the 15 input factors obtained from the clinical specimens.

4.
ACS Omega ; 7(12): 10178-10186, 2022 Mar 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35382296

RESUMEN

Schiff bases represent an essential class in organic chemistry with antitumor, antiviral, antifungal, and antibacterial activities. The synthesis of Schiff bases requires the presence of an organic base as a catalyst such as piperidine. Base-free synthesis of organic compounds using a heterogeneous catalyst has recently attracted more interest due to the facile procedure, high yield, and reusability of the used catalyst. Herein, we present a comparative study to synthesize new Schiff bases containing indole moieties using piperidine as an organic base catalyst and Au@TiO2 as a heterogeneous catalyst. In both methods, the products were isolated in high yields and fully characterized using different spectral analysis techniques. The catalyst was reusable four times, and the activity was slightly decreased. The presence of Au increases the number of acidic sites of TiO2, resulting in C=O polarization. Yields of the prepared Schiff bases in the presence of Au@TiO2 and piperidine were comparable. However, Au@TiO2 is an easily separable and recyclable catalyst, which would facilitate the synthesis of organic compounds without applying any hazardous materials. Furthermore, the luminescence behavior of the synthesized Schiff bases exhibited spectral shape dependence on the substituent group. Interestingly, the compounds also displayed deep-blue fluorescence with Commission Internationale de l'Éclairage (CIE) coordinates of y < 0.1. Thus, these materials may contribute to decreasing the energy consumption of the emitting devices.

5.
RSC Adv ; 12(12): 7075-7084, 2022 Mar 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35424696

RESUMEN

Removing organic contaminants such as dyes from water is essential to purify wastewater. Herein, zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) and ZnO@N-doped C are reported as effective adsorbents and photocatalysts for the adsorption and degradation of organic dyes. The materials showed effective and selective adsorption toward anionic dyes such as methyl blue (MeB) dye in the presence of fluorescein (FLU) dye. The adsorption capacities of ZnO@N-doped C for MeB and FLU dyes are 900 mg g-1 and 100 mg g-1, respectively. According to UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) data, ZnO@N-doped C has a lower bandgap (2.07 eV) than ZIF-8 (4.34 eV) and ZnO (3.12 eV). Thus, ZnO@N-doped C serves as an effective photocatalyst for the degradation of both dyes under UV exposure. The degradation efficiency capacity of the dye (50 mg L-1) is >90% using 200 mg L-1 of the photocatalyst. The mechanism of adsorption and photocatalysis is investigated. The photodegradation pathway of the dye involved the generation of oxidative hydroxy radicals (OH˙), which can degrade the dyes. The degradation products of FLU were recorded using mass spectrometry.

6.
RSC Adv ; 12(9): 5619-5628, 2022 Feb 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35425529

RESUMEN

Preparation of a thin film of polyvinyl alcohol (PVA)/myrrh natural resin using a low gamma irradiation dose (1 kGy) was investigated towards increasing the post-harvest time of lemon fruit. Different analytical techniques, such as Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy, and mapping techniques were used to characterize the prepared thin film. This investigation was carried out to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of myrrh as an edible coating in prolonging shelf life and preserving the quality of lemon fruits (Citrus aurantifolia). Lemons were immersed directly in PVA solution containing 1%, 2%, and 3% concentrations of myrrh and then stored at ambient (25 ± 1 °C) and low (4 ± 1 °C) temperatures. The disease severity, acidity, total soluble solids (TSS), and ascorbic acid contents were tested after the coating with the PVA/myrrh thin film at different temperatures (4 °C and 25 °C) for different storage times (7 and 14 days). The application of different concentrations of the synthesized PVA/myrrh thin film (1%, 2%, and 3%) significantly reduced green mold disease symptoms and disease severity in the lemon fruits. The acidity value (pH value) was the lowest for the 2% myrrh treatment after 7 °C days at 25 °C, followed by the 1% myrrh treatment under the same conditions. The highest TSS was observed after the treatment for 7 days at 25 °C, with a value of 8.1 g dL-1. A high ascorbic acid concentration (33.5 mg dL-1) was noted after coating the lemons with the 1% PVA/myrrh thin film for 7 days at 25 °C. The results show that the application of a PVA/myrrh thin film extends the shelf-life and maintains the quality of lemon fruits by decreasing the levels of evaporation from the fruits and loss of weight due to the delay of the complete ripening stage of the lemon fruits.

