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1.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330394

RESUMEN

RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: Respirable crystalline silica is a lung carcinogen with millions of exposed workers globally. We aimed to address current knowledge gaps in lung cancer risks associated with low levels of occupational silica exposure and the joint effects of smoking and silica exposure on lung cancer risks. METHODS: Subjects from 14 case-control studies from Europe and Canada with detailed smoking and occupational histories were pooled. A quantitative job-exposure matrix was used to estimate silica exposure by occupation, time period, and geographical region. Logistic regression models were used to estimate exposure-disease associations and the joint effects of silica exposure and smoking on risk of lung cancer. Stratified analyses by smoking history and cancer subtypes were also performed. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Our study included 16,901 cases and 20,965 controls. Lung cancer odds ratios ranged from 1.15 (95% CI 1.04, 1.27) to 1.45 (95% CI 1.31, 1.60) for groups with the lowest and highest cumulative exposure, respectively. Increasing cumulative silica exposure was associated (p-trend<0.01) with increasing lung cancer risks in non-silicotics, and in current, former, and never smokers. Increasing exposure was also associated (p-trend≤0.01) with increasing risks of lung adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and small cell carcinoma. Super-multiplicative interaction of silica exposure and smoking was observed on overall lung cancer risks; super-additive effects were observed in risks of lung cancer and all three included subtypes. CONCLUSIONS: Silica exposure is associated with lung cancer at low exposure levels. Exposure-response relationship was robust and present regardless of smoking, silicosis status, and cancer subtype.

2.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32330395

RESUMEN

RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: We expanded upon a previous pooled case-control analysis on diesel engine exhaust and lung cancer by including 3 additional studies and quantitative exposure assessment to evaluate lung cancer and subtype risks associated with occupational exposure to diesel exhaust, characterized by elemental carbon (EC) concentrations. METHODS: We used a quantitative EC job-exposure matrix for exposure assessment. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to calculate lung cancer odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) associated with various metrics of EC exposure. Lung cancer excess lifetime risks (ELR) were calculated using life-tables accounting for all-cause mortality. Additional stratified analyses by smoking history and lung cancer subtypes were performed in men. RESULTS: Our study included 16,901 cases and 20,965 controls. In men, exposure-response between EC and lung cancer was observed: ORs ranged from 1.09 (95% CI 1.00, 1.18) to 1.41 (95% CI 1.30, 1.52) for the lowest and highest cumulative exposure groups, respectively. EC-exposed men had elevated risks in all lung cancer subtypes investigated; associations were strongest for squamous and small cell carcinomas and weaker for adenocarcinoma. EC-lung cancer exposure-response was observed in men regardless of smoking history, including among never smokers. ELR associated with 45 years of EC exposure at 50, 20, and 1 µg/m3 were 3.0%, 0.99%, and, 0.04%, respectively, for both sexes combined. CONCLUSION: We observed a consistent exposure-response relationship between EC exposure and lung cancer in men. Reduction of workplace EC levels to background environmental levels will further reduce lung cancer ELR in exposed workers.

3.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 17(1): 50, 2020 Apr 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32295621

