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1.
Proc Biol Sci ; 291(2019): 20232665, 2024 Mar 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38531401

RESUMEN

Organisms that have repeatedly evolved similar morphologies owing to the same selective pressures provide excellent cases in which to examine specific morphological changes and their relevance to the ecology and evolution of taxa. Hosts of permanent parasites act as an independent evolutionary experiment, as parasites on these hosts are thought to be undergoing similar selective pressures. Parasitic feather lice have repeatedly diversified into convergent ecomorphs in different microhabitats on their avian hosts. We quantified specific morphological characters to determine (i) which traits are associated with each ecomorph, (ii) the quantitative differences between these ecomorphs, and (iii) if there is evidence of displacement among co-occurring lice as might be expected under louse-louse competition on the host. We used nano-computed tomography scan data of 89 specimens, belonging to four repeatedly evolved ecomorphs, to examine their mandibular muscle volume, limb length and three-dimensional head shape data. Here, we find evidence that lice repeatedly evolve similar morphologies as a mechanism to escape host defences, but also diverge into different ecomorphs related to the way they escape these defences. Lice that co-occur with other genera on a host exhibit greater morphological divergence, indicating a potential role of competition in evolutionary divergence.


Asunto(s)
Parásitos , Animales , Filogenia , Aves/parasitología , Ecología , Interacciones Huésped-Parásitos
2.
Oecologia ; 204(4): 751-759, 2024 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38523192

RESUMEN

Shifts in flowering time among plant communities as a result of climate change, including extreme weather events, are a growing concern. These plant phenological changes may affect the quantity and quality of food sources for specialized insect pollinators. Plant-pollinator interactions are threatened by habitat alterations and biodiversity loss, and changes in these interactions may lead to declines in flower visitors and pollination services. Most prior research has focused on short-term plant-pollinator interactions, which do not accurately capture changes in pollination services. Here, we characterized long-term plant-pollinator interactions and identified potential risks to specialized butterfly species due to habitat loss, fragmented landscapes, and changes in plant assemblages. We used 21 years of historical data from museum specimens to track the potential effects of direct and indirect changes in precipitation, temperature, monsoons, and wildfires on plant-pollinator mutualism in the Great Basin and Sierra Nevada. We found decreased pollen richness associated with butterflies within sites, as well as an increase in pollen grain abundance of drought-tolerant plants, particularly in the past 10 years. Moreover, increased global temperatures and the intensity and frequency of precipitation and wildfires were negatively correlated with pollen diversity. Our findings have important implications for understanding plant-pollinator interactions and the pollination services affected by global warming.


Asunto(s)
Cambio Climático , Polen , Polinización , Animales , Lepidópteros/fisiología , Mariposas Diurnas/fisiología , Ecosistema , Biodiversidad
3.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 120(41): e2301128120, 2023 10 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37748079

RESUMEN

Humans did not arrive on most of the world's islands until relatively recently, making islands favorable places for disentangling the timing and magnitude of natural and anthropogenic impacts on species diversity and distributions. Here, we focus on Amazona parrots in the Caribbean, which have close relationships with humans (e.g., as pets as well as sources of meat and colorful feathers). Caribbean parrots also have substantial fossil and archaeological records that span the Holocene. We leverage this exemplary record to showcase how combining ancient and modern DNA, along with radiometric dating, can shed light on diversification and extinction dynamics and answer long-standing questions about the magnitude of human impacts in the region. Our results reveal a striking loss of parrot diversity, much of which took place during human occupation of the islands. The most widespread species, the Cuban Parrot, exhibits interisland divergences throughout the Pleistocene. Within this radiation, we identified an extinct, genetically distinct lineage that survived on the Turks and Caicos until Indigenous human settlement of the islands. We also found that the narrowly distributed Hispaniolan Parrot had a natural range that once included The Bahamas; it thus became "endemic" to Hispaniola during the late Holocene. The Hispaniolan Parrot also likely was introduced by Indigenous people to Grand Turk and Montserrat, two islands where it is now also extirpated. Our research demonstrates that genetic information spanning paleontological, archaeological, and modern contexts is essential to understand the role of humans in altering the diversity and distribution of biota.