7.
Egypt J Immunol ; 29(2): 19-25, 2022 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35436051

RESUMEN

Psoriatic patients had diversity of clinical presentations and complications. Psoriasis can have significant interference with the patient's quality of life, recovery, and outcome. Some evidences suggest that the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) is present in the skin of psoriatic patients. This study intended to assess the patterns of ACE insertion/deletion (ACE ID) polymorphism and the levels of serum ACE among psoriatic patients in comparison to normal controls. The study included two groups: 20 patients with psoriasis and 20 apparently healthy adults with negative family history of psoriasis as a control group. Psoriasis area and severity index (PASI) was used to measure of severity of psoriasis. In both groups, ACE ID gene polymorphism was assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase reaction and serum ACE levels was evaluated using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. ACE ID genotype was significantly higher among the psoriatic group in comparison to the control group (40.0% versus 15.0%, respectively, p=0.016). D allele was significantly higher among the psoriatic group than the control group (25.0% versus 7.5%, respectively, p=0.034). ACE ID genotype carried significantly higher risk in psoriatic group versus control group (OR=3.8). The D allele carried higher risk in psoriatic group versus control group (OR=4.1). ACE serum levels were significantly higher among the psoriatic group compared to the control group (87.4±7.03 versus 2.3±0.7, respectively; p < 0.001). We concluded that ACE ID gene polymorphism may be considered as a risk factor for developing psoriasis.


Asunto(s)
Peptidil-Dipeptidasa A , Psoriasis , Adulto , Genotipo , Humanos , Peptidil-Dipeptidasa A/genética , Polimorfismo Genético , Psoriasis/genética , Calidad de Vida
8.
Polymers (Basel) ; 14(8)2022 Apr 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35458258

RESUMEN

Electrospun techniques are promising and flexible technologies to fabricate ultrafine fiber/nanofiber materials from diverse materials with unique characteristics under optimum conditions. These fabricated fibers/nanofibers via electrospinning can be easily assembled into several shapes of three-dimensional (3D) structures and can be combined with other nanomaterials. Therefore, electrospun nanofibers, with their structural and functional advantages, have gained considerable attention from scientific communities as suitable candidates in biomedical fields, such as the regeneration of tissues and organs, where they can mimic the network structure of collagen fiber in its natural extracellular matrix(es). Due to these special features, electrospinning has been revolutionized as a successful technique to fabricate such nanomaterials from polymer media. Therefore, this review reports on recent progress in electrospun nanofibers and their applications in various biomedical fields, such as bone cell proliferation, nerve regeneration, and vascular tissue, and skin tissue, engineering. The functionalization of the fabricated electrospun nanofibers with different materials furnishes them with promising properties to enhance their employment in various fields of biomedical applications. Finally, we highlight the challenges and outlooks to improve and enhance the application of electrospun nanofibers in these applications.

9.
Polymers (Basel) ; 14(8)2022 Apr 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35458343

RESUMEN

Recently, nanofibers have come to be considered one of the sustainable routes with enormous applicability in different fields, such as wastewater treatment. Electrospun nanofibers can be fabricated from various materials, such as synthetic and natural polymers, and contribute to the synthesis of novel nanomaterials and nanocomposites. Therefore, they have promising properties, such as an interconnected porous structure, light weight, high porosity, and large surface area, and are easily modified with other polymeric materials or nanomaterials to enhance their suitability for specific applications. As such, this review surveys recent progress made in the use of electrospun nanofibers to purify polluted water, wherein the distinctive characteristics of this type of nanofiber are essential when using them to remove organic and inorganic pollutants from wastewater, as well as for oil/water (O/W) separation.

10.
Carbohydr Res ; 514: 108546, 2022 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35364384

RESUMEN

New, simple, synthetic routes for the preparation of novel glycopeptide antibiotics are described. The structures of the synthesized compounds are elucidated by IR, two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry. The stability of the new glycopeptide derivatives 10a,b is confirmed by assessing the physical character, HOMO-LUMO gap energy, ESP, and the corresponding correlation of 2D-NMR analysis. Furtherly, the target precursors are investigated via the DFT/B3LYP/6-311(G) basis set.


