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2.
J Am Med Dir Assoc ; 25(2): 252-258.e8, 2024 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37898162

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To examine the historical trends and predict the future rates and total volumes of permanent residential aged care (PRAC) service utilization in Australia. DESIGN: A population-based repeated cross-sectional and projection study of non-indigenous older people (≥65 years) accessing PRAC in Australia was conducted. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Publicly available aged care admissions from the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare and population estimates from the Australian Bureau of Statistics were used. METHODS: Historical incidence rates (per 1000 people), incidence rate ratios (IRRs) and 95% CIs of PRAC admission from 2008-2009 to 2020-2021 were estimated using negative binomial regression models. The future incidence and prediction intervals (PIs) of PRAC admission between 2021-2022 and 2051-2052 were projected using a generalized additive model-negative binomial regression. All estimates were adjusted or standardized by sex and age. RESULTS: Between 2008-2009 and 2020-2021, the adjusted admission to PRAC decreased (from 23.6/1000 people to 15.7/1000 people with an IRR = 0.97/year, 95% CI 0.97-0.98). The projected PRAC admission rate will decrease to 12.1/1000 (95%PI 10.8-13.3) by 2037-2038 and 9.0/1000 (95%PI 7.6-10.4) by 2051-2052. The projected volume of PRAC admission will be 73,988 (95%PI 65,960-81,425) at its highest point in 2037-2038 and 64,579 (95%PI 54,258-74,543) in 2051-2052. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: The utilization of PRAC has decreased in the past decade, and a predicted decrease in PRAC use in future years is estimated. However, the volume of PRAC utilization will still increase for the next 15 years (until 2037-2038) due to our increasingly older population. These findings can inform service planning of PRAC access in Australia.


Asunto(s)
Hospitalización , Modelos Estadísticos , Humanos , Anciano , Australia/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Predicción
3.
Int J Epidemiol ; 53(1)2024 Feb 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38102926

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: To date, the excess mortality experienced by residential aged care facility (RACF) residents related to COVID-19 has not been estimated in Australia. This study examined (i) the historical mortality trends (2008-09 to 2021-22) and (ii) the excess mortality (2019-20 to 2021-22) of Australian RACF residents. METHODS: A retrospective population-based study was conducted using the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare's GEN website data (publicly available aged care services information). Non-Aboriginal, older (≥65 years old) RACF residents between 2008-09 and 2021-22 were evaluated. The observed mortality rate was estimated from RACF exits compared with the RACF cohort yearly. Direct standardization was employed to estimate age-standardized mortality rates and 95% CIs. Excess mortality and 95% prediction intervals (PIs) for 2019-20 to 2021-22 were estimated using four negative binomial (NB) and NB generalized additive models and compared. RESULTS: The age-standardized mortality rate in 2018-19 was 23 061/100 000 residents (95% CI, 22 711-23 412). This rate remained similar in 2019-20 (23 023/100 000; 95% CI, 22 674-23 372), decreased in 2020-21 (22 559/100 000; 95% CI, 22 210-22 909) and increased in 2021-22 (24 885/100 000; 95% CI, 24 543-25 227). The mortality rate increase between 2020-21 and 2021-22 was observed in all age and sex groups. All models yielded excess mortality in 2021-22. Using the best-performing model (NB), the excess mortality for 2019-20 was -160 (95% PI, -418 to 98), -958 (95% PI, -1279 to -637) for 2020-21 and 4896 (95% PI, 4503-5288) for 2021-22. CONCLUSIONS: In 2021-22, RACF residents, who represented <1% of the population, experienced 21% of the Australian national excess mortality (4896/22 886). As Australia adjusts to COVID-19, RACF residents remain a population vulnerable to COVID-19.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Anciano , Humanos , Australia/epidemiología , Estudios Retrospectivos , Hogares para Ancianos , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud
4.
Arch Gerontol Geriatr ; 117: 105210, 2024 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37812974

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To examine utilisation of primary health care services (subsidised by the Australian Government, Medicare Benefits Schedule, MBS) before and after entry into long-term care (LTC) in Australia. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study of older people (aged ≥65 years) who entered LTC in Australia between 2012 and 2016 using the Historical Cohort of the Registry of Senior Australians. MBS-subsidised general attendances (general practitioner (GP), medical and nurse practitioners), health assessment and management plans, allied health, mental health services and selected specialist attendances accessed in 91-day periods 12 months before and after LTC entry were examined. Adjusted relative changes in utilisation 0-3 months before and after LTC entry were estimated using risk ratios (RR) calculated using Generalised Estimating Equation Poisson models. RESULTS: 235,217 residents were included in the study with a median age of 84 years (interquartile range 79-89) and 61.1% female. In the first 3 months following LTC entry, GP / medical practitioner attendances increased from 86.6% to 95.6% (aRR 1.10 95%CI 1.10-1.11), GP / medical practitioner urgent after hours (from 12.3% to 21.1%; aRR 1.72, 95%CI 1.70-1.74) and after-hours attendances (from 18.5% to 33.8%; aRR 1.83, 95%CI 1.81-1.84) increased almost two-fold. Pain, palliative and geriatric specialist medicine attendances were low in the 3 months prior (<3%) and decreased further following LTC admission. CONCLUSION: There is an opportunity to improve the utilisation of primary health care services following LTC entry to ensure that residents' increasingly complex care needs are adequately met.


