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1.
Int J Sports Physiol Perform ; : 1-6, 2020 Feb 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32023547

RESUMEN

PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (a-tDCS) on the aerobic performance, heart rate (HR), and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) of highly trained taekwondo athletes. METHODS: Twelve (8 men and 4 women) international/national-level athletes received a-tDCS or sham treatment over the M1 location in a randomized, single-blind crossover design. The stimulation was delivered at 1.5 mA for 15 min using an extracephalic bihemispheric montage. Athletes performed the progressive-specific taekwondo test 10 min after stimulation. HR was monitored continuously during the test, and RPE was registered at the end of each stage and at test cessation. RESULTS: There were no significant differences between sham and a-tDCS in time to exhaustion (14.6 and 14.9, respectively, P = .53, effect size = 0.15) and peak kicking frequency (52 and 53.6, respectively, P = .53, effect size = 0.15) or in HR (P > .05) and RPE responses (P > .05). CONCLUSIONS: Extracephalic bihemispheric a-tDCS over M1 did not influence the aerobic performance of taekwondo athletes or their psychophysiological responses, so athletes and staff should be cautious when using it in a direct-to-consumer manner.

2.
Rev. bras. psiquiatr ; 40(4): 410-419, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: biblio-959249

RESUMEN

Objective: The Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ) is used worldwide to assess three styles (authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive) and seven dimensions of parenting. In this study, we adapted the short version of the PSDQ for use in Brazil and investigated its validity and reliability. Methods: Participants were 451 mothers of children aged 3 to 18 years, though sample size varied with analyses. The translation and adaptation of the PSDQ followed a rigorous methodological approach. Then, we investigated the content, criterion, and construct validity of the adapted instrument. Results: The scale content validity index (S-CVI) was considered adequate (0.97). There was evidence of internal validity, with the PSDQ dimensions showing strong correlations with their higher-order parenting styles. Confirmatory factor analysis endorsed the three-factor, second-order solution (i.e., three styles consisting of seven dimensions). The PSDQ showed convergent validity with the validated Brazilian version of the Parenting Styles Inventory (Inventário de Estilos Parentais - IEP), as well as external validity, as it was associated with several instruments measuring sociodemographic and behavioral/emotional-problem variables. Conclusion: The PSDQ is an effective and reliable psychometric instrument to assess childrearing strategies according to Baumrind's model of parenting styles.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Preescolar , Niño , Adolescente , Adulto , Comparación Transcultural , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/normas , Responsabilidad Parental , Tolerancia , Psicometría , Autoritarismo , Traducciones , Brasil , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Análisis Factorial , Madres/psicología , Madres/estadística & datos numéricos
3.
Braz J Psychiatry ; 40(4): 410-419, 2018.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29898189

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: The Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ) is used worldwide to assess three styles (authoritative, authoritarian, and permissive) and seven dimensions of parenting. In this study, we adapted the short version of the PSDQ for use in Brazil and investigated its validity and reliability. METHODS: Participants were 451 mothers of children aged 3 to 18 years, though sample size varied with analyses. The translation and adaptation of the PSDQ followed a rigorous methodological approach. Then, we investigated the content, criterion, and construct validity of the adapted instrument. RESULTS: The scale content validity index (S-CVI) was considered adequate (0.97). There was evidence of internal validity, with the PSDQ dimensions showing strong correlations with their higher-order parenting styles. Confirmatory factor analysis endorsed the three-factor, second-order solution (i.e., three styles consisting of seven dimensions). The PSDQ showed convergent validity with the validated Brazilian version of the Parenting Styles Inventory (Inventário de Estilos Parentais - IEP), as well as external validity, as it was associated with several instruments measuring sociodemographic and behavioral/emotional-problem variables. CONCLUSION: The PSDQ is an effective and reliable psychometric instrument to assess childrearing strategies according to Baumrind's model of parenting styles.