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Lifestyle interventions to prevent paediatric obesity often target family and peer settings; their success is likely to depend on the influence that peers and families exert on children's lifestyle behaviors at different developmental stages. OBJECTIVE: First, to determine whether children's lifestyle behavior more closely resembles their peers' or siblings' behaviors. Secondly, to investigate longitudinally whether children's behavioral change is predicted by that of their peers or their siblings as they grow older. METHODS: The European prospective IDEFICS/I.Family cohort (baseline survey: 2007/2008, first follow-up: 2009/2010, and second follow-up: 2013/2014) aims at investigating risk factors for overweight and related behaviors during childhood and adolescence. The present investigation includes 2694 observations of children and their siblings aged 2 to 18 years. Peers were defined as same-sex, same-age children in the same community and identified from the full cohort. The longitudinal analysis (mean follow-up time: 3.7 years) includes 525 sibling pairs. Children's lifestyle behaviors including fast food consumption (frequency/week), screen time (hours/week) and sports club participation (hours/week) were assessed by questionnaire. Data were analyzed using multilevel linear models. RESULTS: Children's lifestyle behavior was associated with the respective behavior of their peers and sibling for all 3 behaviors. For fast food consumption, the peer resemblance was more than 6-fold higher than the sibling resemblance and the peer resemblance surpassed the sibling resemblance by the age of 9-10 years. The similarities with peers for fast food consumption and screen time steadily increased, while the similarities with siblings steadily decreased with increasing age of the children (Pinteraction < 0.001). In contrast, the relative importance of peers and siblings on sports club duration did not vary by the age of the children. Longitudinal results showed that children's changes in fast food consumption were more strongly associated with those in their peer group than their sibling, in particular if the age gap between siblings was large. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, our results support the implementation of multi-setting interventions for improving lifestyle behaviors in children. Our findings might also guide future intervention studies in the choice of timing and setting in which interventions are likely to be most effective. From the ages of 9-10 years onwards, family- or home-based interventions targeting children's fast food intake and screen time behavior may become less effective than school- or community-based interventions aimed at peer groups.

4.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 17(1): 54, 2020 Apr 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32345301

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The associations between physical activity (PA), sedentary behaviour (SB) and bone health may be differentially affected by weight status during growth. This study aims to assess the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between PA, SB and bone stiffness index (SI) in European children and adolescents, taking the weight status into consideration. METHODS: Calcaneus SI was first measured by quantitative ultrasound among children aged 2-9 years old in 2007/08. It was measured again after 2 years in the IDEFICS study and after 6 years in the I. Family study. A sample of 2008 participants with time spent at sports clubs, watching TV and playing computer/games self-reported by questionnaire, and a subsample of 1037 participants with SB, light PA (LPA) and moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) objectively measured using Actigraph accelerometers were included in the analyses. Weight status was defined as thin/normal and overweight/obese according to the extended International Obesity Task Force criteria. Linear mixed-effects models were used to estimate the cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between PA, SB and SI percentiles, stratified by weight status. RESULTS: The cross-sectional association between weekly duration of watching TV and SI percentiles was negative in thin/normal weight group (ß = - 0.35, p = 0.008). However, baseline weekly duration of watching TV (ß = - 0.63, p = 0.021) and change after 2 years (ß = - 0.63, p = 0.022) as well as the change in weekly duration of playing computer/games after 6 years (ß = - 0.75, p = 0.019) were inversely associated with corresponding changes in SI percentiles in overweight/obese group. Change in time spent at sports clubs was positively associated with change in SI percentiles after 2 years (ß = 1.28, p = 0.001), with comparable effect sizes across weight status. In the subsample with accelerometer data, we found a positive cross-sectional association between MVPA and SI percentiles in thin/normal weight group. Baseline MVPA predicted changes in SI percentiles after 2 and 6 years in all groups. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggested the beneficial effect of PA on SI. However, the increasing durations of screen-based SB might be risk factors for SI development, especially in overweight/obese children and adolescents.

5.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 7189, 2020 Apr 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32346024

RESUMEN

As the prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in children and young adults is increasing, a better understanding of genetics that underlie MetS will provide critical insights into the origin of the disease. We examined associations of common genetic variants and repeated MetS score from early childhood to adolescence in a pan-European, prospective IDEFICS/I.Family cohort study with baseline survey and follow-up examinations after two and six years. We tested associations in 3067 children using a linear mixed model and confirmed the results with meta-analysis of identified SNPs. With a stringent Bonferroni adjustment for multiple comparisons we obtained significant associations(p < 1.4 × 10-4) for 5 SNPs, which were in high LD (r2 > 0.85) in the 16q12.2 non-coding intronic chromosomal region of FTO gene with strongest association observed for rs8050136 (effect size(ß) = 0.31, pWald = 1.52 × 10-5). We also observed a strong association of rs708272 in CETP with increased HDL (p = 5.63 × 10-40) and decreased TRG (p = 9.60 × 10-5) levels. These findings along with meta-analysis advance etiologic understanding of childhood MetS, highlighting that genetic predisposition to MetS is largely driven by genes of obesity and lipid metabolism. Inclusion of the associated genetic variants in polygenic scores for MetS may prove to be fundamental for identifying children and subsequently adults of the high-risk group to allow earlier targeted interventions.