Asunto(s)
Cuidados a Largo Plazo , Programas Nacionales de Salud , Anciano , Humanos , Femenino , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Masculino , Australia , Estudios Retrospectivos , Atención Primaria de Salud
5.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 96(4): 1747-1758, 2023.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38007661

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: There is a need for clinical quality indicators (CQIs) that can be applied to dementia quality registries to monitor care outcomes for people with Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia. OBJECTIVE: To develop tertiary and primary care-based dementia CQIs for application to clinical registries for individuals with dementia accessing aged care services and determine 1) annual trends in CQI incidence between 2011-2012 and 2015-2016, 2) associated factors, and 3) geographic and facility variation in CQI incidence. METHODS: This retrospective repeated cross-sectional study included non-Indigenous individuals aged 65-105 years who lived with dementia between July 2008-June 2016, were assessed for government-funded aged care services, and resided in New South Wales or Victoria (n = 180,675). Poisson or negative binomial regression models estimated trends in annual CQI incidence and associated factors. Funnel plots examined CQI variation. RESULTS: Between 2011-2012 and 2015-2016, CQI incidence increased for falls (11.0% to 13.9%, adjusted incidence rate ratio (aIRR) 1.05 (95% CI 1.01-1.06)) and delirium (4.7% to 6.7%, aIRR 1.09 (95% CI 1.07-1.10)), decreased for unplanned hospitalizations (28.7% to 27.9%, aIRR 0.99 (95% CI 0.98-0.99)) and remained steady for fracture (6.2% to 6.5%, aIRR 1.01 (95% CI 0.99-1.01)) and pressure injuries (0.5% to 0.4%, aIRR 0.99 (95% CI 0.96-1.02)). Being male, older, having more comorbidities and living in a major city were associated with higher CQI incidence. Considerable geographical and facility variation was observed for unplanned hospitalizations and delirium CQIs. CONCLUSIONS: The CQI results highlighted considerable morbidity. The CQIs tested should be considered for application in clinical quality registries to monitor dementia care quality.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de Alzheimer , Delirio , Humanos , Masculino , Anciano , Femenino , Estudios Retrospectivos , Estudios Transversales , Indicadores de Calidad de la Atención de Salud , Hospitalización , Delirio/epidemiología
6.
Australas J Ageing ; 42(3): 564-576, 2023 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37070244

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To examine the incidence and trends in primary care, allied health, geriatric, pain and palliative care service use by permanent residential aged care (PRAC) residents and the older Australian population. METHODS: Repeated cross-sectional analyses on PRAC residents (N = 318,484) and the older (≥65 years) Australian population (N ~ 3.5 million). Outcomes were Medicare Benefits Schedule (MBS) subsidised primary care, allied health, geriatric, pain and palliative services between 2012-13 and 2016-17. GEE Poisson models estimated incidence rates and incidence rate ratios (IRR). RESULTS: In 2016-17, PRAC residents had a median of 13 (interquartile range [IQR] 5-19) regular general medical practitioner (GP) attendances, 3 (IQR 1-6) after-hours attendances and 5% saw a geriatrician. Highlights of utilisation changes from 2012-13 to 2016-17 include the following: GP attendances increased by 5%/year (IRR = 1.05, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.05-1.05) for residents compared to 1%/year (IRR = 1.01, 95%CI 1.01-1.01) for the general population. GP after-hours attendances increased by 15%/year (IRR = 1.15, 95%CI 1.14-1.15) for residents and 9%/year (IRR = 1.08, 95%CI 1.07-1.20) for the general population. GP management plans increased by 12%/year (IRR = 1.12, 95%CI 1.11-1.12) for residents and 10%/year (IRR = 1.10, 95%CI 1.09-1.11) for the general population. Geriatrician consultations increased by 28%/year (IRR = 1.28, 95%CI 1.27-1.29) for residents compared to 14%/year (IRR = 1.14, 95%CI 1.14-1.15) in the general population. CONCLUSIONS: The utilisation of most examined services increased in both cohorts over time. Preventive and management care, by primary care and allied health care providers, was low and likely influences the utilisation of other attendances. PRAC residents' access to pain, palliative and geriatric medicine services is low and may not address the residents' needs.