Asunto(s)
Antibacterianos , Glicopéptidos , Dipéptidos , Glicosilación , Espectroscopía de Resonancia Magnética/métodos
11.
Comput Intell Neurosci ; 2022: 7710005, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35371228

RESUMEN

In this modern era, each and everything is computerized, and everyone has their own smart gadgets to communicate with others around the globe without any range limitations. Most of the communication pathways belong to smart applications, call options in smartphones, and other multiple ways, but e-mail communication is considered the main professional communication pathway, which allows business people as well as commercial and noncommercial organizations to communicate with one another or globally share some important official documents and reports. This global pathway attracts many attackers and intruders to do a scam with such innovations; in particular, the intruders generate false messages with some attractive contents and post them as e-mails to global users. This kind of unnecessary and not needed advertisement or threatening mails is considered as spam mails, which usually contain advertisements, promotions of a concern or institution, and so on. These mails are also considered or called junk mails, which will be reflected as the same category. In general, e-mails are the usual way of message delivery for business oriented as well as any official needs, but in some cases there is a necessity of transferring some voice instructions or messages to the destination via the same e-mail pathway. These kinds of voice-oriented e-mail accessing are called voice mails. The voice mail is generally composed to deliver the speech aspect instructions or information to the receiver to do some particular tasks or convey some important messages to the receiver. A voice-mail-enabled system allows users to communicate with one another based on speech input which the sender can communicate to the receiver via voice conversations, which is used to deliver voice information to the recipient. These kinds of mails are usually generated using personal computers or laptops and exchanged via general e-mail pathway, or separate paid and nonpaid mail gateways are available to deal with certain mail transactions. The above-mentioned e-mail spam is considered in many past researches and attains some solutions, but in case of voice-based e-mail aspect, there will be no options to manage such kind of security parameters. In this paper, a hybrid data processing mechanism is handled with respect to both text-enabled and voice-enabled e-mails, which is called Genetic Decision Tree Processing with Natural Language Processing (GDTPNLP). This proposed approach provides a way of identifying the e-mail spam in both textual e-mails and speech-enabled e-mails. The proposed approach of GDTPNLP provides higher spam detection rate in terms of text extraction speed, performance, cost efficiency, and accuracy. These all will be explained in detail with graphical output views in the Results and Discussion.


Asunto(s)
Correo Electrónico , Habla , Comunicación , Recolección de Datos , Árboles de Decisión , Humanos
12.
Expert Opin Pharmacother ; : 1-13, 2022 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35400255

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Sexual dysfunction (SD) and depression have a bidirectional relationship. The rising prescription of antidepressants, especially those with a serotonergic effect, is associated with increased SD. Sexual dysfunction reduces compliance and increases risk of recurrence of depressive episodes. Various strategies have been studied to manage antidepressant-induced SD. AREAS COVERED: This review covers the identification of symptoms of antidepressant-induced SD, prevalence of symptoms in association with commonly used antidepressants, and the main lines of management, with a focus on pharmacological strategies. EXPERT OPINION: The management of antidepressant-induced SD aims to reduce the unwanted sexual adverse effects while maintaining an acceptable control of depressive symptoms. It should implicate a multidisciplinary approach and determination of baseline sexual function and SD risk factors. In spite of several methodological issues, antidepressants can be divided into low- and high-risk categories with regard to the possibility of developing SD. In patients interested in sexual activity, it is recommended to start with low-risk antidepressants. Otherwise, encourage the patient to wait for tolerance and then switch to low-risk. In selected cases, dose reduction or a drug holiday may be applied. The adjunctive use of a PDE5i can help in a significant number of patients. Randomized controlled trials are needed to set high-level evidence-based recommendations.

