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1.
Geriatr Nurs ; 36(2 Suppl): S16-20, 2015.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25784082

RESUMEN

Dually enrolled Medicare-Medicaid older adults are a vulnerable population. We tested House's Conceptual Framework for Understanding Social Inequalities in Health and Aging in Medicare-Medicaid enrollees by examining the extent to which disparities indicators, which included race, age, gender, neighborhood poverty, education, income, exercise (e.g., walking), and physical activity (e.g., housework) influence physical function and emotional well-being. This secondary analysis included 337 Black (31%) and White (69%) older Medicare-Medicaid enrollees. Using path analysis, we determined that race, neighborhood poverty, education, and income did not influence physical function or emotional well-being. However, physical activity (e.g., housework) was associated with an increased self-report of physical function and emotional well-being of ß = .23, p < .001; ß = .17, p < .01, respectively. Future studies of factors that influence physical function and emotional well-being in this population should take into account health status indicators such as allostatic load, comorbidity, and perceived racism/discrimination.


Asunto(s)
Ejercicio , Disparidades en el Estado de Salud , Medicaid , Medicare , Salud Mental , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Emociones , Femenino , Humanos , Masculino , Factores Socioeconómicos , Estados Unidos
2.
Popul Health Manag ; 17(2): 106-11, 2014 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24156664

RESUMEN

The specific aim of the PEACE pilot study was to determine the feasibility of a fully powered study to test the effectiveness of an in-home geriatrics/palliative care interdisciplinary care management intervention for improving measures of utilization, quality of care, and quality of life in enrollees of Ohio's community-based long-term care Medicaid waiver program, PASSPORT. This was a randomized pilot study (n=40 intervention [IG], n=40 usual care) involving new enrollees into PASSPORT who were >60 years old. This was an in-home interdisciplinary chronic illness care management intervention by PASSPORT care managers collaborating with a hospital-based geriatrics/palliative care specialist team and the consumer's primary care physician. This pilot was not powered to test hypotheses; instead, it was hypothesis generating. Primary outcomes measured symptom control, mood, decision making, spirituality, and quality of life. Little difference was seen in primary outcomes; however, utilization favored the IG. At 12 months, the IG had fewer hospital visits (50% vs. 55%, P=0.65) and fewer nursing facility admissions (22.5% vs. 32.5%, P=0.32). Using hospital-based specialists interfacing with a community agency to provide a team-based approach to care of consumers with chronic illnesses was found to be feasible. Lack of change in symptom control or quality of life outcome measures may be related to the tools used, as these were validated in populations closer to the end of life. Data from this pilot study will be used to calculate the sample size needed for a fully powered trial.


Asunto(s)
Planificación Anticipada de Atención/organización & administración , Servicios de Atención de Salud a Domicilio/organización & administración , Cuidados a Largo Plazo/organización & administración , Calidad de Vida , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Femenino , Anciano Frágil , Evaluación Geriátrica/métodos , Promoción de la Salud , Servicios de Salud para Ancianos/organización & administración , Humanos , Comunicación Interdisciplinaria , Masculino , Ohio , Cuidados Paliativos/organización & administración , Proyectos Piloto , Evaluación de Programas y Proyectos de Salud , Valores de Referencia , Resultado del Tratamiento
3.
Am J Hosp Palliat Care ; 30(7): 717-25, 2013 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23125397

RESUMEN

Factorial surveys were used to examine community-based long-term care providers' judgments about consumers' need for advance care planning (ACP) and comfort levels in discussing ACP. Providers (448 registered nurses and social workers) judged vignettes based on hypothetical consumers. Hierarchical linear models indicated providers judged consumers who were older, had end-stage diagnoses, multiple emergency department visits, and uninvolved caregivers as most in need of ACP. These variables explained 10% of the variance in judgments. Providers' beliefs about ACP predicted judgments of need for ACP and comfort level in discussing ACP. Provider characteristics explained more variance in comfort levels (44%) than in judgments of need (20%). This study demonstrates the need for tailored educational programs to increase comfort levels and address ACP misconceptions.