Asunto(s)
Programas Nacionales de Salud , Aceptación de la Atención de Salud , Anciano , Humanos , Estudios Transversales , Australia/epidemiología , Dolor/diagnóstico , Dolor/epidemiología
7.
Age Ageing ; 51(7)2022 07 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35794851

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: no studies have examined the impact of residential medication management review (RMMR, a 24-year government subsidised comprehensive medicines review program) in Australian residential aged care facilities (RACFs) on hospitalisation or mortality. OBJECTIVE: to examine associations between RMMR provision in the 6-12 months after RACF entry and the 12-month risk of hospitalisation and mortality among older Australians in RACFs. DESIGN: retrospective cohort study. SUBJECTS: individuals aged 65-105 years taking at least one medicine, who entered an RACF in three Australian states between 1 January 2012 and 31 December 2015 and spent at least 6 months in the RACF (n = 57,719). METHODS: Cox regression models estimated adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between RMMR provision and mortality. Adjusted subdistribution hazard ratios were estimated for associations between RMMR provision and next (i) emergency department (ED) presentation or unplanned hospitalisation or (ii) fall-related ED presentation or hospitalisation. RESULTS: there were 12,603 (21.8%) individuals who received an RMMR within 6-12 months of RACF entry, of whom 22.2% (95%CI 21.4-22.9) died during follow-up, compared with 23.3% (95%CI 22.9-23.7) of unexposed individuals. RMMR provision was associated with a lower risk of death due to any cause over 12-months (aHR 0.96, 95%CI 0.91-0.99), but was not associated with ED presentations or hospitalisations for unplanned events or falls. CONCLUSIONS: provision of an RMMR in the 6-12 months after RACF entry is associated with a 4.4% lower mortality risk over 12-months but was not associated with changes in hospitalisations for unplanned events or falls.


Asunto(s)
Hogares para Ancianos , Hospitalización , Accidentes por Caídas/prevención & control , Anciano , Australia/epidemiología , Humanos , Estudios Retrospectivos
8.
J Alzheimers Dis ; 88(4): 1511-1522, 2022.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35811530

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Studies related to clinical quality indicators (CQIs) in dementia have focused on hospitalizations, medication management, and safety. Less attention has been paid to indicators related to primary and secondary care. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the incidence of primary and secondary care CQIs for Australians with dementia using government-subsidized aged care. The examined CQIs were: comprehensive medication reviews, 75+ health assessments, comprehensive geriatric assessments, chronic disease management plans, general practitioner (GP) mental health treatment plans, and psychiatrist attendances. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study (2011-2016) of 255,458 individuals. National trend analyses estimated incidence rates and 95% confidence intervals (CI) using Poisson or negative binomial regression. Associations were assessed using backward stepwise multivariate Poisson or negative binomial regression model, as appropriate. Funnel plots examined geographic and permanent residential aged care (PRAC) facility variation. RESULTS: CQI incidence increased in all CQIs but medication reviews. For the overall cohort, 75+ health assessments increased from 1.07/1000 person-days to 1.16/1000 person-days (adjusted incidence rate ratio (aIRR) = 1.03, 95% CI 1.02-1.03).Comprehensive geriatric assessments increased from 0.24 to 0.37/1000 person-days (aIRR = 1.12, 95% CI 1.10-1.14). GP mental health treatment plans increased from 0.04 to 0.07/1000 person-days (aIRR = 1.13, 95% CI 1.12-1.15). Psychiatric attendances increased from 0.09 to 0.11/1000 person-days (aIRR = 1.05, 95% CI 1.03-1.07). Being female, older, having fewer comorbidities, and living outside a major city were associated with lower likelihood of using the services. Large geographical and PRAC facility variation was observed (0-92%). CONCLUSION: Better use of primary and secondary care services to address needs of individuals with dementia is urgently needed.


Asunto(s)
Demencia , Atención Secundaria de Salud , Anciano , Australia/epidemiología , Demencia/epidemiología , Demencia/terapia , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Indicadores de Calidad de la Atención de Salud , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo
9.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 493, 2022 06 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35676644

