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1.
Animals (Basel) ; 11(2)2021 Feb 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669202

RESUMEN

Liver sinusoids are lined by fenestrated endothelial cells surrounded by perisinusoidal cells, Kupffer cells, and pit cells, as well as large granular lymphocytes. The functional ability of the liver cells can be substantially modified by exposure to toxins. In the current work, we assessed the histopathological and ultrastructural effects of a time-course exposure to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) on the hepatic structures of rats. A total of 30 adult female Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: a control group, a group orally administered 250 µg/kg body weight/day of AFB1 for 5 days/week over 4 weeks, and a group that received the same AFB1 treatment but over 8 weeks. Histopathological and ultrastructural examinations of hepatocytes revealed massive vacuolar degeneration and signs of necrosis. Furthermore, the rat liver of the treated group exhibited damage to the sinusoidal endothelium, invasion of the space of Disse with hyperactive Kupffer cells, and some immune cells, as well as Ito cells overloaded with lipids. In addition, damaged telocytes were observed. Taken together, our results indicate that AFB1 induces irreversible adverse effects on the livers of rats.

2.
Animals (Basel) ; 11(2)2021 Feb 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33672003

RESUMEN

Newcastle disease (ND) is considered to be one of the most economically significant avian viral diseases. It has a worldwide distribution and a continuous diversity of genotypes. Despite its limited zoonotic potential, Newcastle disease virus (NDV) outbreaks in Egypt occur frequently and result in serious economic losses in the poultry industry. In this study, we investigated and characterized NDV in wild cattle egrets and house sparrows. Fifty cattle egrets and fifty house sparrows were collected from the vicinity of chicken farms in Kafrelsheikh Governorate, Egypt, which has a history of NDV infection. Lung, spleen, and brain tissue samples were pooled from each bird and screened for NDV by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RRT-PCR) and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to amplify the 370 bp NDV F gene fragment. NDV was detected by RRT-PCR in 22 of 50 (44%) cattle egrets and 13 of 50 (26%) house sparrows, while the conventional RT-PCR detected NDV in 18 of 50 (36%) cattle egrets and 10 of 50 (20%) of house sparrows. Phylogenic analysis revealed that the NDV strains identified in the present study are closely related to other Egyptian class II, sub-genotype VII.1.1 NDV strains from GenBank, having 99.7-98.5% identity. The pathogenicity of the wild-bird-origin NDV sub-genotype VII.1.1 NDV strains were assessed by experimental inoculation of identified strains (KFS-Motobas-2, KFS-Elhamoul-1, and KFS-Elhamoul-3) in 28-day-old specific-pathogen-free (SPF) Cobb chickens. The clinical signs and post-mortem changes of velogenic NDV genotype VII (GVII) were observed in inoculated chickens 3 to 7 days post-inoculation, with 67.5-70% mortality rates. NDV was detected in all NDV-inoculated chickens by RRT-PCR and RT-PCR at 3, 7, and 10 days post-inoculation. The histopathological findings of the experimentally infected chickens showed marked pulmonary congestion and pneumonia associated with complete bronchial stenosis. The spleen showed histocytic cell proliferation with marked lymphoid depletion, while the brain had malacia and diffuse gliosis. These findings provide interesting data about the characterization of NDV in wild birds from Egypt and add to our understanding of their possible role in the transmission dynamics of the disease in Egypt. Further research is needed to explore the role of other species of wild birds in the epidemiology of this disease and to compare the strains circulating in wild birds with those found in poultry.

