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1.
Neurotox Res ; 2020 Nov 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33141427

RESUMEN

Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal of considerable toxicity, inducing a number of hazardous effects to humans and animals including neurotoxicity. This experiment was aimed to investigate the potential effect of kaempferol (KPF) against Cd-induced cortical injury. Thirty-two adult Sprague-Dawley rats were divided equally into four groups. The control rats intraperitoneally (i.p.) injected with physiological saline (0.9% NaCl), the cadmium chloride (CdCl2)-treated rats were i.p. injected with 4.5 mg/kg of CdCl2, the KPF-treated rats were orally gavaged with 50 mg/kg of KPF, and the KPF + CdCl2-treated rats were administered orally 50 mg/kg of KPF 120 min before receiving i.p. injection of 4.5 mg/kg CdCl2. CdCl2 exposure for 30 days led to the accumulation of Cd in the cortical tissue, accompanied by a reduction in the content of monoamines and acetylcholinesterase activity. Additionally, CdCl2 induced a state of oxidative stress as evidenced by the elevation of lipid peroxidation and nitrate/nitrite levels, while glutathione content and the activities of glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase, and catalase were decreased. Moreover, CdCl2 mediated inflammatory events in the cortical tissue through increasing tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1 beta levels and upregulating the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase. Furthermore, pro-apoptotic proteins (Bax and caspase-3) were elevated, while Bcl-2, the anti-apoptotic protein, was decreased. Also, histological alterations were observed obviously following CdCl2. However, KPF pretreatment restored significantly the examined markers to be near the normal values. Hence, the obtained data provide evidences that KPF pretreatment has the protective effect to preserve the cortical tissues in CdCl2-exposed rats by restraining oxidative stress, inflammatory response, apoptosis, neurochemical modulation, and improving the histological changes.

2.
Metab Brain Dis ; 35(7): 1175-1187, 2020 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32548708

RESUMEN

Diabetes mellitus is an increasing metabolic disease worldwide associated with central nervous system disorders. Coffee is a widely consumed beverage that enriched with antioxidants with numerous medicinal applications. Accordingly, the present study aimed to investigate the therapeutic potential of orally administered green coffee bean water extract (GCBWE) against cortical damage induced by high fat diet (HFD) followed by a single injection of streptozotocin (STZ) in rats. Metformin (Met) was used as standard antidiabetic drug. Animals were allocated into six groups: control, GCBWE (100 mg/kg), HFD/STZ (40 mg/kg), HFD/STZ + GCBWE (50 mg/kg), HFD/STZ + GCBWE (100 mg/kg) and HFD/STZ + Met (200 mg/kg) which were treated daily for 28 days. Compared to control rats, HFD/STZ-treated rats showed decreased levels of cortical dopamine, norepinephrine and serotonin with marked increases in their metabolites. Further, HFD/STZ treatment resulted in notable elevations in malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl and total nitrite levels paralleled with declines in antioxidant markers (SOD, CAT, GPx, GR and GSH) and down-regulations of Sod2, Cat, GPx1 and Gsr gene expression. Neuroinflammation was evident in diabetic animals by marked elevations in TNF-α, IL-1ß and up-regulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase. Significant rises incaspase-3 and Bax with decline in Bcl-2 level were noticed in diabetic rats together with similar results in their gene expressions. Cortical histopathological examination supported the biochemical and molecular findings. GCBWE administration achieved noteworthy neuroprotection in diabetic animals in most assessed parameters. The overall results suggested that antioxidant, anti-inflammatory; anti-apoptotic activities of GCBWE restored the cortical neurochemistry in diabetic rats.

3.
Mol Biol Rep ; 47(4): 2591-2603, 2020 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32144527

RESUMEN

Lead (Pb) is one of the most common heavy metal pollutants affecting living organisms. It induces nephrotoxicity with significant alterations in renal structure and function. Luteolin (LUT) a flavonoid present in various plant products is well known for exhibiting numerous pharmacological properties. We evaluated the protective efficacy of LUT against Pb-induced renal injury in male Wistar rats. Four experimental groups: control, LUT (50 mg/kg, orally), PbAc (20 mg/kg, i.p.), LUT + PbAc (at the aforementioned doses) were maintained for 7 days. PbAc administration significantly increased renal Pb accumulation, urea, and creatinine levels in serum, and induced renal histological alterations. Additionally, compared to the control rats, PbAc-treated rats exhibited significantly low levels of antioxidant enzyme activity and expression (SOD, CAT, GPx and GR), as well as high MDA levels. Moreover, PbAc exposure downregulated Nfe212 and Homx1 mRNA expression and significantly increased inflammatory marker (TNF-α, IL-1ß and NO) levels in renal tissue. PbAc significantly upregulated the synthesis of apoptotic related proteins and downregulated antiapoptotic protein expression. Notably, LUT pretreatment of PbAc-treated rats provided significant nephroprotection and reversed the alterations in the abovementioned parameters. In conclusion, LUT provided significant protection against PbAc intoxication via antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-apoptotic activities by activating the Nrf2/ARE signaling pathway.

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