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Residential Medication Management Review (RMMR) is a subsidized comprehensive medicines review program for individuals in Australian residential aged care facilities (RACFs). This study examined weekly trends in medicines use in the four months before and after an RMMR and among a comparison group of residents who did not receive an RMMR. METHODS: This retrospective cohort study included individuals aged 65 to 105 years who first entered permanent care between 1/1/2012 and 31/12/2016 in South Australia, Victoria, or New South Wales, and were taking at least one medicine. Individuals with an RMMR within 12 months of RACF entry were classified into one of three groups: (i) RMMR within 0 to 3 months, (ii) 3 to 6 months, or (iii) within 6 to 12 months of RACF entry. Individuals without RMMRs were included in the comparison group. Weekly trends in the number of defined daily doses per 1000 days were determined in the four months before and after the RMMR (or assigned index date in the comparison group) for 14 medicine classes. RESULTS: 113909 individuals from 1979 RACFs were included, of whom 55021 received an RMMR. Across all three periods examined, decreased use of statins and proton pump inhibitors was observed post-RMMR in comparison to those without RMMRs. Decreases in calcium channel blockers, benzodiazepines/zopiclone, and antidepressants were observed following RMMR provision in the 3-6 and 6-12 months after RACF entry. Negligible changes in antipsychotic use were also observed following an RMMR in the 6-12 months after RACF entry by comparison to those without RMMRs. No changes in use of opioids, ACE inhibitors/sartans, beta blockers, loop diuretics, oral anticoagulants, or medicines for osteoporosis, diabetes or the cognitive symptoms of dementia were observed post-RMMR. CONCLUSIONS: For six of the 14 medicine classes investigated, modest changes in weekly trends in use were observed after the provision of an RMMR in the 6-12 months after RACF entry compared to those without RMMRs. Findings suggest that activities such as medicines reconciliation may be prioritized when an RMMR is provided on RACF entry, with deprescribing more likely after an RMMR the longer a resident has been in the RACF.


Asunto(s)
Instituciones de Vida Asistida , Hogares para Ancianos , Anciano , Humanos , Cuidados a Largo Plazo , Estudios Retrospectivos , Victoria
10.
Cardiovasc Diagn Ther ; 12(1): 1-11, 2022 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35282665

RESUMEN

Background: Non-ST elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI) has higher post-discharge mortality than ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). Prognosis worsens in those with multivessel coronary disease (MVD). However, information about the prevalence and extent of MVD in NSTEMI is limited, in turn limiting insights into optimal treatment strategies. This study aimed to define the prevalence and extent of MVD, preferred treatment strategies and the predictors of MVD in a real-world NSTEMI population. Methods: The Coronary Angiogram Database of South Australia (CADOSA) was used to identify consecutive patients presenting to major teaching hospitals with NSTEMI between 2012 and 2016. Obtaining clinical and angiographic details, patients were stratified by the number of significantly diseased vessels (0,1,2,3-VD), defined by a stenosis of ≥70%, or ≥50% in the left main coronary artery. Data was analysed retrospectively. Results: The prevalence of MVD (2- or 3-VD) was 42% amongst 3,722 NSTEMI presentations. Multivariate logistic regression modelling showed age, male gender, diabetes, dyslipidaemia and prior myocardial infarction predicted MVD over 1-VD or 0-VD. Percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) was performed in 42% of patients with MVD. This comprised 61% of 2-VD patients and only 22% of 3-VD patients, with 24% and 66% of each group referred for coronary bypass grafting, respectively. Among MVD patients treated with PCI, 76% had their culprit lesion treated alone in the index admission. Conclusions: In this NSTEMI cohort, over 40% had MVD. Notably, a minority of patients with MVD undergoing PCI received multivessel revascularisation. This real-world practice emphasises that further evaluation is required to determine whether complete revascularisation is beneficial in NSTEMI, as reported for STEMI.

11.
Curr Probl Cardiol ; 47(6): 100846, 2022 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33994030

RESUMEN

Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is increasingly recognized to be a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. This study assessed the prevalence and clinical predictors of OSA in patients undergoing coronary angiography. Consecutive patients undergoing coronary angiography in South Australian public hospitals from 2015 to 2018 were included. Clinical details for consecutive patients undergoing coronary angiography in South Australian public hospitals were captured by the Coronary Angiogram Database of South Australia (CADOSA) registry staff, with OSA identified by patient report. Among the 9,885 patients undergoing coronary angiography for the investigation of chest pain, 11% (n = 1,089) were documented as having OSA. Independent clinical predictors of OSA included male gender (OR 2.22, 1.86-2.65, P < 0.001), diabetes mellitus (OR 1.84, 1.58-2.14, P < 0.001), depression (OR 1.81, 1.55-2.12, P < 0.001), prior heart failure (OR 1.63, 1.22-2.18, P = 0.001), hypertension (OR 1.61, 1.32-1.95, P ≤ 0.001), asthma (OR 1.61, 1.34-1.93, P < 0.001), not a current smoker (OR 1.60, 1.30-1.96, P < 0.001), dyslipidaemia (OR 1.46, 1.22-1.76, P < 0.001), non-acute coronary syndrome presentation (OR 1.45, 1.25-1.69, P < 0.001), chronic lung disease (OR 1.40, 1.12-1.73, P = 0.003), cerebrovascular disease (OR 1.36, 1.07-1.73, P = 0.012), non-obstructive coronary artery disease (NOCAD) (OR 1.30, 1.10-1.55, P = 0.003) and atrial fibrillation/flutter (OR 1.30, 1.06-1.60, P = 0.012). Finally, stable angina (32.1% vs 22.7%) and NOCAD (29.1% vs 26.3%, P = 0.051) were trended more common in patients with OSA versus no OSA. In addition to established risk factors for OSA, this study found NOCAD to be independent predictor of OSA; especially in those presenting with a stable angina presentation. This suggests that coronary vasomotor disorders may be associated with OSA, although further detailed studies are required.