Asunto(s)
Comparación Transcultural , Responsabilidad Parental , Encuestas y Cuestionarios/normas , Adolescente , Adulto , Autoritarismo , Brasil , Niño , Preescolar , Análisis Factorial , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Madres/psicología , Madres/estadística & datos numéricos , Tolerancia , Psicometría , Reproducibilidad de los Resultados , Traducciones
4.
Biomark Med ; 12(5): 447-454, 2018 05.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29737866

RESUMEN

AIM: The aim of this study is to evaluate the presence of a particular immunological profile in individuals long-term infected with HTLV-1, followed presenting different clinical courses. MATERIALS & METHODS: Forty-eight individuals were evaluated for 19 cytokines analyzed in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma of patients with HTLV-1 presenting with and without neurological symptoms. RESULTS: Proinflammatory cytokines and the chemokine ligand 11 (ITAC/CXCL11) were increased in individuals with HTLV-1 coursing with neurological symptoms. CONCLUSION: Different cytokines' expression profile in the presence of neurological symptoms may help to understand and characterize the progression for severe clinical presentations.


Asunto(s)
Citocinas/sangre , Citocinas/líquido cefalorraquídeo , Infecciones por HTLV-I/complicaciones , Virus Linfotrópico T Tipo 1 Humano/fisiología , Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso/sangre , Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso/líquido cefalorraquídeo , Biomarcadores/sangre , Biomarcadores/líquido cefalorraquídeo , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Enfermedades del Sistema Nervioso/complicaciones , Factores de Tiempo
5.
Front Psychol ; 8: 1992, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29209247

RESUMEN

Impulsivity has mainly been described as a negative or dysfunctional characteristic associated with several disorders. However, impulsivity is not only related to dysfunctional outcomes and may explain individual differences in optimal human functioning as well. The Dickman Impulsivity Inventory (DII) is a self-report instrument measuring both the dysfunctional and the functional aspects of impulsivity. In this study, we performed the translation and cultural adaptation of the DII to the Brazilian context and analyzed its psychometric properties. Translation and cultural adaptation followed a rigorous process, which relied on an expert panel in the cross-cultural adaptation of psychological instruments. Data from 405 undergraduate students were obtained for the Brazilian version of the DII (Br-DII). The 23 items of the Br-DII was considered unsuitable according to model fit indices of the Confirmatory Factor Analysis (both for Oblique and Orthogonal models). Exploratory Factor Analysis showed an 18 items version of the Br-DII to be suitable (CFI = 0.92; TLI = 0.90, and RMSEA = 0.057). The DII's 18 items version also showed adequate Cronbach's alpha, intraclass correlation coefficient, and convergent and discriminant validity with the BIS-11. Therefore, the Br-DII demonstrated reliability and validity in the measurement of functional and dysfunctional impulsivity.

6.
Front Psychol ; 8: 622, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28484414

RESUMEN

Objective: To examine the internal consistency and factor structure of the Brazilian adaptation of the UPPS Impulsive Behavior Scale. Methods: UPPS is a self-report scale composed by 40 items assessing four factors of impulsivity: (a) urgency, (b) lack of premeditation; (c) lack of perseverance; (d) sensation seeking. In the present study 384 participants (278 women and 106 men), who were recruited from schools, universities, leisure centers and workplaces fulfilled the UPPS scale. An exploratory factor analysis was performed by using Varimax factor rotation and Kaiser Normalization, and we also conducted two confirmatory analyses to test the independency of the UPPS components found in previous analysis. Results: Results showed a decrease in mean UPPS total scores with age and this analysis showed that the youngest participants (below 30 years) scored significantly higher than the other groups over 30 years. No difference in gender was found. Cronbach's alpha, results indicated satisfactory values for all subscales, with similar high values for the subscales and confirmatory factor analysis indexes also indicated a poor model fit. The results of two exploratory factor analysis were satisfactory. Conclusion: Our results showed that the Portuguese version has the same four-factor structure of the original and previous translations of the UPPS.