6.
Maturitas ; 135: 6-26, 2020 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32252966

RESUMEN

Sex is a major determinant of cardiometabolic risk. DNA methylation (DNAm), an important epigenetic mechanism that differs between sexes, has been associated with cardiometabolic diseases. Therefore, we aimed to systematically review studies in adults investigating sex-specific associations of DNAm with intermediate cardiometabolic traits and incident cardiovascular disease including stroke, myocardial infarction (MI) and coronary heart disease (CHD). Five bibliographic databases were searched from inception to 15 July 2019. We selected 35 articles (based on 30 unique studies) from 17,023 references identified, with a total of 14,020 participants of European, North American or Asian ancestry. Four studies reported sex differences between global DNAm and blood lipid levels and stroke risk. In 25 studies that took a genome wide or candidate gene approach, DNAm at 31 gene sites was associated with sex differences in cardiometabolic diseases. The identified genes were PLA2G7, BCL11A, KDM6A, LIPC, ABCG1, PLTP, CETP, ADD1, CNN1B, HOOK2, GFBP-7,PTPN1, GCK, PTX3, ABCG1, GALNT2, CDKN2B, APOE, CTH, GNASAS, INS, PON1, TCN2, CBS, AMT, KDMA6A, FTO, MAP3K13, CCDC8, MMP-2 and ER-α. Prioritized pathway connectivity analysis associated these genes with biological pathways such as vitamin B12 metabolism, statin pathway, plasma lipoprotein, plasma lipoprotein assembly, remodeling and clearance and cholesterol metabolism. Our findings suggest that DNAm might be a promising molecular strategy for understanding sex differences in the pathophysiology of cardiometabolic diseases and that future studies should investigate the effects of sex on epigenetic mechanisms in cardiometabolic risk. In addition, we emphasize the gap between the translational potential and the clinical utilization of cardiometabolic epigenetics.

7.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32125462

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases in both children and adults. Asthma first occurring in adulthood (adult-onset asthma, AOA) is associated with poorer prognosis compared to childhood-onset asthma (COA), which urgently calls for more research in this area. The aim of this work was to analyze the data on asthma collected in the German National Cohort and compare it with the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults (DEGS), in particular regarding AOA. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Our analysis was based on the dataset of the main questionnaire at mid-term of the German National Cohort baseline examination, comprising 101,723 participants. Variables considered in the analyses were self-reported diagnosis of asthma, age at first diagnosis, asthma treatment in the past 12 months, age, and sex. RESULTS: In the midterm dataset, 8.7% of women and 7.0% of men in the German National Cohort reported that they had ever been diagnosed with asthma. Approximately one third of participants with asthma received their initial diagnosis before their 18th birthday. COA affected 2.2% of women and 2.8% of men, whereas AOA affected 6.5% of women and 4.2% of men. During the previous 12 months, 33% of COA cases and 60% of AOA cases were medically treated. CONCLUSION: The proportion of persons affected by asthma in the German National Cohort, as well as observed patterns regarding age and gender, corresponds to other data sources such as DEGS. However, in our analysis, the proportion of individuals with AOA was higher than described in the literature. The increase in cumulative asthma diagnoses with age is markedly steeper in younger participants, indicating a rising trend over time.


Asunto(s)
Asma/diagnóstico , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Edad de Inicio , Asma/epidemiología , Niño , Enfermedad Crónica , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Alemania/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
8.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32157353