Asunto(s)
Angina Estable , Enfermedad de la Arteria Coronaria , Apnea Obstructiva del Sueño , Angina Estable/complicaciones , Australia , Angiografía Coronaria , Enfermedad de la Arteria Coronaria/complicaciones , Enfermedad de la Arteria Coronaria/diagnóstico por imagen , Enfermedad de la Arteria Coronaria/epidemiología , Humanos , Masculino , Prevalencia , Factores de Riesgo , Apnea Obstructiva del Sueño/complicaciones , Apnea Obstructiva del Sueño/epidemiología , Australia del Sur/epidemiología
12.
Circ Cardiovasc Qual Outcomes ; 14(11): e007880, 2021 11.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34784229

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Suspected myocardial infarction (MI) with nonobstructive coronary arteries (MINOCA) occurs in ≈5% to 10% of patients with MI referred for coronary angiography. The prognosis of these patients may differ to those with MI and obstructive coronary artery disease (MI-CAD) and those without a MI (patients without known history of MI [No-MI]). The primary objective of this study is to evaluate the 12-month all-cause mortality of patients with MINOCA. METHODS: Using Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, the terms "MI," "nonobstructive," "angiography," and "prognosis" were searched in PubMed and Embase databases from inception to December 2018, including original, English language MINOCA studies with >100 consecutive patients. Publications with a heterogeneous cohort, unreported coronary stenosis, or exclusively focusing on MINOCA-mimicking conditions, were excluded. Unpublished data were obtained from the MINOCA Global Collaboration. Data were pooled and analyzed using Paule-Mandel, Hartung, Knapp, Sidik & Jonkman, or restricted maximum-likelihood random-effects meta-analysis methodology. Heterogeneity was assessed using Cochran's Q and I2 statistics. The primary outcome was 12-month all-cause mortality in patients with MINOCA, with secondary comparisons to MI-CAD and No-MI. RESULTS: The 23 eligible studies yielded 55 369 suspected MINOCA, 485 382 MI-CAD, and 33 074 No-MI. Pooled meta-analysis of 14 MINOCA studies accounting for 30 733 patients revealed an unadjusted 12-month all-cause mortality rate of 3.4% (95% CI, 2.6%-4.2%) and reinfarction (n=27 605; 10 studies) in 2.6% (95% CI, 1.7%-3.5%). MINOCA had a lower 12-month all-cause mortality than those with MI-CAD (3.3% [95% CI, 2.5%-4.1%] versus 5.6% [95% CI, 4.1%-7.0%]; odds ratio, 0.60 [95% CI, 0.52-0.70], P<0.001). In contrast, there was a statistically nonsignificant trend towards increased 12-month all-cause mortality in patients with MINOCA (2.6% [95% CI, 0%-5.9%]) compared with No-MI (0.7% [95% CI, 0.1%-1.3%]; odds ratio, 3.71 [95% CI, 0.58-23.61], P=0.09). CONCLUSIONS: In the largest contemporary MINOCA meta-analysis to date, patients with suspected MINOCA had a favorable prognosis compared with MI-CAD, but statistically nonsignificant trend toward worse outcomes compared to those with No-MI. Registration: URL: https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/; Unique identifier: CRD42020145356.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad de la Arteria Coronaria , Infarto del Miocardio , Angiografía Coronaria , Humanos , Infarto del Miocardio/diagnóstico , Infarto del Miocardio/epidemiología , Pronóstico , Factores de Riesgo
13.
J Healthc Qual ; 43(5): 292-303, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33534331

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Improving patient outcomes after acute myocardial infarction (AMI) may be facilitated by identifying patients at a high risk of adverse events before hospital discharge. We aimed to determine the accuracy of the LACE (Length of stay, Acuity, Comorbidities, Emergency presentations within prior 6 months) index score (a prediction tool) for predicting 30-day all-cause mortality and readmission rates (independently and combined) in South Australian AMI patients who had an angiogram. METHODS: All consecutive AMI patients enrolled in the Coronary Angiogram Database of South Australia Registry at two major tertiary hospitals and discharged alive between July 2016 to June 2017. A LACE score was calculated for each patient, and receiver operating characteristic curve analysis was performed. RESULTS: Analysis of registry patients found a 30-day unplanned readmission rate of 11.8% and mortality rate of 0.7%. Moreover, the LACE index was a moderate predictor (C-statistic = 0.62) of readmissions in this cohort, and a score ≥10 indicated moderate discriminatory capacity to predict 30-day readmissions. CONCLUSION: The LACE index shows moderate discriminatory capacity to predict 30-day readmissions and mortality. A cut-off score of nine to optimize sensitivity may assist clinicians in identifying patients at a high risk of adverse outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Infarto del Miocardio , Readmisión del Paciente , Australia , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital , Humanos , Tiempo de Internación , Alta del Paciente , Estudios Retrospectivos , Factores de Riesgo
14.
Eur J Heart Fail ; 23(1): 31-40, 2021 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33094886