7.
Psychiatry Res Neuroimaging ; 265: 9-17, 2017 Jul 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28494347

RESUMEN

Some studies have identified brain morphological changes in the frontolimbic network (FLN) in bipolar subjects who attempt suicide (SA). The present study investigated neuroanatomical abnormalities in the FLN to find a possible neural signature for suicidal behavior in patients with bipolar disorder type I (BD-I). We used voxel-based morphometry to compare euthymic patients with BD-I who had attempted suicide (n=20), who had not attempted suicide (n=19) and healthy controls (HCs) (n=20). We also assessed the highest medical lethality of their previous SA. Compared to the participants who had not attempted suicide, the patients with BD-I who had attempted suicide exhibited significantly increased gray matter volume (GMV) in the right rostral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), which was more pronounced and extended further to the left ACC in the high-lethality subgroup (p<0.05, with family-wise error (FWE) correction for multiple comparisons using small-volume correction). GMV in the insula and orbitofrontal cortex was also related to suicide lethality (p<0.05, FWE-corrected). The current findings suggest that morphological changes in the FLN could be a signature of previous etiopathogenic processes affecting regions related to suicidality and its severity in BD-I patients.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno Bipolar/psicología , Encéfalo/anomalías , Ideación Suicida , Intento de Suicidio/psicología , Adulto , Trastorno Bipolar/fisiopatología , Encéfalo/diagnóstico por imagen , Encéfalo/fisiopatología , Femenino , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad
8.
Percept Mot Skills ; 124(2): 380-392, 2017 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28361648

RESUMEN

The Grooved Pegboard Test, in its standard use, has well-documented utility. However, a revised methodology needs further study, leading us to investigate whether duration of eye fixation could predict performance on different task conditions of the Grooved Pegboard Test (place and remove pegs) with the preferred and nonpreferred hands. Fifty-two right-handed undergraduate students (33 male and 19 female), with a mean age of 22.22 (±3.57) years, performed the Grooved Pegboard Test. SensoMotoric eye-tracking glasses with a binocular time resolution of 30 Hz were used to measure eye fixation. The videos were recorded in iView software, and data were analyzed using BeGaze software. The number and duration of eye fixations were statistically different with preferred and nonpreferred hands and also differed across tasks. Simple linear regression showed eye fixation duration to predict movement time in the place task (preferred hand: R2 = 31%; nonpreferred hand: R2 = 41%) and in the remove task (preferred hand: R2 = 11%; nonpreferred hand: R2 = 25%). Thus, duration of eye fixation during the Grooved Pegboard Test differentially predicted performance with each hand and on preferred and different subtests of this instrument.


Asunto(s)
Fijación Ocular/fisiología , Mano/fisiología , Desempeño Psicomotor/fisiología , Adulto , Medidas del Movimiento Ocular , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Joven
9.
Front Psychol ; 8: 261, 2017.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28293203

RESUMEN

In order to understand the reasons that lead individuals to practice physical activity, researchers developed the Motives for Physical Activity Measure-Revised (MPAM-R) scale. In 2010, a translation of MPAM-R to Portuguese and its validation was performed. However, psychometric measures were not acceptable. In addition, factor scores in some sports psychology scales are calculated by the mean of scores by items of the factor. Nevertheless, it seems appropriate that items with higher factor loadings, extracted by Factor Analysis, have greater weight in the factor score, as items with lower factor loadings have less weight in the factor score. The aims of the present study are to translate, validate the MPAM-R for Portuguese versions, and investigate agreement between two methods used to calculate factor scores. Three hundred volunteers who were involved in physical activity programs for at least 6 months were collected. Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the 30 items indicated that the version did not fit the model. After excluding four items, the final model with 26 items showed acceptable model fit measures by Exploratory Factor Analysis, as well as it conceptually supports the five factors as the original proposal. When two methods are compared to calculate factors scores, our results showed that only "Enjoyment" and "Appearance" factors showed agreement between methods to calculate factor scores. So, the Portuguese version of the MPAM-R can be used in a Brazilian context, and a new proposal for the calculation of the factor score seems to be promising.