Asunto(s)
Amazona , Animales , Humanos , Indias Occidentales , Región del Caribe , Bahamas , Efectos Antropogénicos
4.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 183: 107775, 2023 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36972794

RESUMEN

The dynamic climate history that drove sea level fluctuation during past glacial periods mediated the movement of organisms between Asia and North America via the Bering Land Bridge. Investigations of the biogeographic histories of small mammals and their parasites demonstrate facets of a complex history of episodic geographic colonization and refugial isolation that structured diversity across the Holarctic. We use a large multi-locus nuclear DNA sequence dataset to robustly resolve relationships within the cestode genus Arostrilepis (Cyclophyllidea: Hymenolepididae), a widespread parasite of predominantly arvicoline rodents (voles, lemmings). Using this phylogeny, we confirm that several Asian Arostrilepis lineages colonized North America during up to four distinct glacial periods in association with different rodent hosts, consistent with taxon-pulse dynamics. A previously inferred westward dispersal across the land bridge is rejected. We also refine interpretations of past host colonization, providing evidence for several distinct episodes of expanding host range, which probably contributed to diversification by Arostrilepis. Finally, Arostrilepis is shown to be paraphyletic with respect to Hymenandrya thomomyis, a parasite of pocket gophers, confirming that ancient Arostrilepis species colonized new host lineages upon arriving in North America.


Asunto(s)
Cestodos , Parásitos , Animales , Filogenia , Cestodos/genética , América del Norte , Clima , Mamíferos , Arvicolinae
5.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 174: 107556, 2022 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35738542

RESUMEN

The avian feather louse Philopterus-complex (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera: Philopteridae) currently contains 12 genera that have been grouped together because of shared morphological characteristics. Although previously lumped into a single genus (Philopterus), more recent morphological treatments have separated the group into several different genera. Here we evaluate the status of these genera using DNA sequence data from 118 ingroup specimens belonging to ten genera in the Philopterus-complex: Australophilopterus Mey, 2004, Cinclosomicola Mey 2004, Clayiella Eichler, 1940, Corcorides Mey, 2004, Mayriphilopterus Mey, 2004, Paraphilopterus Mey 2004, Philopteroides Mey 2004, Philopterus Nitzsch, 1818, Tyranniphilopterus Mey, 2004, and Vinceopterus Gustafsson, Lei, Chu, Zou, and Bush, 2019. Our sampling includes 97 new louse-host association records. Our analyses suggest that the genus Debeauxoecus Conci, 1941, parasitic on pittas (Aves: Pittidae), is outside of the Philopterus-complex, and that there is strong support for the monophyly of a group containing the remaining genera from the complex. Some diverse genera, such as Philopterus (sensu stricto) and Mayriphilopterus are supported as monophyletic, whereas the genera Australophilopterus, Philopteroides, and Tyranniphilopterus are not. The present study is the largest phylogenetic reconstruction of avian lice belonging to the Philopterus-complex to date and suggests that further generic revision is needed in the group to integrate molecular and morphological information.


Asunto(s)
Anoplura , Enfermedades de las Aves , Ischnocera , Passeriformes , Phthiraptera , Animales , Enfermedades de las Aves/genética , Enfermedades de las Aves/parasitología , Plumas , Ischnocera/anatomía & histología , Ischnocera/genética , Passeriformes/parasitología , Phthiraptera/genética , Filogenia
6.
Ecol Evol ; 12(4): e8842, 2022 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35449583

RESUMEN

Batesian mimicry (BM), where a nontoxic species resembles a toxic species with aposematic coloring, has been recently described for a Neotropical species of the suboscine passerine (Laniocera hypopyrra). Understanding the order and series in which these characteristics evolved is unknown and requires character information from closely related taxa. Here, we trace the origin of mimetic traits and how they evolved by examining antipredator characteristics using images and other field-collected trait data from nest and nestlings along with data available in the literature for the Laniisominae clade and closely related taxa. We found that morphological modifications of the downy feathers appeared first in the broader clade leading to the Laniisominae clade followed by further morphological and behavioral characteristics within the Laniisominae clade leading to the full BM. Images of nestlings in the Laniisominae and closely related clades demonstrated the extent of antipredator and camouflage characteristics. We found a complex set of behavioral and morphological traits in this clade for reducing predation from hiding to camouflage to mimicry. We further propose the evolution of two distinctive mimicry strategies in the Laniisominae clade: (1) Batesian Mimicry, as described above and (2) Masquerade, resemblance to inedible objects commonly found in their local environment. This complex set of antipredator traits shed light on the diversity of antipredator characteristics in avian nestlings, particularly in neotropical areas where the avian diversity is highest. Unfortunately, there are hundreds of species in the neotropics that lack basic natural history information on nesting traits, and therefore, we are likely missing critical information on the diversity of antipredator characteristics across avian nestlings.