RESUMEN

AIMS: National 30-day mortality and readmission rates after heart failure (HF) hospitalisations are a focus of US policy intervention and yet have rarely been assessed in other comparable countries. We examined the frequency, trends and institutional variation in 30-day mortality and unplanned readmission rates after HF hospitalisations in Australia and New Zealand. METHODS AND RESULTS: We included patients >18 years hospitalised with HF at all public and most private hospitals from 2010-15. The primary outcomes were the frequencies of 30-day mortality and unplanned readmissions, and the institutional risk-standardised mortality rate (RSMR) and readmission rate (RSRR) evaluated using separate cohorts. The mortality cohort included 153 592 patients (mean age 78.9 ± 11.8 years, 51.5% male) with 16 442 (10.7%) deaths within 30 days. The readmission cohort included 148 704 patients (mean age 78.6 ± 11.9 years, 51.7% male) with 33 158 (22.3%) unplanned readmission within 30 days. In 392 hospitals with at least 25 HF hospitalisations, the median RSMR was 10.7% (range 6.1-17.3%) with 59 hospitals significantly different from the national average. Similarly, in 391 hospitals with at least 25 HF hospitalisations, the median RSRR was 22.3% (range 17.7-27.1%) with 24 hospitals significantly different from the average. From 2010-15, the adjusted 30-day mortality [odds ratio (OR) 0.991/month, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.990-0.992, P < 0.01] and unplanned readmission (OR 0.998/month, 95% CI 0.998-0.999, P < 0.01) rates declined. CONCLUSION: Within 30 days of a HF hospitalisation, one in 10 patients died and almost a quarter of those surviving experienced an unplanned readmission. The risk of these outcomes varied widely among hospitals suggesting disparities in HF care quality. Nevertheless, a substantial decline in 30-day mortality and a modest decline in readmissions occurred over the study period.


Asunto(s)
Insuficiencia Cardíaca , Readmisión del Paciente , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Australia , Femenino , Hospitalización , Humanos , Masculino , Nueva Zelanda
15.
Angiology ; 72(3): 228-235, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32969268

RESUMEN

The differential impact of young age and female gender on transradial access (TRA) outcomes remains to be confirmed. The primary objective was to assess the impact of young age and female gender on in-hospital net adverse cardiovascular events (NACE). Among 12 346 patients from the Coronary Angiogram Database of South Australia (CADOSA) Registry, the impact of gender; men (transfemoral access [TFA] 1995, TRA 6168) and women (TFA 1249, TRA 2934), and a median split of age, ≤63 years (TFA 1617, TRA 4727) and >63 years (TFA 1627, TRA 4375) were analyzed on in-hospital outcomes by creating 5 separate propensity-matched cohorts (entire cohort, men, women, ≤63 and > 63 years). Net adverse cardiovascular event reduction with TRA was limited to the >63 years old cohort (odds ratio [OR] = 0.56, 95% CI: 0.34-0.93, P = .02) and women (OR = 0.37, 95% CI: 0.18-0.76, P = .007). In both the age groups and genders, TRA was associated with a lower risk of bleeding and all-cause mortality. On multivariate logistic regression, TRA was associated with a significant reduction in NACE, major bleeding, and mortality in the overall cohort. In conclusion, a reduction in bleeding and mortality was noted with TRA in all the subgroups in this observational study.


Asunto(s)
Cateterismo Cardíaco , Cateterismo Periférico , Angiografía Coronaria , Arteria Femoral , Arteria Radial , Factores de Edad , Anciano , Cateterismo Cardíaco/efectos adversos , Cateterismo Cardíaco/mortalidad , Cateterismo Periférico/efectos adversos , Cateterismo Periférico/mortalidad , Angiografía Coronaria/efectos adversos , Angiografía Coronaria/mortalidad , Bases de Datos Factuales , Femenino , Hemorragia/etiología , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Punciones , Sistema de Registros , Medición de Riesgo , Factores de Riesgo , Factores Sexuales , Australia del Sur
16.
Clocks Sleep ; 2(2): 120-142, 2020 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33089196