3.
Animals (Basel) ; 10(12)2020 Nov 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33255611

RESUMEN

Evaluating potential adverse health impacts caused by pesticides is an important parameter in human toxicity. This study focuses on the importance of subchronic toxicity assessment of cymoxanil fungicide in rats with special reference to target biochemical enzymes and histopathological changes in different tissues. In this regard, a 21-day toxicity study with repeated cymoxanil oral doses was conducted. It has been shown that low doses (0.5 mg/kg) were less effective than medium (1 mg/kg) and high (2 mg/kg) doses. Moreover, high dose dose-treated rats showed piecemeal necrosis in the liver, interstitial nephritis and tubular degeneration in the kidneys, interstitial pneumonia and type II pneumocyte hyperplasia in the lungs, gliosis, spongiosis, and malacia in the brain, and testicular edema and degeneration in the testes. Cymoxanil significantly increased AST, ALT, and ALP in serum and liver, indicating tissue necrosis and possible leakage of these enzymes into the bloodstream. Creatinine levels increased, indicating renal damage. Similarly, significant inhibition was recorded in brain acetylcholinesterase, indicating that both synaptic transmission and nerve conduction were affected. Importantly, these histopathological and biochemical alterations were dose-dependent. Taken together, our study reported interesting biochemical and histopathological alterations in different rat tissues following repeated toxicity with oral doses of cymoxanil. Our study suggests future studies on different pesticides at different concentrations that would help urge governments to create more restrictive regulations concerning these compounds' levels.

4.
Neurotox Res ; 2020 Nov 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33141427

RESUMEN

Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal of considerable toxicity, inducing a number of hazardous effects to humans and animals including neurotoxicity. This experiment was aimed to investigate the potential effect of kaempferol (KPF) against Cd-induced cortical injury. Thirty-two adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided equally into four groups. The control rats intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with physiological saline (0.9% NaCl), the cadmium chloride (CdCl2)-treated rats were i.p. injected with 4.5 mg/kg of CdCl2, the KPF-treated rats were orally gavaged with 50 mg/kg of KPF, and the KPF + CdCl2-treated rats were administered orally 50 mg/kg of KPF 120 min before receiving i.p. injection of 4.5 mg/kg CdCl2. CdCl2 exposure for 30 days led to the accumulation of Cd in the cortical tissue, accompanied by a reduction in the content of monoamines and acetylcholinesterase activity. Additionally, CdCl2 induced a state of oxidative stress as evidenced by the elevation of lipid peroxidation and nitrate/nitrite levels, while glutathione content and the activities of glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase were decreased. Moreover, CdCl2 mediated inflammatory events in the cortical tissue through increasing tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1 beta levels and upregulating the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase. Furthermore, pro-apoptotic proteins (Bax and caspase-3) were elevated, while Bcl-2, the anti-apoptotic protein, was decreased. Also, histological alterations were observed obviously following CdCl2. However, KPF pretreatment restored significantly the examined markers to be near the normal values. Hence, the obtained data provide evidences that KPF pretreatment has the protective effect to preserve the cortical tissues in CdCl2-exposed rats by restraining oxidative stress, inflammatory response, apoptosis, neurochemical modulation, and improving the histological changes.

5.
Metab Brain Dis ; 35(7): 1175-1187, 2020 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32548708

RESUMEN

Diabetes mellitus is an increasing metabolic disease worldwide associated with central nervous system disorders. Coffee is a widely consumed beverage that enriched with antioxidants with numerous medicinal applications. Accordingly, the present study aimed to investigate the therapeutic potential of orally administered green coffee bean water extract (GCBWE) against cortical damage induced by high fat diet (HFD) followed by a single injection of streptozotocin (STZ) in rats. Metformin (Met) was used as standard antidiabetic drug. Animals were allocated into six groups: control, GCBWE (100 mg/kg), HFD/STZ (40 mg/kg), HFD/STZ + GCBWE (50 mg/kg), HFD/STZ + GCBWE (100 mg/kg) and HFD/STZ + Met (200 mg/kg) which were treated daily for 28 days. Compared to control rats, HFD/STZ-treated rats showed decreased levels of cortical dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin with marked increases in their metabolites. Further, HFD/STZ treatment resulted in notable elevations in malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl and total nitrite levels paralleled with declines in antioxidant markers (SOD, CAT, GPx, GR and GSH) and down-regulations of Sod2, Cat, GPx1 and Gsr gene expression. Neuroinflammation was evident in diabetic animals by marked elevations in TNF-α, IL-1ß and up-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase. Significant rises incaspase-3 and Bax with decline in Bcl-2 level were noticed in diabetic rats together with similar results in their gene expressions. Cortical histopathological examination supported the biochemical and molecular findings. GCBWE administration achieved noteworthy neuroprotection in diabetic animals in most assessed parameters. The overall results suggested that antioxidant, anti-inflammatory; anti-apoptotic activities of GCBWE restored the cortical neurochemistry in diabetic rats.