10.
Rev. bras. psiquiatr ; 38(3): 235-238, July-Sept. 2016. graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: lil-792747

RESUMEN

Objective: Cognitive impairment is a hallmark of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer’s disease dementia (AD). Although the cognitive profile of these patients and its association with activities of daily living (ADLs) is well documented, few studies have assessed deficits in fine motor dexterity and their association with ADL performance. The objective of this research paper is to evaluate fine motor dexterity performance among MCI and AD patients and to investigate its association with different aspects of ADLs. Methods: We assessed normal aging controls, patients with multiple- and single-domain amnestic MCI (aMCI), and patients with mild AD. Fine motor dexterity was measured with the Nine-Hole Peg Test and cognitive functioning by the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale. We analyzed the data using general linear models. Results: Patients with AD or multiple-domain aMCI had slower motor responses when compared to controls. AD patients were slower than those with single-domain aMCI. We found associations between cognition and instrumental ADLs, and between fine motor dexterity and self-care ADLs. Conclusion: We observed progressive slowing of fine motor dexterity along the normal aging-MCI-AD spectrum, which was associated with autonomy in self-care ADLs.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Actividades Cotidianas/psicología , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/fisiopatología , Disfunción Cognitiva/fisiopatología , Destreza Motora/fisiología , Escalas de Valoración Psiquiátrica , Autocuidado/psicología , Envejecimiento/fisiología , Envejecimiento/psicología , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Modelos Lineales , Estudios Transversales , Pruebas Neuropsicológicas
11.
Braz J Psychiatry ; 38(3): 235-8, 2016.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27508398

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Cognitive impairment is a hallmark of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease dementia (AD). Although the cognitive profile of these patients and its association with activities of daily living (ADLs) is well documented, few studies have assessed deficits in fine motor dexterity and their association with ADL performance. The objective of this research paper is to evaluate fine motor dexterity performance among MCI and AD patients and to investigate its association with different aspects of ADLs. METHODS: We assessed normal aging controls, patients with multiple- and single-domain amnestic MCI (aMCI), and patients with mild AD. Fine motor dexterity was measured with the Nine-Hole Peg Test and cognitive functioning by the Mattis Dementia Rating Scale. We analyzed the data using general linear models. RESULTS: Patients with AD or multiple-domain aMCI had slower motor responses when compared to controls. AD patients were slower than those with single-domain aMCI. We found associations between cognition and instrumental ADLs, and between fine motor dexterity and self-care ADLs. CONCLUSION: We observed progressive slowing of fine motor dexterity along the normal aging-MCI-AD spectrum, which was associated with autonomy in self-care ADLs.


Asunto(s)
Actividades Cotidianas/psicología , Enfermedad de Alzheimer/fisiopatología , Disfunción Cognitiva/fisiopatología , Destreza Motora/fisiología , Envejecimiento/fisiología , Envejecimiento/psicología , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Estudios Transversales , Humanos , Modelos Lineales , Pruebas Neuropsicológicas , Escalas de Valoración Psiquiátrica , Autocuidado/psicología
12.
J Affect Disord ; 197: 74-80, 2016 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26970268

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Childhood maltreatment (CM) may be related to clinical expression and outcome of bipolar disorder (BD). Several neuroimaging studies have detected brain morphological changes in specific neural networks of adults who suffered maltreatment in their childhood. We investigated alterations in gray matter volume (GMV) to determine a possible neuroanatomical basis of vulnerability in patients with CM having type I BD (BD-I). METHODS: We assessed 39 euthymic DSM-IV BD-I patients with (n=20) and without (n=19) a history of CM and 20 healthy controls without maltreatment as defined by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ). Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to compare GMV differences between patients and controls and perform linear correlations in overall BD group between GMV and CTQ scores. RESULTS: BD-I patients had significant negative correlations between CTQ total score and GMV in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the right thalamus; between physical abuse and GMV in the right dorsolateral PFC; between physical neglect and GMV in the thalamus bilaterally; and between emotional neglect and GMV in the right thalamus. LIMITATIONS: Pharmacological treatment could have altered GMV findings. Results emerged only when using SVC approach. CTQ, a retrospective self-report, has the risk of potential recall bias. The cross-sectional design limits longitudinal and neurodevelopmental inferences. CONCLUSIONS: The severity of self-reported CM in BD-I patients is associated with morphological changes in GMV of specific neural networks relevant to responses to stress and to modulate emotional behavior.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno Bipolar/fisiopatología , Sustancia Gris/patología , Corteza Prefrontal/patología , Tálamo/patología , Adulto , Trastorno Bipolar/psicología , Encéfalo/patología , Mapeo Encefálico , Estudios de Casos y Controles , Estudios Transversales , Manual Diagnóstico y Estadístico de los Trastornos Mentales , Femenino , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética/métodos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Estudios Retrospectivos , Adulto Joven
13.
Rev. bras. psiquiatr ; 38(1): 1-5, Jan.-Mar. 2016. tab, graf
Artículo en Inglés | LILACS | ID: lil-776503