RESUMEN

The focus of the German National Cohort, the largest population-based cohort study in Germany to date, is the investigation of the most important widespread diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, cancer, neurological and psychiatric disorders, and frequent respiratory and infectious diseases. This cohort will answer questions on the development of these diseases and on the impact of genetic, environmental and lifestyle-related risk factors. Another focus is on the identification of early, subclinical markers of emerging diseases. To answer these questions, a comprehensive assessment of these health outcomes as well as of all potential determinants and precursors is mandatory.This paper describes the various health outcomes that are assessed in the German National Cohort, as well as the examination modules that are applied for deep phenotyping of study participants. Repeated collection of biosamples as well as functional measurements and application of modern imaging techniques at various time points allow for assessing the dynamics of physiological changes related to the individuals' health status. The prognostic value of these changes for disease development will be explored and translated to novel approaches for prevention and personalised medicine. Incident diseases are being assessed through self-reports by study participants and through record linkage with data from health insurances and cancer registries. Additional information about clinical diagnoses is obtained from the treating physicians to ensure the highest possible validity.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Transmisibles , Estado de Salud , Alemania , Humanos , Autoinforme
9.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32157352

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Data on self-reported cardiovascular and metabolic diseases are available for the first 100,000 participants of the population-based German National Cohort (GNC, NAKO Gesundheitsstudie). OBJECTIVES: To describe assessment methods and the frequency of self-reported cardiovascular and metabolic diseases in the German National Cohort. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Using a computer-based, standardized personal interview, 101,806 participants (20-75 years, 46% men) from 18 nationwide study centres were asked to use a predefined list to report medical conditions ever diagnosed by a physician, including cardiovascular or metabolic diseases. For the latter, we calculated sex-stratified relative frequencies and compared these with reference data. RESULTS: With regard to cardiovascular diseases, 3.5% of men and 0.8% of women reported to have ever been diagnosed with a myocardial infarction, 4.8% and 1.5% with angina pectoris, 3.5% and 2.5% with heart failure, 10.1% and 10.4% with cardiac arrhythmia, 2.7% and 1.8% with claudicatio intermittens, and 34.6% and 27.0% with arterial hypertension. The frequencies of self-reported diagnosed metabolic diseases were 8.1% and 5.8% for diabetes mellitus, 28.6% and 24.5% for hyperlipidaemia, 7.9% and 2.4% for gout, and 10.1% and 34.3% for thyroid diseases. Observed disease frequencies were lower than reference data for Germany. CONCLUSIONS: In the German National Cohort, self-reported cardiovascular and metabolic diseases diagnosed by a physician are assessed from all participants, therefore representing a data source for future cardio-metabolic research in this cohort.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/epidemiología , Enfermedades Metabólicas/epidemiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Alemania/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Autoinforme , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
11.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32166336

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Caries and periodontitis are highly prevalent worldwide. Because detailed data on these oral diseases were collected within the framework of the German National Cohort (GNC), associations between oral and systemic diseases and conditions can be investigated. OBJECTIVES: The study protocol for the oral examination was designed to ensure a comprehensive collection of dental findings by trained non-dental staff within a limited examination time. At the mid-term of the GNC baseline examination, a first quality evaluation was performed to check the plausibility of results and to propose measures to improve the data quality. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A dental interview, saliva sampling and oral diagnostics were conducted. As part of the level­1 examination, the number of teeth and prostheses were recorded. As part of the level­2 examination, detailed periodontal, cariological and functional aspects were examined. All examinations were conducted by trained non-dental personnel. Parameters were checked for plausibility and variable distributions were descriptively analysed. RESULTS: Analyses included data of 57,967 interview participants, 56,913 level­1 participants and 6295 level­2 participants. Percentages of missing values for individual clinical parameters assessed in level 1 and level 2 ranged between 0.02 and 3.9%. Results showed a plausible distribution of the data; rarely, implausible values were observed, e.g. for measurements of horizontal and vertical overbite (overjet and overbite). Intra-class correlation coefficients indicated differences in individual parameters between regional clusters, study centres and across different examiners. CONCLUSIONS: The results confirm the feasibility of the study protocol by non-dental personnel and its successful integration into the GNC's overall assessment program. However, rigorous dental support of the study centres is required for quality management.