RESUMEN

Background: Readmissions within 30 days of discharge are prominent among patients with cardiovascular disease. Post hospital syndrome hypothesizes that sleep disturbance during the index admission contributes to an acquired transient vulnerability, leading to increased risk of readmission. This study evaluated the association of in-hospital sleep (a) duration and (b) quality with 30-day all-cause unplanned readmission. Methods: This prospective observational cohort study included patients admitted to the coronary care unit of a South Australian hospital between 2016-2018. Study participants were invited to wear an ActiGraph GT3X+ for the duration of their admission and for two weeks post-discharge. Validated sleep and quality of life questionnaires, including the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), were administered. Readmission status and questionnaires were assessed at 30 days post-discharge via patient telephone interview and a review of hospital records. Results: The final cohort consisted of 75 patients (readmitted: n = 15, non-readmitted: n = 60), of which 72% were male with a mean age 66.9 ± 13.1 years. Total sleep time (TST), both in hospital (6.9 ± 1.3 vs. 6.8 ± 2.9 h, p = 0.96) and post-discharge (7.4 ± 1.3 h vs. 8.9 ± 12.6 h, p = 0.76), was similar in all patients. Patient's perception of sleep, reflected by PSQI scores, was poorer in readmitted patients (9.13 ± 3.6 vs. 6.4 ± 4.1, p = 0.02). Conclusions: Although an association between total sleep time and 30-day readmission was not found, patients who reported poorer sleep quality were more likely to be readmitted within 30 days. This study also highlighted the importance of improving sleep, both in and out of the hospital, to improve the outcomes of cardiology inpatients.

17.
Am J Med Genet B Neuropsychiatr Genet ; 183(6): 309-330, 2020 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32681593

RESUMEN

It is imperative to understand the specific and shared etiologies of major depression and cardio-metabolic disease, as both traits are frequently comorbid and each represents a major burden to society. This study examined whether there is a genetic association between major depression and cardio-metabolic traits and if this association is stratified by age at onset for major depression. Polygenic risk scores analysis and linkage disequilibrium score regression was performed to examine whether differences in shared genetic etiology exist between depression case control status (N cases = 40,940, N controls = 67,532), earlier (N = 15,844), and later onset depression (N = 15,800) with body mass index, coronary artery disease, stroke, and type 2 diabetes in 11 data sets from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium, Generation Scotland, and UK Biobank. All cardio-metabolic polygenic risk scores were associated with depression status. Significant genetic correlations were found between depression and body mass index, coronary artery disease, and type 2 diabetes. Higher polygenic risk for body mass index, coronary artery disease, and type 2 diabetes was associated with both early and later onset depression, while higher polygenic risk for stroke was associated with later onset depression only. Significant genetic correlations were found between body mass index and later onset depression, and between coronary artery disease and both early and late onset depression. The phenotypic associations between major depression and cardio-metabolic traits may partly reflect their overlapping genetic etiology irrespective of the age depression first presents.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno Depresivo Mayor/genética , Síndrome Metabólico/genética , Factores de Edad , Edad de Inicio , Índice de Masa Corporal , Factores de Riesgo Cardiometabólico , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Comorbilidad , Enfermedad de la Arteria Coronaria/genética , Bases de Datos Genéticas , Depresión/genética , Depresión/fisiopatología , Trastorno Depresivo Mayor/fisiopatología , Diabetes Mellitus Tipo 2/genética , Femenino , Estudios de Asociación Genética/métodos , Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad/genética , Estudio de Asociación del Genoma Completo , Genotipo , Humanos , Desequilibrio de Ligamiento/genética , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólico/fisiopatología , Herencia Multifactorial/genética , Fenotipo , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple/genética , Accidente Cerebrovascular/genética
18.
Aust Health Rev ; 44(1): 93-103, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30779883

RESUMEN

Objective International studies suggest high rates of readmissions after cardiovascular hospitalisations, but the burden in Australia is uncertain. We summarised the characteristics, frequency, risk factors of readmissions and interventions to reduce readmissions following cardiovascular hospitalisation in Australia. Methods A scoping review of the published literature from 2000-2016 was performed using Medline, EMBASE and Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL) databases and relevant grey literature. Results We identified 35 studies (25 observational, 10 reporting outcomes of interventions). Observational studies were typically single-centre (11/25) and reported readmissions following hospitalisations for heart failure (HF; 10/25), acute coronary syndrome (7/25) and stroke (6/25), with other conditions infrequently reported. The definition of a readmission was heterogeneous and was assessed using diverse methods. Readmission rate, most commonly reported at 1 month (14/25), varied from 6.3% to 27%, with readmission rates of 10.1-27% for HF, 6.5-11% for stroke and 12.7-17% for acute myocardial infarction, with a high degree of heterogeneity among studies. Of the 10 studies of interventions to reduce readmissions, most (n=8) evaluated HF management programs and three reported a significant reduction in readmissions. We identified a lack of national studies of readmissions and those assessing the cost and resource impact of readmissions on the healthcare system as well as a paucity of successful interventions to lower readmissions. Conclusions High rates of readmissions are reported for cardiovascular conditions, although substantial methodological heterogeneity exists among studies. Nationally standardised definitions are required to accurately measure readmissions and further studies are needed to address knowledge gaps and test interventions to lower readmissions in Australia. What is known about the topic? International studies suggest readmissions are common following cardiovascular hospitalisations and are costly to the health system, yet little is known about the burden of readmission in the Australian setting or the effectiveness of intervention to reduce readmissions. What does this paper add? We found relatively high rates of readmissions following common cardiovascular conditions although studies differed in their methodology making it difficult to accurately gauge the readmission rate. We also found several knowledge gaps including lack of national studies, studies assessing the impact on the health system and few interventions proven to reduce readmissions in the Australian setting. What are the implications for practitioners? Practitioners should be cautious when interpreting studies of readmissions due the heterogeneity in definitions and methods used in Australian literature. Further studies are needed to test interventions to reduce readmissions in the Australians setting.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedades Cardiovasculares/terapia , Readmisión del Paciente/estadística & datos numéricos , Australia , Humanos , Factores de Riesgo
19.
Biol Psychiatry ; 87(5): 419-430, 2020 03 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31570195