Asunto(s)
Planificación Anticipada de Atención , Cuidados a Largo Plazo , Cuidadores , Humanos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios
4.
Popul Health Manag ; 15(2): 71-7, 2012 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-22088165

RESUMEN

Practice guidelines are available for hospice and palliative medicine specialists and geriatricians. However, these guidelines do not adequately address the needs of patients who straddle the 2 specialties: homebound chronically ill patients. The purpose of this article is to describe the theoretical basis for the Promoting Effective Advance Care for Elders (PEACE) randomized pilot study. PEACE is an ongoing 2-group randomized pilot study (n=80) to test an in-home interdisciplinary care management intervention that combines palliative care approaches to symptom management, psychosocial and emotional support, and advance care planning with geriatric medicine approaches to optimizing function and addressing polypharmacy. The population comprises new enrollees into PASSPORT, Ohio's community-based, long-term care Medicaid waiver program. All PASSPORT enrollees have geriatric/palliative care crossover needs because they are nursing home eligible. The intervention is based on Wagner's Chronic Care Model and includes comprehensive interdisciplinary care management for these low-income frail elders with chronic illnesses, uses evidence-based protocols, emphasizes patient activation, and integrates with community-based long-term care and other community agencies. Our model, with its standardized, evidence-based medical and psychosocial intervention protocols, will transport easily to other sites that are interested in optimizing outcomes for community-based, chronically ill older adults.


Asunto(s)
Enfermedad Crónica , Anciano Frágil , Promoción de la Salud/organización & administración , Servicios de Atención de Salud a Domicilio/organización & administración , Personas Imposibilitadas , Planificación de Atención al Paciente/organización & administración , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Determinación de la Elegibilidad , Medicina Basada en la Evidencia , Femenino , Evaluación Geriátrica , Humanos , Masculino , Medicaid , Ohio , Cuidados Paliativos , Proyectos Piloto , Pobreza , Proyectos de Investigación , Apoyo Social , Estados Unidos
5.
Popul Health Manag ; 14(3): 137-42, 2011 Jun.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21323461

RESUMEN

Interdisciplinary care management is advocated for optimal care of patients with many types of chronic illnesses; however, few models exist that have been tested using randomized trials. The purpose of this report is to describe the theoretical basis for the After Discharge Management of Low Income Frail Elderly (AD-LIFE) trial, which is an ongoing 2-group randomized trial (total n = 530) to test a chronic illness management and transitional care intervention. The intervention is based on Wagner's chronic illness care model and involves comprehensive posthospitalization nurse-led interdisciplinary care management for low income frail elders with chronic illnesses, employs evidence-based protocols that were developed using the Assessing Care of Vulnerable Elders (ACOVE) guidelines, emphasizes patient activation, and integrates with community-based long-term care and other community agencies. The primary aim of the AD-LIFE trial is to test a chronic illness management intervention in vulnerable patients who are eligible for Medicare and Medicaid. This model, with its standardized, evidence-based medical and psychosocial intervention protocols, will be easily transportable to other sites interested in optimizing outcomes for chronically ill older adults. If the results of the AD-LIFE trial demonstrate the superiority of the intervention, then this data will be important for health care policy makers.


Asunto(s)
Continuidad de la Atención al Paciente , Anciano Frágil , Alta del Paciente , Proyectos de Investigación , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Enfermedad Crónica , Técnicas de Apoyo para la Decisión , Medicina Basada en la Evidencia , Promoción de la Salud , Humanos , Masculino , Modelos Teóricos , Médicos de Atención Primaria , Pobreza/economía , Pobreza/estadística & datos numéricos , Guías de Práctica Clínica como Asunto , Autocuidado/métodos , Estados Unidos
6.
Acad Emerg Med ; 17(7): 679-86, 2010 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20653580