Asunto(s)
Recolección de Datos/normas , Caries Dental , Enfermedades de la Boca , Salud Bucal , Estudios de Cohortes , Caries Dental/epidemiología , Alemania , Humanos , Garantía de la Calidad de Atención de Salud , Control de Calidad
12.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32170398
13.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32179962

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In the German National Cohort (NAKO Gesundheitsstudie), the largest prospective cohort study in Germany, data on self-reported cancer diagnoses are now available for the first half of participants. OBJECTIVES: Description of the methods to assess self-reported cancer diagnoses and type of cancer in the NAKO and presentation of first results. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a computer-assisted, standardized personal interview, 101,787 participants (54,526 women, 47,261 men) were asked whether they had ever been diagnosed with cancer (malignant tumors including in situ) by a physician and how many cancer diagnoses they had. The type of cancer was classified with a list. Absolute and relative frequencies of self-reported cancer diagnoses and types of cancer were calculated and compared with cancer registry data. RESULTS: A physician-diagnosed cancer was reported by 9.4% of women and 7.0% of men. Of the participants who reported a cancer diagnosis, 88.3% reported to have had only one cancer diagnosis. In women, the most frequent malignancies were breast cancer, cervical cancer, and melanoma. In men, the most frequent malignancies were prostate cancer, melanoma, and colorectal cancer. Comparing the frequencies of cancer diagnoses reported by 45- to 74-year-old NAKO participants within the last five years to cancer registry-based 5­year prevalences, most types of cancer were less frequent in the NAKO, with the exception of melanoma in men and women, cervical cancer and liver cancer in women, and bladder cancer and breast cancer in men. CONCLUSIONS: The NAKO is a rich data basis for future investigations of incident cancer.


Asunto(s)
Sistema de Registros , Anciano , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Alemania , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Neoplasias/diagnóstico , Neoplasias/epidemiología , Estudios Prospectivos , Autoinforme , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
14.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32185449

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Infectious diseases continue to play an important role for disease perception, health-economic considerations and public health in Germany. In recent years, infectious diseases have been linked to the development of non-communicable diseases. Analyses of the German National Cohort (GNC) may provide deeper insights into this issue and pave the way for new targeted approaches in disease prevention. OBJECTIVES: The aim was to describe the tools used to assess infectious diseases and to present initial data on infectious disease frequencies, as well as to relate the GNC assessment tools to data collection methods in other studies in Germany. METHODS: As part of the baseline examination, questions regarding infectious diseases were administered using both an interview and a self-administered touchscreen questionnaire. Data from the initial 101,787 GNC participants were analysed. RESULTS: In the interview, 0.2% (HIV/AIDS) to 8.6% (shingles) of respondents reported ever having a medical diagnosis of shingles, postherpetic neuralgia (in cases where shingles was reported), hepatitis B/C, HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis or sepsis if treated in hospital. In the questionnaire, 12% (cystitis) to 81% (upper respiratory tract infections) of respondents reported having experienced at least one occurrence of upper or lower respiratory tract infections, gastrointestinal infections, cystitis or fever within the past 12 months. OUTLOOK: The cross-sectional analyses of data and tools presented here - for example on determinants of susceptibility to self-reported infections - can be anticipated from the year 2021 onward. Beyond that, more extensive research into infectious disease epidemiology will follow, particularly once analyses of GNC biological materials have been performed.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Transmisibles/epidemiología , Estudios de Cohortes , Estudios Transversales , Alemania/epidemiología , Humanos , Autoinforme , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
15.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32189044