6.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(6): 6139-6147, 2020 Feb.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31865585

RESUMEN

The current study was designed to demonstrate the hepatoprotective effect of aged garlic extract (AGE) against ethephon-induced liver toxicity in rats. Sixty male Wistar albino rats were divided into four groups as follows: the control group; AGE group was administered with 250 mg/kg; the ethephon group was orally given 200 mg/kg; and AGE + ethephon group was treated with ethephon for 4 weeks and then given AGE for another 4 weeks using the same dosage. The ethephon administration impaired the balance between oxidants and antioxidants as evidenced by the increased level of malondialdehyde (MDA) and the decreased concentration of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione (GSH). Biochemical findings showed a significant decrease in the red blood corpuscles (RBCs) count, hemoglobin (Hb) content, and hematocrit (HCT) level, with a significant increase in the white blood cells count. In addition, ethephon produced a significant decrease in levels of aspartate transaminase (AST) and alanine transaminase (ALT) with a decrease in albumin level. Furthermore, histological investigation showed dilation of the hepatic central vein and dilation of blood sinusoids which were congested with inflammatory cellular infiltrate. Moreover, examination of the liver using transmission electron microscopy showed a disturbance in the nuclear membranes and degenerating mitochondria with a rise in the cytoplasmic vacuoles by cellular edema. Interestingly, AGE administration was found to attenuate the histological deformations and biochemical alteration produced by ethephon. These findings suggest that AGE supplementation could be used to reverse the hepatic injury following ethephon exposure through its antioxidant capacity.


Asunto(s)
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Ajo , Compuestos Organofosforados/toxicidad , Extractos Vegetales/farmacología , Alanina Transaminasa/metabolismo , Animales , Aspartato Aminotransferasas/metabolismo , Enfermedad Hepática Inducida por Sustancias y Drogas , Hígado , Masculino , Estrés Oxidativo , Ratas , Ratas Wistar
7.
Life Sci ; 232: 116634, 2019 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31279782

RESUMEN

AIM: Here, we evaluated the possible protective effects of oleuropein, the major phenolic constituent in virgin olive oil against glycerol-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) in rats. MAIN METHODS: Twenty-eight Sprague Dawley rats were allocated equally into four groups as follows: control group, oleuropein group (50 mg/kg body weight), AKI group and the oleuropein + AKI group. AKI was induced by injecting 50% glycerol (10 ml/kg body weight) intramuscularly. KEY FINDINGS: Glycerol injection increased the kidney relative weight as well as rhabdomyolysis (RM)- and AKI-related index levels, including the levels of creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine, urea, and Kim-1 expression. Additionally, alteration in oxidative conditions in renal tissue was recorded, as confirmed by the elevated malondialdehyde and nitric oxide levels and the decreased glutathione content. Concomitantly, the protein and mRNA expression levels of antioxidant enzymes were suppressed. Moreover, Nfe2l2 and Hmox1 mRNA expression was also downregulated. Glycerol triggered inflammatory reactions in renal tissue, as evidenced by the increased pro-inflammatory cytokines and Ccl2 protein and mRNA expression, whereas myeloperoxidase activity was increased. Furthermore, glycerol injection enhanced apoptotic events in renal tissue by increasing the expression of the pro-apoptotic proteins and decreasing that of anti-apoptotic. However, oleuropein administration reversed the molecular, biochemical, and histological alterations resulting from glycerol injection. SIGNIFICANCE: Our data suggest that oleuropein has potential as an alternative therapy to prevent or minimize RM incidence and subsequent development of AKI, possibly due to its potent anti-stress, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic effects.


Asunto(s)
Lesión Renal Aguda/tratamiento farmacológico , Iridoides/farmacología , Lesión Renal Aguda/metabolismo , Animales , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Apoptosis/efectos de los fármacos , Moléculas de Adhesión Celular/metabolismo , Creatina Quinasa/metabolismo , Creatinina/metabolismo , Glutatión/metabolismo , Glicerol/efectos adversos , Glicerol/farmacología , Inflamación/metabolismo , Iridoides/metabolismo , Riñón/metabolismo , Masculino , Malondialdehído/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Oxidación-Reducción/efectos de los fármacos , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos , Peroxidasa/metabolismo , Ratas , Ratas Sprague-Dawley , Rabdomiólisis/complicaciones
8.
Metab Brain Dis ; 34(3): 853-864, 2019 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30919246