7.
Proc Biol Sci ; 289(1970): 20220042, 2022 03 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35259992

RESUMEN

Adaptive radiation is an important mechanism of organismal diversification and can be triggered by new ecological opportunities. Although poorly studied in this regard, parasites are an ideal group in which to study adaptive radiations because of their close associations with host species. Both experimental and comparative studies suggest that the ectoparasitic wing lice of pigeons and doves have adaptively radiated, leading to differences in body size and overall coloration. Here, we show that long-distance dispersal by dove hosts was central to parasite diversification because it provided new ecological opportunities for parasites to speciate after host-switching. We further show that among extant parasite lineages host-switching decreased over time, with cospeciation becoming the more dominant mode of parasite speciation. Taken together, our results suggest that host dispersal, followed by host-switching, provided novel ecological opportunities that facilitated adaptive radiation by parasites.


Asunto(s)
Parásitos , Phthiraptera , Animales , Columbidae , Interacciones Huésped-Parásitos , Filogenia
8.
iScience ; 24(4): 102239, 2021 Apr 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33997666

RESUMEN

Broad-scale, quantitative assessments of insect biodiversity and the factors shaping it remain particularly poorly explored. Here we undertook a spatial phylogenetic analysis of North American butterflies to test whether climate stability and temperature gradients have shaped their diversity and endemism. We also performed the first quantitative comparisons of spatial phylogenetic patterns between butterflies and flowering plants. We expected concordance between the two groups based on shared historical environmental drivers and presumed strong butterfly-host plant specializations. We instead found that biodiversity patterns in butterflies are strikingly different from flowering plants, especially warm deserts. In particular, butterflies show different patterns of phylogenetic clustering compared with flowering plants, suggesting differences in habitat conservation between the two groups. These results suggest that shared biogeographic histories and trophic associations do not necessarily assure similar diversity outcomes. The work has applied value in conservation planning, documenting warm deserts as a North American butterfly biodiversity hotspot.

10.
Biol Lett ; 17(3): 20200760, 2021 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33726563

RESUMEN

Worldwide decline in biodiversity during the Holocene has impeded a comprehensive understanding of pre-human biodiversity and biogeography. This is especially true on islands, because many recently extinct island taxa were morphologically unique, complicating assessment of their evolutionary relationships using morphology alone. The Caribbean remains an avian hotspot but was more diverse before human arrival in the Holocene. Among the recently extinct lineages is the enigmatic genus Nesotrochis, comprising three flightless species. Based on morphology, Nesotrochis has been considered an aberrant rail (Rallidae) or related to flufftails (Sarothruridae). We recovered a nearly complete mitochondrial genome of Nesotrochis steganinos from fossils, discovering that it is not a rallid but instead is sister to Sarothruridae, volant birds now restricted to Africa and New Guinea, and the recently extinct, flightless Aptornithidae of New Zealand. This result suggests a widespread or highly dispersive most recent common ancestor of the group. Prior to human settlement, the Caribbean avifauna had a far more cosmopolitan origin than is evident from extant species.


Asunto(s)
ADN Antiguo , Extinción Biológica , África , Animales , Región del Caribe , ADN Mitocondrial/genética , Fósiles , Haití , Humanos , Islas , Nueva Zelanda , Filogenia
11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 3113, 2021 02 04.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33542301

RESUMEN

Paleofeces or coprolites are often used to reconstruct diet at archaeological sites, usually using macroscopic analyses or targeted DNA amplification and sequencing. Here we present an integrative analysis of dog coprolites, combining macroscopic analyses, stable isotope measurements, and DNA shotgun sequencing to examine diet and health status. Dog coprolites used in this study were recovered from the Janey B. Goode and East Saint Louis archaeological sites, both of which are located in the American Bottom, an extensive Mississippi River floodplain in Southwestern Illinois. Based on the context of recovery, coprolites are assigned to the Late Woodland and Terminal Late Woodland periods (ca. 600-1050 AD). Given the scarcity of human remains from this time period, these dog coprolites can be useful as a proxy for understanding human diet during the Late Woodland period. We find that the Late Woodland dogs consumed a variety of fish as well as bird and plant taxa, possibly including maize, and also harbored intestinal parasites and pathogenic bacteria. By sequencing the fecal microbiome of the coprolites, we find some similarities to modern dog microbiomes, as well as specific taxa that can be used to discriminate between modern and ancient microbiomes, excluding soil contaminants. As dogs are often used as a surrogate to assess human diet, humans living with these dogs likely had a similar diet and were affected by similar parasites. These analyses, when integrated, show a more comprehensive view of ancient dog and human diet and health in the region during the initial expansion of maize agriculture than any individual method could alone.