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal diseases and symptoms are very common in the general population. They lead to high healthcare costs and pose a significant burden to the national economy. OBJECTIVES: Based on data from the population-based German National Cohort (GNC), frequencies of musculoskeletal symptoms and diseases are reported, including back pain, osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, and arthritis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Data were collected from March 2014 to March 2017 in adults aged 20-75 years during the first half of the baseline survey of the GNC. The sample comprised 101,779 interviewed subjects, including 9370 subjects who underwent clinical musculoskeletal examinations. The interview included questions about specific musculoskeletal disorders. A clinical examination of the hand provided information about palpable swollen joints and pressure-sensitive joints. Resting pain of the knees and hips was also assessed by a clinical examination. Frequencies were standardized to the German standard population of the year 2011. RESULTS: Having ever been diagnosed with recurrent back pain (22.5%) or osteoarthritis (20.6%) were the most common complaints reported in the interview; osteoporosis (2.9%) and rheumatoid arthritis (1.9%) were stated more seldom. According to the hand examination, 6.0% of all participants experienced pain in at least one finger joint. Resting pain was present in at least one knee among 8.2% and in at least one hip among 5.1% of the participants as assessed during the clinical examination. Women were more likely to report musculoskeletal disorders and symptoms than men. The proportion of adults affected by musculoskeletal diseases increased strongly with age. CONCLUSION: Musculoskeletal disorders and symptoms occur frequently. The burden of complaints and diagnoses is comparable to previous population-based surveys.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Musculoesqueléticas/epidemiología , Adulto , Anciano , Dolor de Espalda/epidemiología , Femenino , Alemania/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Osteoartritis/epidemiología , Prevalencia , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Adulto Joven
16.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act ; 17(1): 38, 2020 Mar 18.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32183834

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Levels of physical activity and variation in physical activity and sedentary time by place and person in European children and adolescents are largely unknown. The objective of the study was to assess the variations in objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time in children and adolescents across Europe. METHODS: Six databases were systematically searched to identify pan-European and national data sets on physical activity and sedentary time assessed by the same accelerometer in children (2 to 9.9 years) and adolescents (≥10 to 18 years). We harmonized individual-level data by reprocessing hip-worn raw accelerometer data files from 30 different studies conducted between 1997 and 2014, representing 47,497 individuals (2-18 years) from 18 different European countries. RESULTS: Overall, a maximum of 29% (95% CI: 25, 33) of children and 29% (95% CI: 25, 32) of adolescents were categorized as sufficiently physically active. We observed substantial country- and region-specific differences in physical activity and sedentary time, with lower physical activity levels and prevalence estimates in Southern European countries. Boys were more active and less sedentary in all age-categories. The onset of age-related lowering or leveling-off of physical activity and increase in sedentary time seems to become apparent at around 6 to 7 years of age. CONCLUSIONS: Two third of European children and adolescents are not sufficiently active. Our findings suggest substantial gender-, country- and region-specific differences in physical activity. These results should encourage policymakers, governments, and local and national stakeholders to take action to facilitate an increase in the physical activity levels of young people across Europe.

17.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32020361

RESUMEN

High levels of adiposity in the population have a major impact on various diseases, but previous epidemiologic studies have largely been restricted to simple anthropometric measures such as the body mass index (BMI), an imperfect predictor of disease risk. There is a critical need for the use of improved measures of relative weight and body composition in large-scale, population-based research.The current article presents initial descriptive results of body composition and fat distribution based on the midterm baseline dataset of the German National Cohort, which included 101,817 participants who were examined in 18 study centers in Germany between March 2014 and March 2017. The anthropometric measures encompassed body weight, height, waist and hip circumference, bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), sonography of abdominal adipose tissue, 3D-body scanning, and magnetic resonance imaging.BMI analyses showed that 46.2% of men and 29.7% of women were overweight and 23.5% of men and 21.2% of women were obese. On average, women in almost all age groups demonstrated more subcutaneous adipose tissue layer thickness than men. The mean values of visceral adipose tissue layer thickness, on the other hand, were higher among men than among women in all age groups and increased continuously across age groups in both sexes.The comprehensive assessment of body composition and fat distribution provides novel future opportunities for detailed epidemiologic analyses of overweight and adiposity in relation to the development of chronic diseases.


Asunto(s)
Antropometría , Índice de Masa Corporal , Peso Corporal , Femenino , Alemania , Humanos , Masculino , Circunferencia de la Cintura
18.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32034443

