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Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(3)2021 Mar 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809269


Background-misinformation and mistrust often undermines community vaccine uptake, yet information in rural communities, especially of developing countries, is scarce. This study aimed to identify major challenges associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine clinical trials among healthcare workers and staff in Uganda. Methods-a rapid exploratory survey was conducted over 5 weeks among 260 respondents (66% male) from healthcare centers across the country using an online questionnaire. Twenty-seven questions assessed knowledge, confidence, and trust scores on COVID-19 vaccine clinical trials from participants in 46 districts in Uganda. Results-we found low levels of knowledge (i.e., confusing COVID-19 with Ebola) with males being more informed than females (OR = 1.5, 95% CI: 0.7-3.0), and mistrust associated with policy decisions to promote herbal treatments in Uganda and the rushed international clinical trials, highlighting challenges for the upcoming Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccinations. Knowledge, confidence and trust scores were higher among the least educated (certificate vs. bachelor degree holders). We also found a high level of skepticism and possible community resistance to DNA recombinant vaccines, such as the Oxford-AstraZeneca vaccine. Preference for herbal treatments (38/260; 14.6%, 95% CI: 10.7-19.3) currently being promoted by the Ugandan government raises major policy concerns. High fear and mistrust for COVID-19 vaccine clinical trials was more common among wealthier participants and more affluent regions of the country. Conclusion-our study found that knowledge, confidence, and trust in COVID-19 vaccines was low among healthcare workers in Uganda, especially those with higher wealth and educational status. There is a need to increase transparency and inclusive participation to address these issues before new trials of COVID-19 vaccines are initiated.

Neurotox Res ; 2020 Nov 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33141427


Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal of considerable toxicity, inducing a number of hazardous effects to humans and animals including neurotoxicity. This experiment was aimed to investigate the potential effect of kaempferol (KPF) against Cd-induced cortical injury. Thirty-two adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided equally into four groups. The control rats intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with physiological saline (0.9% NaCl), the cadmium chloride (CdCl2)-treated rats were i.p. injected with 4.5 mg/kg of CdCl2, the KPF-treated rats were orally gavaged with 50 mg/kg of KPF, and the KPF + CdCl2-treated rats were administered orally 50 mg/kg of KPF 120 min before receiving i.p. injection of 4.5 mg/kg CdCl2. CdCl2 exposure for 30 days led to the accumulation of Cd in the cortical tissue, accompanied by a reduction in the content of monoamines and acetylcholinesterase activity. Additionally, CdCl2 induced a state of oxidative stress as evidenced by the elevation of lipid peroxidation and nitrate/nitrite levels, while glutathione content and the activities of glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase were decreased. Moreover, CdCl2 mediated inflammatory events in the cortical tissue through increasing tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1 beta levels and upregulating the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase. Furthermore, pro-apoptotic proteins (Bax and caspase-3) were elevated, while Bcl-2, the anti-apoptotic protein, was decreased. Also, histological alterations were observed obviously following CdCl2. However, KPF pretreatment restored significantly the examined markers to be near the normal values. Hence, the obtained data provide evidences that KPF pretreatment has the protective effect to preserve the cortical tissues in CdCl2-exposed rats by restraining oxidative stress, inflammatory response, apoptosis, neurochemical modulation, and improving the histological changes.

Metab Brain Dis ; 34(3): 853-864, 2019 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30919246


Current therapeutic interventions for memory loss are inadequate and are associated with numerous adverse effects. There is an urgent need for new alternative agents for the treatment of memory loss and related disorders. Here, we investigated the potential neuroprotective role of soursop fruit extract (SSFE) in scopolamine (SCO)-induced amnesia and oxidative damage in the hippocampus of rats. Thirty-five rats were randomly allocated into 5 groups: control, SCO, SSFE, SCO, SSFE+SCO and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) + SCO. SCO-treatment increased acetylcholine esterase activity and decreased hippocampal levels of acetylcholine, serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, and histamine. The level of ATP increased. SCO-treated rats showed a disturbance in oxidative status, which was evident through the increase in malondialdehyde, and nitrites/nitrates and a decrease in cellular antioxidant molecules including glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase. A disturbance was also observed via downregulation of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 and heme oxygenase-1 defense pathways. SCO-treatment enhances a neuroinflammatory state, as indicated by the release of tumor necrosis factor- α and interleukin-1ß and increased inducible nitric oxide synthase and mRNA expression. SCO-treatment decreased the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein, B cell lymphoma 2 and increased the expression of the pro-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2 associated X protein, caspase-3 and cytochrome c in hippocampal neurons. SSFE pretreatment markedly ameliorated hippocampal changes. Our findings revealed that SSFE exerts its potential anti-amnestic effect mainly through the activation of the cholinergic system and Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.

Acetilcolina/farmacología , Hemo-Oxigenasa 1/efectos de los fármacos , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos , Escopolamina/farmacología , Amnesia/inducido químicamente , Amnesia/tratamiento farmacológico , Animales , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Hemo-Oxigenasa 1/genética , Masculino , Malondialdehído/metabolismo , Malondialdehído/farmacología , Óxido Nítrico Sintasa de Tipo II/efectos de los fármacos , Óxido Nítrico Sintasa de Tipo II/metabolismo , Ratas Wistar
Metab Brain Dis ; 33(4): 1121-1130, 2018 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29557530


Due to the high ability of cadmium to cross the blood-brain barrier, cadmium (Cd) causes severe neurological damages. Hence, the purpose of this study was to investigate the possible protective effect of Mangifera indica leaf extract (MLE) against Cd-induced neurotoxicity. Rats were divided into eight groups. Group 1 served as vehicle control group, groups 2, 3 and 4 received MLE (100, 200, 300 mg /kg b.wt, respectively). Group 5 was treated with CdCl2 (5 mg/kg b.wt). Groups 6, 7 and 8 were co-treated with MLE and CdCl2 using the same doses. All treatments were orally administered for 28 days. Cortical oxidative stress biomarkers [Malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), glutathione content (GSH), oxidized form of glutathione (GSSG), 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)], inflammatory cytokines [tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) and interlukin-1ß (IL-1ß)], biogenic amines [norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT)], some biogenic metabolites [3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC), homovanillic acid (HVA) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA)], acetylcholine esterase activity (AChE) and purinergic compound [adenosine triphosphate (ATP)] were determined in frontal cortex of rats. Results indicated that Cd increased levels of the oxidative biomarkers (MDA, NO, GSSG and 8-OHdG) and the inflammatory mediators (TNF-α and IL-1ß), while lowered GSH, SOD, CAT, GPx and ATP levels. Also, Cd significantly decreased the AChE activity and the tested biogenic amines while elevated the tested metabolites in the frontal cortex. Levels of all disrupted cortical parameters were alleviated by MLE co-administration. The MLE induced apparent protective effect on Cd-induced neurotoxicity in concern with its medium and higher doses which may be due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities.

Lesiones Encefálicas/tratamiento farmacológico , Encéfalo/efectos de los fármacos , Cadmio/toxicidad , Fármacos Neuroprotectores/uso terapéutico , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos , Extractos Vegetales/uso terapéutico , Acetilcolinesterasa/metabolismo , Animales , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Lesiones Encefálicas/metabolismo , Glutatión/metabolismo , Masculino , Malondialdehído/metabolismo , Mangifera , Fármacos Neuroprotectores/farmacología , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Ratas , Ratas Wistar , Superóxido Dismutasa/metabolismo