RESUMEN

Current therapeutic interventions for memory loss are inadequate and are associated with numerous adverse effects. There is an urgent need for new alternative agents for the treatment of memory loss and related disorders. Here, we investigated the potential neuroprotective role of soursop fruit extract (SSFE) in scopolamine (SCO)-induced amnesia and oxidative damage in the hippocampus of rats. Thirty-five rats were randomly allocated into 5 groups: control, SCO, SSFE, SCO, SSFE+SCO and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) + SCO. SCO-treatment increased acetylcholine esterase activity and decreased hippocampal levels of acetylcholine, serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, and histamine. The level of ATP increased. SCO-treated rats showed a disturbance in oxidative status, which was evident through the increase in malondialdehyde, and nitrites/nitrates and a decrease in cellular antioxidant molecules including glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase. A disturbance was also observed via downregulation of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 and heme oxygenase-1 defense pathways. SCO-treatment enhances a neuroinflammatory state, as indicated by the release of tumor necrosis factor- α and interleukin-1ß and increased inducible nitric oxide synthase and mRNA expression. SCO-treatment decreased the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein, B cell lymphoma 2 and increased the expression of the pro-apoptotic protein, Bcl-2 associated X protein, caspase-3 and cytochrome c in hippocampal neurons. SSFE pretreatment markedly ameliorated hippocampal changes. Our findings revealed that SSFE exerts its potential anti-amnestic effect mainly through the activation of the cholinergic system and Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.


Asunto(s)
Acetilcolina/farmacología , Hemo-Oxigenasa 1/efectos de los fármacos , Estrés Oxidativo/efectos de los fármacos , Escopolamina/farmacología , Amnesia/inducido químicamente , Amnesia/tratamiento farmacológico , Animales , Antioxidantes/farmacología , Hemo-Oxigenasa 1/genética , Masculino , Malondialdehído/metabolismo , Malondialdehído/farmacología , Óxido Nítrico Sintasa de Tipo II/efectos de los fármacos , Óxido Nítrico Sintasa de Tipo II/metabolismo , Ratas Wistar
9.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(13): 13539-13550, 2019 May.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30915694

RESUMEN

In the current report, we examined the potential beneficial role of soursop fruit extract (SSFE) on liver injury induced by a single paracetamol (APAP) overdose (2000 mg/kg). Thirty-five Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into five groups as follows: control, SSFE, APAP, SSFE+APAP, and silymarin (SIL)+APAP. APAP intoxication was found to elevate alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, and total bilirubin levels. Moreover, it increased the levels of malondialdehyde, nitrites, and nitrates and depleted glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, and glutathione peroxidase. APAP intoxication inactivated the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) defense pathway and upregulated the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). APAP administration enhanced the activation of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), the elevation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin 1-beta levels, and the upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase mRNA expression. In addition, APAP activated the overexpression of Bax protein, increased release of cytochrome c, and the downregulation of Bcl-2 protein. Finally, APAP-induced overexpression of transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-ß) further suggested enhanced liver damage. On the other hand, SSFE pretreatment attenuated these biochemical, molecular, and histopathological alterations in the liver, which might be partially due to the regulation of hepatic Nrf2/HO-1 and downregulation of NF-κB and TGF-ß.


Asunto(s)
Acetaminofén/metabolismo , Antiinflamatorios/farmacología , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Aspartato Aminotransferasas/metabolismo , Catalasa/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Glutatión/metabolismo , Hígado/metabolismo , Malondialdehído/metabolismo , Factor 2 Relacionado con NF-E2/metabolismo , FN-kappa B/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintasa de Tipo II/metabolismo , Superóxido Dismutasa/metabolismo , Acetaminofén/química , Alanina Transaminasa/metabolismo , Animales , Annona , Antiinflamatorios/química , Antioxidantes/química , Apoptosis , Aspartato Aminotransferasas/química , Factor 2 Relacionado con NF-E2/química , Óxido Nítrico Sintasa de Tipo II/química , Ratas , Ratas Wistar , Factor de Necrosis Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Verduras
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