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Persons with a migration background (PmM) as a population group usually differ from the autochthonous population in terms of morbidity, mortality, and use of the health care system, but they participate less frequently in health studies. The PmM group is very heterogeneous, which has hardly been taken into account in studies so far. OBJECTIVES: Sociodemographic characteristics of PmM in the NAKO health study (age, sex, time since migration, education) are presented. In addition, it is examined through an example whether migration background is related to the use of cancer screening for colorectal cancer (hemoccult test). METHODS: Data of the first 101,816 persons of the NAKO were analyzed descriptively and cartographically. The migration background was assigned on the basis of the definition of the Federal Statistical Office, based on nationality, country of birth, year of entry, and country of birth of the parents. RESULTS: Overall, the PmM proportion is 16.0%. The distribution across the 18 study centers varies considerably between 6% (Neubrandenburg) and 33% (Düsseldorf). With 153 countries of origin, most countries are represented in the NAKO. All variables show clear differences between the different regions of origin. In the hemoccult test, persons of Turkish origin (OR = 0.67) and resettlers (OR = 0.60) have a lower participation rate. PmM born in Germany do not differ in this respect from the autochthonous population (OR = 0.99). CONCLUSION: PmM in the NAKO are a very heterogeneous group. However, due to the sample size, individual subgroups of migrants can be studied separately with respect to region of origin.


Asunto(s)
Migrantes , Estudios de Cohortes , Prestación de Atención de Salud , Alemania , Estado de Salud , Humanos , Factores Socioeconómicos , Turquia
19.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32034444

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: In epidemiologic studies, standardised measurement of socio-demographic and employment-related factors is becoming increasingly important, as variables such as gender, age, education or employment status are factors influencing health and disease risks. AIMS: The article gives an overview of the scientific background and assessment of socio-demographic factors in the German National Cohort Study. In addition, the distribution of individual characteristics in the cohort as well as relationships with health-related measures are presented by way of example. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The analysis is based on the data of the first half of the baseline survey (n = 101,724). On this basis, we present the distribution of key socio-demographic characteristics and analyse relationships with exemplary selected health indicators (body mass index, self-reported health) to assess the validity of socio-demographic data measurements. RESULTS: On average, study participants were 52.0 years old (SD = 12.4). Of the participants, 53.6% were women, 54.3% had high education, 60.1% were married and 72% were employed while 3.4% were unemployed. Well-established correlations between socio-demographic factors and health could be reproduced with the German National Cohort data. For example, low education, old age and unemployment were associated with an increased prevalence of obesity and poor self-reported health. DISCUSSION: The German National Cohort provides a comprehensive measurement of socio-demographic characteristics. Combined with a wide range of health data and the longitudinal measurements available in the future, this opens up new opportunities for health science and social epidemiological research in Germany.


Asunto(s)
Empleo , Estado de Salud , Estudios de Cohortes , Femenino , Alemania , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Factores Socioeconómicos , Desempleo
20.
Artículo en Alemán | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32047975

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Noise annoyance is associated with adverse health-related conditions and reduced wellbeing. Thereby, subjective noise annoyance depends on the objective noise exposure and is modified by personal and regional factors. OBJECTIVE: How many participants of the German National Cohort Study (GNC; NAKO Gesundheitsstudie) were annoyed by transportation noise during nighttime and what factors were associated with noise annoyance? MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional analysis included 86,080 participants from 18 study centers, examined from 2014 to 2017. We used multinomial logistic regression to investigate associations of personal and regional factors to noise annoyance (slightly/moderately or strongly/extremely annoyed vs. not annoyed) mutually adjusting for all factors in the model. RESULTS: Two thirds of participants were not annoyed by transportation noise during nighttime and one in ten reported strong/extreme annoyance with highest percentages for the study centers Berlin-Mitte and Leipzig. The strongest associations were seen for factors related to the individual housing situation like the bedroom being positioned towards a major road (OR of being slightly/moderately annoyed: 4.26 [95% CI: 4.01;4.52]; OR of being strongly/extremely annoyed: 13.36 [95% CI: 12.47;14.32]) compared to a garden/inner courtyard. Participants aged 40-60 years and those in low- and medium-income groups reported greater noise annoyance compared to younger or older ones and those in the high-income group. CONCLUSION: In this study from Germany, transportation noise annoyance during nighttime varied by personal and regional factors.


Asunto(s)
Exposición a Riesgos Ambientales , Ruido del Transporte , Berlin , Estudios de Cohortes , Estudios Transversales , Alemania , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
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