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1.
Ther Clin Risk Manag ; 16: 759-767, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32884277

RESUMEN

The ongoing coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic is a global health emergency of international concern and has affected management plans of many autoimmune disorders. Immunosuppressive and immunomodulatory therapies are pivotal in the management of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD), potentially placing patients at an increased risk of contracting infections such as COVID-19. The optimal management strategy of NMOSD during the COVID-19 era remains unclear. Here, however, we examined the evidence of NMOSD disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) use during the present period and highlighted different scenarios including treatment of relapses as well as initiation and maintenance of DMTs in order to optimize care of NMOSD patients in the COVID-19 era.

2.
Ther Clin Risk Manag ; 16: 651-662, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32801722

RESUMEN

The emergence of the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has become a major public health challenge of global concern since December 2019, when the virus was recognized in Wuhan, the capital city of Hubei province in China and epicenter of the COVID-19 epidemic. Given the novelty of COVID-19 and the lack of specific anti-virus therapies, the current management is essentially supportive. There is an absence of consensus on guidelines or treatment strategies for complex disorders such as multiple sclerosis (MS), in which the risk of infections is higher than in the general population. This is due to the overall impairment of the immune system typical of autoimmune diseases, in addition to accumulation of disabilities, and the iatrogenic effect generated by corticosteroids and the recommended disease-modifying therapies (DMTs). DMTs have different modes of action, but all modulate and interfere with the patient's immune response, thereby raising concerns about adverse effects, such as an increased susceptibility to infections. In this review, we analyze the evidence for use of DMTs during the current critical period and ratify an algorithmic approach for management to optimize care between keeping DMTs, with their infection hazards, or coming off them, with the risk of disease activation. We also provide an algorithmic approach to the management of breakthrough activity during the COVID-19 pandemic.

3.
J Pain Res ; 13: 537-545, 2020.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32210609

RESUMEN

Background: Studies have shown that interferon-beta (IFN-ß) treatment is associated with headaches in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Headaches can affect quality of life and overall function of patients with MS. We examined the frequency, relationships, patterns, and characteristics of headaches in response to IFN-ß in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Patients and Methods: This study was a prospective, longitudinal analysis with 1-year follow-up. The study comprised 796 patients with RRMS treated with IFN-ß (mean age 30.84±8.98 years) at 5 tertiary referral center outpatient clinics in Egypt between January 2015 and December 2017. Headaches were diagnosed according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders ICHD-3 (beta version), and data were collected through an interviewer-administered Arabic-language-validated questionnaire with an addendum specifically designed to investigate the temporal relationship between commencement of interferon treatment, and headache onset and characteristics. Results: Two hundred seventy-six patients had pre-existing headaches, and 356 experienced de novo headaches. Of 122 patients who experienced headaches before IFN-ß treatment, 55 reported headaches that worsened following onset of IFN-ß treatment. In patients with post-IFN-ß headaches, 329 had headaches that persisted for >3 months, 51 had chronic headaches, and 278 had episodic headaches, and 216 of these patients required preventive therapies. Univariate analysis showed a >6- and an approximately 5-fold increased risk of headache among those treated with intramuscular (IM) INF-ß-1a (OR 6.51; 95% CI: 3.73-10.01; P-value <0.0001) and 44 µg of SC INF-ß-1a (OR 5.44; 95% CI: 3.15-9.37; P-value <0.0001), respectively, compared with that in patients who received 22 µg of SC INF-ß-1a. Conclusion: Interferon-ß therapy aggravated pre-existing headaches and caused primary headaches in patients with MS. Headache risk was greater following treatment with IM INF-ß-1a and 44 µg SC INF-ß-1a.

5.
J Clin Neurophysiol ; 34(4): 353-358, 2017 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28306692

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a common entrapment neuropathy of the wrist. The diagnosis of CTS has been a concern for physicians for a long time. The aim of this study is to evaluate the use of the median nerve (MN) cross-sectional area (CSA) in the wrist compared with the CSA in the forearm to grade the severity of CTS in Egyptian patients. METHODS: The CSAs of the MN in the wrist and forearm were measured in 72 wrists that were diagnosed with CTS via nerve conduction studies and 80 healthy wrists. The CTS group was subdivided into three subgroups (mild, moderate, and severe CTS). The ratio of the CSA of the MN in the wrist to that in the forearm was used to calculate cutoff values for CTS grading. RESULTS: There were positive correlations between the CSAs of the MN in the wrist and MN conduction latency. At a wrist-forearm ratio of 1.7, the high-resolution ultrasonography showed 96.1% accuracy in the detection of CTS. CONCLUSIONS: High-resolution ultrasonography can be used in CTS grading.