13.
Pattern Recognit ; 128: 108693, 2022 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35400761

RESUMEN

Covid-19, what a strange, unpredictable mutated virus. It has baffled many scientists, as no firm rule has yet been reached to predict the effect that the virus can inflict on people if they are infected with it. Recently, many researches have been introduced for diagnosing Covid-19; however, none of them pay attention to predict the effect of the virus on the person's body if the infection occurs but before the infection really takes place. Predicting the extent to which people will be affected if they are infected with the virus allows for some drastic precautions to be taken for those who will suffer from serious complications, while allowing some freedom for those who expect not to be affected badly. This paper introduces Covid-19 Prudential Expectation Strategy (CPES) as a new strategy for predicting the behavior of the person's body if he has been infected with Covid-19. The CPES composes of three phases called Outlier Rejection Phase (ORP), Feature Selection Phase (FSP), and Classification Phase (CP). For enhancing the classification accuracy in CP, CPES employs two proposed techniques for outlier rejection in ORP and feature selection in FSP, which are called Hybrid Outlier Rejection (HOR) method and Improved Binary Genetic Algorithm (IBGA) method respectively. In ORP, HOR rejects outliers in the training data using a hybrid method that combines standard division and Binary Gray Wolf Optimization (BGWO) method. On the other hand, in FSP, IBGA as a hybrid method selects the most useful features for the prediction process. IBGA includes Fisher Score (FScore) as a filter method to quickly select the features and BGA as a wrapper method to accurately select the features based on the average accuracy value from several classification models as a fitness function to guarantee the efficiency of the selected subset of features with any classifier. In CP, CPES has the ability to classify people based on their bodies' reaction to Covid-19 infection, which is built upon a proposed Statistical Naïve Bayes (SNB) classifier after performing the previous two phases. CPES has been compared against recent related strategies in terms of accuracy, error, recall, precision, and run-time using Covid-19 dataset [1]. This dataset contains routine blood tests collected from people before and after their infection with covid-19 through a Web-based form created by us. CPES outperforms the competing methods in experimental results because it provides the best results with values of 0.87, 0.13, 0.84, and 0.79 for accuracy, error, precision, and recall.

14.
J Clin Med ; 11(7)2022 Apr 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35407640

RESUMEN

COVID-19 causes severe illness that results in morbidity and mortality. Electrocardiographic features, including QT prolongation, have been associated with poor acute outcomes; data on the medium-term outcomes remain scarce. This study evaluated the 1-year outcomes of patients who survived the acute COVID-19 infection. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Data of the 159 patients who survived the COVID-19 illness during the first wave (1 March 2020-18 May 2020) were collected. Patient demographics, laboratory findings and electrocardiography data were evaluated. Patients who subsequently died within 1-year of the index illness were compared to those who remained well. RESULTS: Of the 159 patients who had survived the index illness, 28 (17.6%) subsequently perished within 1-year. In comparison to the patients that were alive after 1-year, the deceased were older (68 vs. 83 years, p < 0.01) and equally male (60.4% vs. 53.6%, p = 0.68), with a similar proportion of hypertension (59.5% vs. 57.1%, p = 0.68), diabetes (25.2% vs. 39.2%, p = 0.096) and ischaemic heart disease (11.5% vs. 7.1%, p = 0.54). The QTc interval for the alive and deceased patients shortened by a similar degree from the illness to post-COVID (-26 ± 33.5 vs. -20.6 ± 30.04 milliseconds, p = 0.5); the post-COVID R-R interval was longer in the alive patients compared to the deceased (818.9 ± 169.3 vs. 761.1 ± 61.2 ms, p = 0.02). A multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that age (HR1.098 [1.045-1.153], p < 0.01), diabetes (HR3.972 [1.47-10.8], p < 0.01) and the post-COVID R-R interval (HR0.993 [0.989-0.996], p < 0.01) were associated with 1-year mortality. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19-associated mortality risk extends to the post-COVID period. The QTc does recover following the acute illness and is not associated with outcomes; the R-R interval is a predictor of 1-year mortality.