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of depression is higher in individuals with autoimmune diseases, but the mechanisms underlying the observed comorbidities are unknown. Shared genetic etiology is a plausible explanation for the overlap, and in this study we tested whether genetic variation in the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), which is associated with risk for autoimmune diseases, is also associated with risk for depression. METHODS: We fine-mapped the classical MHC (chr6: 29.6-33.1 Mb), imputing 216 human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles and 4 complement component 4 (C4) haplotypes in studies from the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium Major Depressive Disorder Working Group and the UK Biobank. The total sample size was 45,149 depression cases and 86,698 controls. We tested for association between depression status and imputed MHC variants, applying both a region-wide significance threshold (3.9 × 10-6) and a candidate threshold (1.6 × 10-4). RESULTS: No HLA alleles or C4 haplotypes were associated with depression at the region-wide threshold. HLA-B*08:01 was associated with modest protection for depression at the candidate threshold for testing in HLA genes in the meta-analysis (odds ratio = 0.98, 95% confidence interval = 0.97-0.99). CONCLUSIONS: We found no evidence that an increased risk for depression was conferred by HLA alleles, which play a major role in the genetic susceptibility to autoimmune diseases, or C4 haplotypes, which are strongly associated with schizophrenia. These results suggest that any HLA or C4 variants associated with depression either are rare or have very modest effect sizes.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno Depresivo Mayor , Alelos , Depresión , Trastorno Depresivo Mayor/epidemiología , Trastorno Depresivo Mayor/genética , Predisposición Genética a la Enfermedad , Antígenos HLA , Haplotipos , Humanos , Complejo Mayor de Histocompatibilidad
20.
Int J Cardiol ; 303: 1-7, 2020 03 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31759688

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Electrocardiographic (ECG) methods to assess area at risk (AAR) and infarct size (IS) in patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) have been previously established but not validated against contemporary benchmark Cardiac Magnetic Resonance (CMR) measures. We compared ECG-determined and CMR-determined measures for (a) AAR, (b) IS, and (c) myocardial salvage. METHODS: Sixty patients with ECG evidence of STEMI and CMR imaging performed within 13 days were included. The ECG-determined (a) AAR scores (Aldrich and Wilkins), (b) IS (Selvester score), and (c) myocardial salvage (i.e. [AAR-IS] / AAR × 100%), were compared with CMR-determined measures. RESULTS: Compared with CMR-determined AAR, both the Wilkins & Aldrich scores underestimated AAR, although the Wilkins (r = 0.72, p < 0.001) showed a better correlation than the Aldrich (r = 0.54, p < 0.001). Bland-Altman analysis revealed a bias of 2.6% (95% limits of agreement: 18.5%, -13.3%) for the Wilkins and 5.9% (95% limits of agreement: 25.6%, -13.8%) for the Aldrich. Estimation of IS was similar between the Selvester score and CMR, with good correlation (r = 0.77, p < 0.001) and agreement (fixed bias 0.4%, 95% limits of agreement 20.8%, -15.5%). However, ECG-determined myocardial salvage significantly underestimated CMR-determined myocardial salvage, with an inverse correlation (r = -0.33, p = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: The Wilkins score is superior to Aldrich score as an ECG-AAR index, Selvester score is a reasonable ECG estimate of infarct size, though ECG derived myocardial salvage does not have enough accuracy to be used in the clinical setting; it may be an inexpensive surrogate for myocardial salvage in large research studies. Further validation and prognostic studies are required.


Asunto(s)
Electrocardiografía/métodos , Ventrículos Cardíacos/diagnóstico por imagen , Medición de Riesgo/métodos , Infarto del Miocardio con Elevación del ST/fisiopatología , Australia/epidemiología , Angiografía Coronaria , Femenino , Estudios de Seguimiento , Ventrículos Cardíacos/fisiopatología , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Cinemagnética/métodos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Prospectivos , Factores de Riesgo , Infarto del Miocardio con Elevación del ST/diagnóstico , Infarto del Miocardio con Elevación del ST/epidemiología , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Tasa de Supervivencia/tendencias
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