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Epilepsy Behav ; 116: 107712, 2021 Jan 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33460988


OBJECTIVE: To examine the lateralizing value of unilateral peri-ictal and interictal headaches in patients with drug-resistant focal epilepsy (DRFE). METHODS: Four-hundred consecutive patients undergoing presurgical evaluation for DRFE were interviewed. Patients with headache were broadly divided into two groups: peri-ictal and interictal headache. The lateralizing value of unilateral headache was compared in each group between three diagnoses: temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), extratemporal lobe epilepsy (ETLE), and temporal-plus epilepsy (TEMP+ epilepsy). RESULTS: Out of 400 patients, 169 (42.25%) had headaches. Peri-ictal headaches were experienced in 106 patients (26.5%) and interictal headaches were experienced in 63 (15.75%). In the peri-ictal group, unilateral headaches were present in 48 out of 60 patients (80%) with TLE; they were ipsilateral to the seizure focus in 45 out of 48 patients (93.75%). Unilateral headaches in patients with ETLE were present in 20 out of 31 patients (64.5%) and were ipsilateral to the seizure focus in 14 out of 20 patients (70%). In patients with TEMP + epilepsy, unilateral peri-ictal headaches were present in 9 out of 15 patients (60%); they were ipsilateral to the seizure focus in all 9 patients (100%). In the interictal headache group, unilateral headaches were ipsilateral the seizure focus in 9 out of 10 patients (90%) with TLE and 5 out of 6 patients (83.3%) with ETLE. None of the TEMP + epilepsy patients had a unilateral interictal headache. CONCLUSION: Headache is a frequently encountered symptom in patients with DRFE. When occurring in a unilateral fashion, it has a high lateralizing value in temporal and extratemporal lobe epilepsies. This has been demonstrated to be true for both peri-ictal and interictal headaches. In the vast majority of patients with DRFE, unilateral headache occurs ipsilateral to the seizure focus.

Epilepsia Open ; 5(3): 475-486, 2020 Sep.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913955


Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of frontal disconnection surgery in seizure control and related consequences in a consecutive patient series. Methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of patients who underwent frontal disconnection surgery for drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE). Baseline epilepsy characteristics, detailed presurgical evaluation including epileptogenic zone (EZ) localization, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) detection of epileptogenic lesion, and pathological findings were reviewed. Patients were followed postoperatively for seizure outcome at 1 year. Results: A total of 16 patients were identified (six children and 10 adults). Most patients had a childhood onset of DRE with a median duration of epilepsy of 6.5 years (interquartile range 3.5-17.5 years) before surgery. In 10 (62.5%) patients, the EZ was localized to the frontal lobe, while in six patients, the EZ involved also adjacent lobes or consisted of multiple foci. In 10 (62.5%) patients, an epileptogenic lesion was detected on presurgical MRI, four of which (40%) had all MRI abnormalities confined to the frontal lobe. Two-thirds of the patients (11/16; 68.8%) underwent isolated frontal disconnection procedure, while remaining patients had frontal disconnection combined with resection of an adjacent lobe. Of the 12 patients in whom biopsy was taken from the disconnected frontal lobe, six (50%) had pathology-proven focal cortical dysplasia. We observed surgical-related complications in three (18.8%) cases, neurological deficits in other three (18.8%) patients, and worsening cognitive abilities in one (6.3%) patient. Overall, eight (50%) patients became completely seizure-free (ILAE 1) at one-year follow-up. Significance: Frontal disconnection surgery for DRE can result in seizure freedom in certain patients, especially when the EZ is strictly limited to the ipsilateral frontal region, and the MRI shows an epileptogenic lesion that is purely frontal in location. Frontal lobe disconnection procedure is safe and has a limited complication rate. However, further studies with larger patient population will yield more significance.

Am J Case Rep ; 21: e922590, 2020 May 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32365056


BACKGROUND Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an autoimmune, demyelinating, inflammatory disorder affecting the central nervous system, mostly targeting optic nerves and the spinal cord. NMO spectrum disorder (NMOSD) is a newly revised nomenclature in which new diagnostic criteria have been developed, including serological testing of serum aquaporin-4 immunoglobulin G (AQP4-IgG) antibodies. Results of a negative antibody will group the patient in a seronegative subgroup. CASE REPORT We describe the case of a 27-year-old female who presented to our hospital with new onset of sudden unexplained vomiting, dysphagia, dysphonia, and food regurgitation. Extensive investigations were done and brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a small nonspecific area of signal abnormality in the right dorsal medulla. Aquaporin-4 antibodies were negative, and the patient was diagnosed with seronegative NMOSD with acute brainstem syndrome after meeting the diagnostic criteria. The patient's condition improved after steroids administration. CONCLUSIONS We report an unusual presentation of seronegative NMOSD presenting with acute brainstem syndrome.

Epilepsy Behav Case Rep ; 8: 73-84, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29159066


Septo-optic dysplasia (SOD) is a rare disorder associated with optic nerve hypoplasia, pituitary abnormalities and agenesis/dysgenesis of midline brain structures including the septum pellucidum and corpus callosum. Though sometimes associated with drug-resistant epilepsy, this association has not been well studied. We report six SOD patients with associated malformation of cortical development (MCD) and drug-resistant epilepsy who underwent video-EEG telemetry at our centre between 1998 and 2016 for drug-resistant epilepsy. ‬Three then underwent surgery; right temporal neocortical resection, right functional hemispherectomy and placement of a vagus nerve stimulator. Clinical findings and the patients' ultimate courses are discussed.