15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35417049

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: With an increasing number of cardiac implantable electronic devices (CIEDs), there has been a paralleled increase in demand for transvenous lead extraction (TLE). Cardiac surgeons (CS) and cardiologists perform TLE; however, data comparing the two groups of operators is scarce. OBJECTIVE: We compared the outcomes of TLE performed by cardiologists and CS from six European lead extraction units. METHOD: Data was collected retrospectively of 2205 patients who had 3849 leads extracted (PROMET) between 2005 and 2018. Patient demographics and procedural outcomes were compared between the CS and cardiologist groups, using propensity score matching. A multivariate regression analysis was also performed for variables associated with 30-day mortality. RESULTS: CS performed the majority of extractions (59.8%), of leads with longer dwell times (90 [57-129 interquartile range (IQR)] vs. 62 [31-102 IQR] months, CS vs. cardiologists, p < .001) and with pre-dominantly non-infectious indications (57.4% vs. 50.2%, CS vs. cardiologists, p < .001). CS achieved a higher complete success per lead than the cardiologists (98.1% vs. 95.7%, respectively, p < .01), with a higher number of minor complications (5.51% vs. 2.1%, p < .01) and similar number of major complications (0.47% vs. 1.3%, p = .12). Thirty-day mortality was similarly low in the CS and cardiologist groups (1.76% vs. 0.94%, p = .21). Unmatched data multivariate analysis revealed infection indication (OR 6.12 [1.9-20.3], p < .01), procedure duration (OR 1.01 [1.01-1.02], p < .01) and CS operator (OR 2.67, [1.12-6.37], p = .027) were associated with 30-day mortality. CONCLUSION: TLE by CS was performed with similar safety and higher efficacy compared to cardiologists in high and medium-volume lead extraction centers.

16.
Forensic Sci Int ; 335: 111280, 2022 Mar 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35364550

RESUMEN

This study evaluated the forensic value of ethanol biomarkers ethyl glucuronide (EtG) and ethyl sulfate (EtS) under different conditions, including diabetes mellitus, drug abuse, and advanced decomposition. In addition, we explored whether ethanol, EtG, or EtS formation occurred in patients who died as a result of diabetes mellitus. Fifty-two routine postmortem cases were divided into three groups. Group 1 included only the post-mortem cases in which at least blood samples were available (n=47). Group 2 included all cases with positive BAC (n=28). Group 3 included the cases with negative BAC while information surrounding the cases suspected antemortem alcohol consumption and cases that tested negative for ethanol but positive for EtG and EtS. We analyzed multiple bodily fluid specimens, including the vitreous humor, for ethanol biomarker analysis and accurately identified antemortem ethanol consumption or postmortem ethanol synthesis. We also determined the utility of urine samples for analyzing ethanol and its metabolites in putrefaction cases. If no urine sample was available at autopsy due to urination before death or diabetes-associated glucosuria, vitreous humor samples were an appropriate alternative for ethanol biomarker testing. We observed postmortem ethanol synthesis in diabetic individuals even with a short postmortem interval (PMI), however, glucose did not increase postmortem ethanol production in individuals with diabetes under appropriate preservation. The shorter the PMI, the better the ethanol source can be determined. Postmortem ethanol production occurred in all body fluid specimens analyzed herein, including the vitreous humor. EtG and EtS levels were stable and provided accurate insight into ethanol sources, even in cases of postmortem ethanol production. While the present study focused on the use of vitreous humor for the analysis, it is expected such samples may not be available in cases of advanced decay. In cases where no other bodily fluid specimens are available, solid tissue specimens are highly preferred.

17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35438406

RESUMEN

Taxol production by fungi is one of the promising alternative approaches, regarding to the natural and semisynthetic sources; however, the lower yield and rapid loss of Taxol productivity by fungi are the major challenges that halt their further industrial implementation. Thus, searching for fungal isolates with affordable Taxol-production stability, in addition to enhance its anticancer activity via conjugation with gold nanoparticles, is the main objectives of this study. Twenty-four endophytic fungal isolates were recovered from the barks, twigs, and leaves of jojoba plant, among these fungi, Aspergillus flavus MW485934.1 was the most potent Taxol producer (88.6 µg/l). The chemical identity of the extracted Taxol of A. flavus was verified by the TLC, HPLC, HNMR, and FTIR analyses. The yield of Taxol produced by A. flavus was optimized by the response surface methodology (RSM) using Plackett-Burman (PBD) and faced central composite designs (FCCD). The yield of Taxol by A. flavus was increased by about 3.2 folds comparing to the control cultures (from 96.5 into 302.7 µg/l). The highest Taxol yield by was obtained growing A. flavus on a modified malt extract medium (g/l) (malt extract 20.0, peptone 2.0, sucrose 20.0, soytone 2.0, cysteine 0.5, glutamine 0.5, and beef extract 1.0 adjusted to pH 6.0) and incubated at 30 °C for 16 days. From the FCCD design, the significant variables affecting Taxol production by A. flavus were cysteine, pH, and incubation time. Upon A. flavus γ-irradiation at 1.0 kGy, the Taxol yield was increased by about 1.25 fold (375.9 µg/l). To boost its anticancer activity, the purified Taxol was conjugated with gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) mediated by γ-rays irradiation (0.5 kGy), and the physicochemical properties of Taxol-AuNPs composite were evaluated by UV-Vis, DLS, XRD, and TEM analyses. The IC50 values of the native-Taxol and Taxol-AuNPs conjugates towards HEPG-2 cells were 4.06 and 2.1 µg/ml, while the IC50 values against MCF-7 were 6.07 and 3.3 µg/ml, respectively. Thus, the anticancer activity of Taxol-AuNPs composite was increased by 2 folds comparing to the native Taxol towards HEPG-2 and MCF-7 cell lines. Also, the antimicrobial activity of Taxol against the multidrug resistant bacteria was dramatically increased upon conjugation with AuNPs comparing to authentic AuNPs and Taxol, ensuring the higher solubility, targetability, and efficiency of Taxol upon AuNPs conjugation.