Asunto(s)
Síndrome del Túnel Carpiano/diagnóstico por imagen , Nervio Mediano/diagnóstico por imagen , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Ultrasonografía/métodos , Adulto , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Proyectos Piloto
6.
J Neurol Sci ; 360: 18-22, 2016 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26723965

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a clinical syndrome with no identified causative factor. Internal jugular valve incompetence (IJVI) has been linked to many neurological disorders such as idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), transient global amnesia and cough-induced headache. Intact valves prevent efficiently retrograde flow into the internal jugular vein. AIM: The aim of this study is to evaluate the competence of the jugular vein valves and its relationship to age, BMI, opening CSF pressure and MRV findings in IIH patients. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Twenty-five Egyptian female patients diagnosed with IIH according to the modified Dandy criteria, and 24 female controls, matched for age and BMI, were included and examined using color-coded duplex for IJVI during the Valsalva maneuver. The patients underwent lumbar puncture to measure the opening pressure, MRV, ophthalmic examination and laboratory work-up. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference in the proportion of IJVI among the patients and controls (P=0.7). There was a statistically significant increase in the opening pressure and proportion of MRV abnormalities in the patients with IJVI compared to the patients without IJVI (P=0.03 and 0.007, respectively), but there were no statistically significant difference with regard to age, BMI, grade of papilledema and perimetry findings. CONCLUSION: This study showed that there is no relationship between IJVI and IIH; thus, IJVI would be a rather normal finding. Further studies are recommended to confirm or rule out a possible relationship.


Asunto(s)
Venas Yugulares/diagnóstico por imagen , Papiledema/complicaciones , Seudotumor Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagen , Insuficiencia Venosa/diagnóstico por imagen , Adulto , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Egipto , Femenino , Humanos , Seudotumor Cerebral/complicaciones , Ultrasonografía , Insuficiencia Venosa/complicaciones
7.
Int J Neurosci ; 125(7): 507-11, 2015.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25164095

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Epilepsy is a chronic disease that affects metabolism either alone or through the antiepileptic drug (AED) treatment. A risk of atherosclerosis has been found in epileptic patients. AIM: Prove the potential role of epilepsy and/or its treatment as atherosclerotic risk factors. SUBJECT AND METHODS: Forty Egyptian patients with primary idiopathic epilepsy were compared to 20 healthy controls. B-mode ultrasound examination of the common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CCA IMT), measurement of serum lipid profile, fibrinogen and high sensitive C-reactive protein were performed to both groups. RESULTS: Patients had significantly increased right and left CCA IMT (p < 0.05); elevated levels of HDL (p < 0.01) and hs-CRP (p = 0.009) in comparison to control subjects. Positive correlation was found between IMT and hs-CRP (p < 0.05) as well as fibrinogen level (p < 0.05). Carbamazepine level was positively correlated to triglycerides (r = 0.748, p = 0.013) and Valproate level was positively correlated to hs-CRP serum level (r = 0.556, p = 0.032). CONCLUSION: Epilepsy and AED's are potential risk factors for atherosclerosis. Weak relation between epilepsy and/or AED's and lipid profile was found. Hs-CRP may be implicated in atherosclerosis in epileptic patients.


Asunto(s)
Anticonvulsivantes/efectos adversos , Aterosclerosis/inducido químicamente , Epilepsia/tratamiento farmacológico , Adulto , Análisis de Varianza , Aterosclerosis/epidemiología , Proteína C-Reactiva/metabolismo , Grosor Intima-Media Carotídeo , Colesterol/sangre , Egipto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Factores de Riesgo , Estadística como Asunto , Triglicéridos/sangre , Ácido Úrico/sangre , Adulto Joven
8.
NeuroRehabilitation ; 34(1): 209-13, 2014.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24284463

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Stroke is a leading cause of functional impairments. High percentage of these patients will experience some degree of cognitive affection, ranging from mild cognitive impairment to dementia. OBJECTIVE: Demonstrate the role of aerobic exercises enhancing cognitive functions and its effect on Brain Derived Neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in post-ischemic stroke patients in the territory of anterior circulation. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We included thirty Egyptian ischemic stroke patients in the territory of anterior circulation. They were divided into 2 groups; group 1 (G1) were subjected to physiotherapy program without aerobic exercises and group 2 (G2) were subjected to the same previous program followed by aerobic exercises. Both groups were subjected to pre- and post-treatment Addenbrookes's Cognitive Examination- Revised (ACER) and serum level of BDNF. RESULTS: Our results showed a significant improvement in ACER score in G2 compared to G1 post-treatment (p = 0.017). BDNF serum level significantly increased in G2 post-treatment compared to pre-treatment (p = 0.001) and compared to G1 group (p = 0.0458). ACER improvement was positively correlated to increase in serum level of BDNF (r = 0.53, p = 0.044). CONCLUSION: Aerobic exercises improve cognitive functions of ischemic stroke patients. This improvement is related to the increase in serum level of BDNF.


Asunto(s)
Isquemia Encefálica/terapia , Factor Neurotrófico Derivado del Encéfalo/sangre , Cognición/fisiología , Accidente Cerebrovascular/terapia , Isquemia Encefálica/sangre , Isquemia Encefálica/psicología , Terapia por Ejercicio , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Accidente Cerebrovascular/sangre , Accidente Cerebrovascular/psicología
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