RESUMEN

Objective: Approximately one-half of all patients affected by bipolar disorder present with psychotic features on at least one occasion. Several studies have found that alterations in the activity of mesolimbic and prefrontal regions are related to aberrant salience in psychotic patients. The aim of the present study was to investigate the structural correlates of a history of hallucinations in a sample of euthymic patients with bipolar I disorder (BD-I). Methods: The sample consisted of 21 euthymic patients with BD-I and no comorbid axis I DSM-IV-TR disorders. Voxel based morphometry (VBM) was used to compare patients with and without a lifetime history of hallucinations. Preprocessing was performed using the Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration through Exponentiated Lie Algebra (DARTEL) algorithm for VBM in SPM8. Images were processed using optimized VBM. Results: The main finding of the present study was a reduction in gray matter volume in the right posterior insular cortex of patients with BD-I and a lifetime history of hallucinations, as compared to subjects with the same diagnosis but no history of hallucinations. Conclusions: This finding supports the presence of abnormalities in the salience network in BD patients with a lifetime history of hallucinations. These alterations may be associated with an aberrant assignment of salience to the elements of one’s own experience, which could result in psychotic symptoms.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Adulto , Adulto Joven , Trastorno Bipolar/fisiopatología , Sustancia Gris/patología , Alucinaciones/fisiopatología , Tamaño de los Órganos , Trastorno Bipolar/complicaciones , Trastorno Bipolar/diagnóstico por imagen , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Corteza Cerebral/fisiopatología , Corteza Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagen , Estudios Transversales , Sustancia Gris/diagnóstico por imagen , Alucinaciones/complicaciones , Persona de Mediana Edad
14.
Braz J Psychiatry ; 38(1): 1-5, 2016 Mar.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26785108

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: Approximately one-half of all patients affected by bipolar disorder present with psychotic features on at least one occasion. Several studies have found that alterations in the activity of mesolimbic and prefrontal regions are related to aberrant salience in psychotic patients. The aim of the present study was to investigate the structural correlates of a history of hallucinations in a sample of euthymic patients with bipolar I disorder (BD-I). METHODS: The sample consisted of 21 euthymic patients with BD-I and no comorbid axis I DSM-IV-TR disorders. Voxel based morphometry (VBM) was used to compare patients with and without a lifetime history of hallucinations. Preprocessing was performed using the Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration through Exponentiated Lie Algebra (DARTEL) algorithm for VBM in SPM8. Images were processed using optimized VBM. RESULTS: The main finding of the present study was a reduction in gray matter volume in the right posterior insular cortex of patients with BD-I and a lifetime history of hallucinations, as compared to subjects with the same diagnosis but no history of hallucinations. CONCLUSIONS: This finding supports the presence of abnormalities in the salience network in BD patients with a lifetime history of hallucinations. These alterations may be associated with an aberrant assignment of salience to the elements of one's own experience, which could result in psychotic symptoms.