18.
Environ Chem Lett ; : 1-34, 2022 Apr 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35431715

RESUMEN

The increasing global industrialization and over-exploitation of fossil fuels has induced the release of greenhouse gases, leading to an increase in global temperature and causing environmental issues. There is therefore an urgent necessity to reach net-zero carbon emissions. Only 4.5% of countries have achieved carbon neutrality, and most countries are still planning to do so by 2050-2070. Moreover, synergies between different countries have hampered synergies between adaptation and mitigation policies, as well as their co-benefits. Here, we present a strategy to reach a carbon neutral economy by examining the outcome goals of the 26th summit of the United Nations Climate Change Conference of the Parties (COP 26). Methods have been designed for mapping carbon emissions, such as input-output models, spatial systems, geographic information system maps, light detection and ranging techniques, and logarithmic mean divisia. We present decarbonization technologies and initiatives, and negative emissions technologies, and we discuss carbon trading and carbon tax. We propose plans for carbon neutrality such as shifting away from fossil fuels toward renewable energy, and the development of low-carbon technologies, low-carbon agriculture, changing dietary habits and increasing the value of food and agricultural waste. Developing resilient buildings and cities, introducing decentralized energy systems, and the electrification of the transportation sector is also necessary. We also review the life cycle analysis of carbon neutral systems.

19.
Cureus ; 14(3): e22838, 2022 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35399419

RESUMEN

Leiomyosarcoma is an aggressive soft tissue tumor originating from smooth muscle cells typically of the uterus, gastrointestinal, or genitourinary system. The most common site of leiomyosarcoma of soft tissue is the retroperitoneum, accounting for 50% of all cases. The majority of patients are asymptomatic, which may be due to the large retroperitoneal cavity. However, when symptoms do occur, they are vague in nature. The most common growth pattern is an entirely extravascular mass. We are presenting an interesting case of a 65-year-old lady, who was referred to our hospital as a case of large left retroperitoneal mass with left renal vein thrombosis. She was biopsied and diagnosed with leiomyosarcoma with invasion into descending colon and the left renal vein, which led to renal vein thrombus. In the last few decades, there is a lack of studies about leiomyosarcoma invading the renal vein and Inferior Vena Cava (IVC). As far as we know, the leiomyosarcoma of a major blood vessel is extremely rare. Since leiomyosarcoma often has a late presentation with the advanced stage when detected, a high index of suspicion is needed to be detected early and avoid such a complication.

20.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 7033, 2022 Apr 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35487954

RESUMEN

Di-indium tri-sulfuric (In2S3) thin films are fabricated with annealing indium thin films in a sulfur environment. The effect of both annealing temperature and pressure on the structure, morphology, Raman, and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy has been studied. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) of the prepared thin films showed different structural phases and morphology with varying annealing temperature and pressure. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis confirmed the chemical composition and the atomic ratio of In/S for the In2S3 thin films. The optimum annealing conditions of In2S3 thin films are 550 °C and 100 Torr. The outcome results revealed a new good growth method for In2S3 thin films to be used for different applications.

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