Asunto(s)
ADN Antiguo/análisis , Dieta Paleolítica/historia , Heces , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Nematodos/genética , Animales , Arqueología/métodos , Aves/clasificación , Aves/genética , Código de Barras del ADN Taxonómico/métodos , Perros , Heces/microbiología , Heces/parasitología , Peces/clasificación , Peces/genética , Historia Medieval , Humanos , Illinois , Nematodos/clasificación , Plantas/clasificación , Plantas/genética , Análisis de Secuencia de ADN
12.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 155: 106998, 2021 02.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33130299

RESUMEN

The evolution of obligate parasites is often interpreted in light of their hosts' evolutionary history. An expanded approach is to examine the histories of multiple lineages of parasites that inhabit similar environments on a particular host lineage. Western North American chipmunks (genus Tamias) have a broad distribution, a history of divergence with gene flow, and host two species of sucking lice (Anoplura), Hoplopleura arboricola and Neohaematopinus pacificus. From total genomic sequencing, we obtained sequences of over 1100 loci sampled across the genomes of these lice to compare their evolutionary histories and examine the roles of host association in structuring louse relationships. Within each louse species, clades are largely associated with closely related chipmunk host species. Exceptions to this pattern appear to have a biogeographic component, but differ between the two louse species. Phylogenetic relationships among these major louse clades, in both species, are not congruent with chipmunk relationships. In the context of host associations, each louse lineage has a different evolutionary history, supporting the hypothesis that host-parasite assemblages vary both across the landscape and with the taxa under investigation. In addition, the louse Hoplopleura erratica (parasitizing the eastern Tamias striatus) is embedded within H. arboricola, rendering it paraphyletic. This phylogenetic result, together with comparable divergences within H. arboricola, indicate a need for taxonomic revision. Both host divergence and biogeographic components shape parasite diversification as demonstrated by the distinctive diversification patterns of these two independently evolving lineages that parasitize the same hosts.


Asunto(s)
Anoplura/clasificación , Parásitos/genética , Filogenia , Sciuridae/parasitología , Animales , Anoplura/genética , Secuencia de Bases , Especificidad de la Especie
13.
Proc Biol Sci ; 287(1921): 20193005, 2020 02 26.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32070251

RESUMEN

Tinamous host the highest generic diversity of lice of any group of birds, as well as hosting representatives of all four avian feather louse ecomorphs. Although the generic diversity of tinamou feather lice is well documented, few attempts have been made to reconstruct the phylogenetic relationships among these lice. To test whether tinamou feather lice form a monophyletic group as a whole, we used whole-genome sequencing to estimate a higher-level phylogeny of tinamou feather lice, together with a broad diversity of other avian feather louse groups. In total, we analysed sequences from over 1000 genes for 48 genera of avian lice using both concatenated and coalescent approaches to estimate the phylogeny of this diverse group of avian feather lice. Although the body louse ecomorph of tinamou feather lice formed a monophyletic group, they did not strictly form a monophyletic group together with the other three ecomorphs of tinamou feather lice. In particular, a clade comprised of several feather louse genera, mainly from South America, is nested phylogenetically within tinamou lice, which also have their main centre of diversity in South America. These results suggest in situ radiation of these parasites in South America.


Asunto(s)
Paleognatos/parasitología , Animales , Evolución Biológica , Aves/parasitología , Plumas/parasitología , Interacciones Huésped-Parásitos , Phthiraptera , Filogenia , América del Sur
14.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 1373, 2020 Jan 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31992804

RESUMEN

Quaternary paleontological and archaeological evidence often is crucial for uncovering the historical mechanisms shaping modern diversity and distributions. We take an interdisciplinary approach using multiple lines of evidence to understand how past human activity has shaped long-term animal diversity in an island system. Islands afford unique opportunities for such studies given their robust fossil and archaeological records. Herein, we examine the only non-volant terrestrial mammal endemic to the Bahamian Archipelago, the hutia Geocapromys ingrahami. This capromyine rodent once inhabited many islands but is now restricted to several small cays. Radiocarbon dated fossils indicate that hutias were present on the Great Bahama Bank islands before humans arrived at AD ~800-1000; all dates from other islands post-date human arrival. Using ancient DNA from a subset of these fossils, along with modern representatives of Bahamian hutia and related taxa, we develop a fossil-calibrated phylogeny. We found little genetic divergence among individuals from within either the northern or southern Bahamas but discovered a relatively deep North-South divergence (~750 ka). This result, combined with radiocarbon dating and archaeological evidence, reveals a pre-human biogeographic divergence, and an unexpected human role in shaping Bahamian hutia diversity and biogeography across islands.


