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1.
J Cytol ; 41(1): 8-12, 2024.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38282813

RESUMEN

Background: The second wave of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic recorded a surge in rhino-orbital-cerebral mucormycosis (ROCM) infection in COVID-19-positive patients with diabetes and on concomitant steroid therapy. The rapidly progressive and devastating nature of the disease necessitated prompt diagnosis and early intervention to improve patient outcomes. Histopathology and fungal culture remain essential tools; however, these investigations have long and variable turn-around times (TATs) and may delay the initiation of treatment. Frozen section is not widely available and should be avoided in COVID-19-positive cases due to the risk of aerosol production and droplet exposure. In cases with high clinicoradiologic suspicion for mucormycosis, imprint cytologic evaluation provides a rapid diagnosis. Familiarity with fungal cytomorphology, awareness of morphologic pitfalls, and implementation of a standardized reporting format aid in diagnostic accuracy. Method: Eighteen COVID-19-positive patients, who were admitted to our hospital with clinical suspicion of mucormycosis during June and July 2021, were included in the study. We used nasal or oral imprint cytology for the initial, rapid detection of Mucor. Cytology findings were correlated with histopathology and fungal culture results. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) were calculated. Results: The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, and NPV were 100%, 100%, 100% and 100%, respectively. Conclusion: This study showed that imprint cytology can be a rapid, cost-effective, first-line diagnostic modality in Mucor diagnosis.

2.
Cureus ; 15(11): e49157, 2023 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38130539

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological and clinical characteristics and laboratory findings of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients at the Sohar Hospital, Sohar, Oman. METHODS: This retrospective study of admitted COVID-19 patients at Sohar Hospital in Oman was carried out from March to October 2020. Demographics and laboratory data of 19 tests for 235 COVID-19 patients, of which 202 were survivors and 33 were non-survivors, were collected from the hospital information system after ethics approval. RESULTS: Thirteen factors were significantly correlated with in-hospital mortality, including older age, having chronic disease, high neutrophil count, high troponin T, high creatinine, low albumin (p < 0.0001), high white blood cell (WBC) count, low hemoglobin, high D-dimer (p < 0.001), high C-reactive protein (CRP) (p < 0.002), low lymphocyte count (p < 0.003), high alkaline phosphatase (ALP) enzyme (p < 0.007) and high ferritin (p < 0.045). The most common laboratory blood test abnormalities that were highly correlated with mortality were increased values of CRP (100% of non-survivors), D-dimer (94.1% of non-survivors), ferritin (88.2% of non-survivors), and troponin T (85% of non-survivors) and reduced lymphocyte count (73.9% of non-survivors). CONCLUSION: These findings could help in categorizing COVID-19 patients for risk-based assessment and early identification of patients with poor prognosis.

3.
Gels ; 8(6)2022 May 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35735676

RESUMEN

Metastatic tumours are complex ecosystems; a community of multiple cell types, including cancerous cells, fibroblasts, and immune cells that exist within a supportive and specific microenvironment. The interplay of these cells, together with tissue specific chemical, structural and temporal signals within a three-dimensional (3D) habitat, direct tumour cell behavior, a subtlety that can be easily lost in 2D tissue culture. Here, we investigate a significantly improved tool, consisting of a novel matrix of functionally programmed peptide sequences, self-assembled into a scaffold to enable the growth and the migration of multicellular lung tumour spheroids, as proof-of-concept. This 3D functional model aims to mimic the biological, chemical, and contextual cues of an in vivo tumor more closely than a typically used, unstructured hydrogel, allowing spatial and temporal activity modelling. This approach shows promise as a cancer model, enhancing current understandings of how tumours progress and spread over time within their microenvironment.

4.
Front Vet Sci ; 8: 637614, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33796580

RESUMEN

Osteosarcoma (OS) is the most common primary bone tumor and originates from bone forming mesenchymal cells and primarily affects children and adolescents. The 5-year survival rate for OS is 60 to 65%, with little improvement in prognosis during the last four decades. Studies have demonstrated the evolving roles of parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) and its receptor (PTHR1) in bone formation, bone remodeling, regulation of calcium transport from blood to milk, regulation of maternal calcium transport to the fetus and reabsorption of calcium in kidneys. These two molecules also play critical roles in the development, progression and metastasis of several tumors such as breast cancer, lung carcinoma, chondrosarcoma, squamous cell carcinoma, melanoma and OS. The protein expression of both PTHrP and PTHR1 have been demonstrated in OS, and their functions and proposed signaling pathways have been investigated yet their roles in OS have not been fully elucidated. This review aims to discuss the latest research with PTHrP and PTHR1 in OS tumorigenesis and possible mechanistic pathways. This review is dedicated to Professor Michael Day who died in May 2020 and was a very generous collaborator.

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