Asunto(s)
Trastorno Bipolar/fisiopatología , Sustancia Gris/patología , Alucinaciones/fisiopatología , Adulto , Trastorno Bipolar/complicaciones , Trastorno Bipolar/diagnóstico por imagen , Corteza Cerebral/diagnóstico por imagen , Corteza Cerebral/fisiopatología , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Sustancia Gris/diagnóstico por imagen , Alucinaciones/complicaciones , Humanos , Imagen por Resonancia Magnética , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Tamaño de los Órganos , Adulto Joven
15.
Percept Mot Skills ; 121(1): 300-8, 2015 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26302193

RESUMEN

This study assessed the relative age effect (RAE) in judo athletes who participated in the Olympic Games from 1964 to 2012. The names and birthdates of the Olympic judo athletes were collected from open-access websites. Data from male (n=1,762) and female (n=665) competitors were analyzed separately. Chi-squared tests were performed to investigate REA in medalists, and by weight categories and sexes. When the analyses used semesters to divide the period when the athletes were born, a RAE was found in male heavyweight athletes and male medallists. Thus, in a selected group of judo athletes who had participated at the highest competitive level, RAEs were present in both athletes who won Olympic medals and heavyweight athletes in the male group.


Asunto(s)
Rendimiento Atlético/fisiología , Artes Marciales/fisiología , Adulto , Factores de Edad , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino
16.
Neurosci Biobehav Rev ; 57: 132-41, 2015 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26299808

RESUMEN

Random practice results in more effective motor learning than either constant or blocked practice. Recent studies have investigated the effects of practice schedules at the neurophysiological level. This study aims to conduct a literature review of the following issues: (a) the differential involvement of premotor areas, the primary motor cortex, the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and the posterior parietal cortex in different types of practice; (b) changes in the participation of these areas throughout practice; and (c) the degree of support that current neurophysiological findings offer to strengthen the behavioral proposition that distinct cognitive processes are generated by different practice schedules. Data from 10 studies that investigated associations between practice structures and neurobiological substrates were analyzed. The participation of the indicated areas was found to depend on practice structure and varied during the learning process. Greater cognitive engagement was associated with random practice. In conclusion, distinct neural processes are engendered by different practice conditions. The integration of behavioral and neurophysiological findings promotes a more comprehensive view of the phenomenon.


Asunto(s)
Corteza Cerebral/fisiología , Actividad Motora/fisiología , Práctica Psicológica , Humanos
19.
Percept Mot Skills ; 119(1): 69-81, 2014 Aug.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25153740

RESUMEN

The present study investigated the effects of the frequency of knowledge of results (KR) on both generalized motor programs and parameters. Two experiments were conducted that compared two frequencies of KR in terms of generalized motor programs and parameters: (1) the first experiment compared the effects of KR frequency on generalized motor programs in the 100% and 50% groups; and (2) the second experiment compared the effects of reduced KR frequency on parameters in the 100% and 50% groups. In the first experiment, results showed that the 50% group exhibited smaller relative timing errors than did the 100% group, but absolute timing errors in the transfer test were similar between these two groups. In the second experiment, both groups exhibited similar relative and absolute timing errors. These results suggested that the beneficial effects of reduced KR frequency were restricted to generalized motor programs.


Asunto(s)
Conocimiento Psicológico de los Resultados , Práctica Psicológica , Desempeño Psicomotor/fisiología , Transferencia de Experiencia en Psicología/fisiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Joven
20.
PLoS One ; 9(6): e99698, 2014.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24956262

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Prefrontal dopamine is catabolized by the catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) enzyme. Current evidence suggests that the val/met single nucleotide polymorphism in the COMT gene can predict the efficiency of executive cognition in humans. Individuals carrying the val allele perform more poorly because less synaptic dopamine is available. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We investigated the influence of the COMT polymorphism on motor performance in a task that requires different executive functions. We administered a manual aiming motor task that was performed under four different conditions of execution by 111 healthy participants. Participants were grouped according to genotype (met/met, met/val, val/val), and the motor performance among groups was compared. Overall, the results indicate that met/met carriers presented lower levels of peak velocity during the movement trajectory than the val carriers, but met/met carriers displayed higher accuracy than the val carriers. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study found a significant association between the COMT polymorphism and manual aiming control. Few studies have investigated the genetics of motor control, and these findings indicate that individual differences in motor control require further investigation using genetic studies.


Asunto(s)
Catecol O-Metiltransferasa/genética , Estudios de Asociación Genética , Voluntarios Sanos , Actividad Motora/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleótido Simple/genética , Adulto , Función Ejecutiva , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino
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