Asunto(s)
ADN Antiguo , Fósiles , Filogenia , Roedores , Animales , Bahamas , Humanos , Filogeografía , Roedores/clasificación , Roedores/genética
15.
Commun Biol ; 2: 445, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31815200

RESUMEN

Nearly all lineages of birds host parasitic feather lice. Based on recent phylogenomic studies, the three major lineages of modern birds diverged from each other before the Cretaceous-Paleogene (K-Pg) mass extinction event. In contrast, studies of the phylogeny of feather lice on birds, indicate that these parasites diversified largely after this event. However, these studies were unable to reconstruct the ancestral avian host lineage for feather lice. Here we use genome sequences of a broad diversity of lice to reconstruct a phylogeny based on 1,075 genes. By comparing this louse evolutionary tree to the avian host tree, we show that feather lice began diversifying on the common ancestor of waterfowl and landfowl, then radiated onto other avian lineages by extensive host-switching. Dating analyses and cophylogenetic comparisons revealed that two of three lineages of birds that diverged before the K-Pg boundary acquired their feather lice after this event via host-switching.


Asunto(s)
Aves/parasitología , Extinción Biológica , Interacciones Huésped-Parásitos , Infestaciones por Piojos , Phthiraptera , Animales , Aves/clasificación , Aves/genética , Genoma , Genómica/métodos , Phthiraptera/clasificación , Phthiraptera/genética , Filogenia
16.
Ecology ; 100(9): e02788, 2019 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31225900

RESUMEN

Should we build our own phylogenetic trees based on gene sequence data, or can we simply use available synthesis phylogenies? This is a fundamental question that any study involving a phylogenetic framework must face at the beginning of the project. Building a phylogeny from gene sequence data (purpose-built phylogeny) requires more effort, expertise, and cost than subsetting an already available phylogeny (synthesis-based phylogeny). However, we still lack a comparison of how these two approaches to building phylogenetic trees influence common community phylogenetic analyses such as comparing community phylogenetic diversity and estimating trait phylogenetic signal. Here, we generated three purpose-built phylogenies and their corresponding synthesis-based trees (two from Phylomatic and one from the Open Tree of Life, OTL). We simulated 1,000 communities and 12,000 continuous traits along each purpose-built phylogeny. We then compared the effects of different trees on estimates of phylogenetic diversity (alpha and beta) and phylogenetic signal (Pagel's λ and Blomberg's K). Synthesis-based phylogenies generally yielded higher estimates of phylogenetic diversity when compared to purpose-built phylogenies. However, resulting measures of phylogenetic diversity from both types of phylogenies were highly correlated (Spearman's ρ  > 0.8 in most cases). Mean pairwise distance (both alpha and beta) is the index that is most robust to the differences in tree construction that we tested. Measures of phylogenetic diversity based on the OTL showed the highest correlation with measures based on the purpose-built phylogenies. Trait phylogenetic signal estimated with synthesis-based phylogenies, especially from the OTL, was also highly correlated with estimates of Blomberg's K or close to Pagel's λ from purpose-built phylogenies when traits were simulated under Brownian motion. For commonly employed community phylogenetic analyses, our results justify taking advantage of recently developed and continuously improving synthesis trees, especially the Open Tree of Life.


Asunto(s)
Filogenia
17.
J Adolesc Young Adult Oncol ; 8(5): 529-533, 2019 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31150299

RESUMEN

Pain is an understudied and undertreated consequence of cancer survival. Pain education is now a recommended treatment approach for persistent non-cancer pain, yet it has not been well applied to the context of adolescent and young adult (AYA) cancer survival. In March 2018, an interdisciplinary meeting was held in Adelaide, South Australia to set a research agenda for pain education in AYA cancer survivors. We identified that AYAs with persistent pain and those with heightened pain-related fear have the potential to benefit from pain education. We identified a number of unique challenges of engaging AYA survivors in pain education, and point towards future research directions.


Asunto(s)
Educación/métodos , Neoplasias/complicaciones , Manejo del Dolor/métodos , Adolescente , Adulto , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Adulto Joven
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(22): 10874-10882, 2019 05 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31085636

RESUMEN

Environmental change can create opportunities for increased rates of lineage diversification, but continued species accumulation has been hypothesized to lead to slowdowns via competitive exclusion and niche partitioning. Such density-dependent models imply tight linkages between diversification and trait evolution, but there are plausible alternative models. Little is known about the association between diversification and key ecological and phenotypic traits at broad phylogenetic and spatial scales. Do trait evolutionary rates coincide with rates of diversification, are there lags among these rates, or is diversification niche-neutral? To address these questions, we combine a deeply sampled phylogeny for a major flowering plant clade-Saxifragales-with phenotype and niche data to examine temporal patterns of evolutionary rates. The considerable phenotypic and habitat diversity of Saxifragales is greatest in temperate biomes. Global expansion of these habitats since the mid-Miocene provided ecological opportunities that, with density-dependent adaptive radiation, should result in simultaneous rate increases for diversification, niche, and phenotype, followed by decreases with habitat saturation. Instead, we find that these rates have significantly different timings, with increases in diversification occurring at the mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum (∼15 Mya), followed by increases in niche and phenotypic evolutionary rates by ∼5 Mya; all rates increase exponentially to the present. We attribute this surprising lack of temporal coincidence to initial niche-neutral diversification followed by ecological and phenotypic divergence coincident with more extreme cold and dry habitats that proliferated into the Pleistocene. A lack of density-dependence contrasts with investigations of other cosmopolitan lineages, suggesting alternative patterns may be common in the diversification of temperate lineages.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Evolución Biológica , Ecosistema , Fenotipo , Filogenia , Saxifragales/clasificación , Saxifragales/genética , Saxifragales/fisiología
19.
PeerJ ; 7: e6142, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30627489

RESUMEN

Aligning sequences for phylogenetic analysis (multiple sequence alignment; MSA) is an important, but increasingly computationally expensive step with the recent surge in DNA sequence data. Much of this sequence data is publicly available, but can be extremely fragmentary (i.e., a combination of full genomes and genomic fragments), which can compound the computational issues related to MSA. Traditionally, alignments are produced with automated algorithms and then checked and/or corrected "by eye" prior to phylogenetic inference. However, this manual curation is inefficient at the data scales required of modern phylogenetics and results in alignments that are not reproducible. Recently, methods have been developed for fully automating alignments of large data sets, but it is unclear if these methods produce alignments that result in compatible phylogenies when compared to more traditional alignment approaches that combined automated and manual methods. Here we use approximately 33,000 publicly available sequences from the hepatitis B virus (HBV), a globally distributed and rapidly evolving virus, to compare different alignment approaches. Using one data set comprised exclusively of whole genomes and a second that also included sequence fragments, we compared three MSA methods: (1) a purely automated approach using traditional software, (2) an automated approach including by eye manual editing, and (3) more recent fully automated approaches. To understand how these methods affect phylogenetic results, we compared resulting tree topologies based on these different alignment methods using multiple metrics. We further determined if the monophyly of existing HBV genotypes was supported in phylogenies estimated from each alignment type and under different statistical support thresholds. Traditional and fully automated alignments produced similar HBV phylogenies. Although there was variability between branch support thresholds, allowing lower support thresholds tended to result in more differences among trees. Therefore, differences between the trees could be best explained by phylogenetic uncertainty unrelated to the MSA method used. Nevertheless, automated alignment approaches did not require human intervention and were therefore considerably less time-intensive than traditional approaches. Because of this, we conclude that fully automated algorithms for MSA are fully compatible with older methods even in extremely difficult to align data sets. Additionally, we found that most HBV diagnostic genotypes did not correspond to evolutionarily-sound groups, regardless of alignment type and support threshold. This suggests there may be errors in genotype classification in the database or that HBV genotypes may need a revision.

20.
Nat Plants ; 5(1): 11-13, 2019 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30598535

RESUMEN

Advances in biodiversity science, coupled with new technologies and big data platforms, are expanding our ability to explore and understand the natural world. For the first time, biologists can link data from growing repositories and computational approaches to better integrate plant evolution and ecology at the broadest extents. The emerging synthesis is reshaping our views of plant diversification and guiding new approaches to conservation.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Bases de Datos Factuales , Ecología/métodos , Fenómenos Fisiológicos de las Plantas , Filogenia
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