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Injuries are a common reason for emergency department (ED) visits by older patients. Although injuries in older patients can be serious, 75% of these patients are discharged home after their ED visit. These patients may be at risk for short-term functional decline related to their injuries or treatment. OBJECTIVES: The objectives were to determine the incidence of functional decline in older ED patients with blunt injuries not requiring hospital admission for treatment, to describe their care needs, and to determine the predictors of short-term functional decline in these patients. METHODS: This institutional review board-approved, prospective, longitudinal study was conducted in two community teaching hospital EDs with a combined census of 97,000 adult visits. Eligible patients were > or = 65 years old, with blunt injuries <48 hours old, who could answer questions or had a proxy. We excluded those too ill to participate; skilled nursing home patients; those admitted for surgery, major trauma, or acute medical conditions; patients with poor baseline function; and previously enrolled patients. Interviewers collected baseline data and the used the Older Americans Resources and Services (OARS) questionnaire to assess function and service use. Potential predictors of functional decline were derived from prior studies of functional decline after an ED visit and clinical experience. Follow-up occurred at 1 and 4 weeks, when the OARS questions were repeated. A three-point drop in activities of the daily living (ADL) score defined functional decline. Data are presented as means and proportions with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Logistic regression was used to model potential predictors with functional decline at 1 week as the dependent variable. RESULTS: A total of 1,186 patients were evaluated for eligibility, 814 were excluded, 129 refused, and 13 were missed, leaving 230 enrolled patients. The mean (+/-SD) age was 77 (+/-7.5) years, and 70% were female. In the first week, 92 of 230 patients (40%, 95% CI = 34% to 47%) had functional decline, 114 of 230 (49%, 95% CI = 43% to 56%) had new services initiated, and 76 of 230 had an unscheduled medical contact (33%, 95% CI = 27% to 39%). At 4 weeks, 77 of 219 had functional decline (35%, 95% CI = 29% to 42%), 141 of 219 had new services (65%, 95% CI = 58% to 71%), and 123 of 219 had an unscheduled medical contact (56%, 95% CI = 49% to 63%), including 15% with a repeated ED visit and 11% with a hospital admission. Family members provided the majority of new services at both time periods. Significant predictors of functional decline at 1 week were female sex (odds ratio [OR] = 2.2, 95% CI = 1.1 to 4.5), instrumental ADL dependence (IADL; OR = 2.5, 95% CI = 1.3 to 4.8), upper extremity fracture or dislocation (OR = 5.5, 95% CI = 2.5 to 11.8), lower extremity fracture or dislocation (OR = 4.6, 95% CI = 1.4 to 15.4), trunk injury (OR = 2.4, 95% CI = 1.1 to 5.3), and head injury (OR = 0.48, 95% CI = 0.23 to 1.0). CONCLUSIONS: Older patients have a significant risk of short-term functional decline and other adverse outcomes after ED visits for injuries not requiring hospitalization for treatment. The most significant predictors of functional decline are upper and lower extremity fractures.


Asunto(s)
Actividades Cotidianas , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital/estadística & datos numéricos , Heridas no Penetrantes/fisiopatología , Heridas no Penetrantes/terapia , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Comorbilidad , Femenino , Fracturas Óseas/fisiopatología , Fracturas Óseas/terapia , Evaluación Geriátrica , Hospitales de Enseñanza , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Estudios Longitudinales , Masculino , Escala del Estado Mental , Valor Predictivo de las Pruebas , Estudios Prospectivos , Encuestas y Cuestionarios , Resultado del Tratamiento
7.
Cleve Clin J Med ; 71(7): 561-8, 2004 Jul.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-15320365

RESUMEN

Many medications that are safe in most patients pose serious risks in older patients, including functional decline, delirium, falls, and poorer outcomes. We describe our institution's program of "academic detailing," designed to reduce the use of three high-risk drugs in elderly patients.


Asunto(s)
Amitriptilina/efectos adversos , Sistemas de Información en Farmacia Clínica , Difenhidramina/efectos adversos , Geriatría/normas , Unidades Hospitalarias/normas , Sistemas de Medicación en Hospital/normas , Meperidina/efectos adversos , Gestión de Riesgos/métodos , Gestión de la Calidad Total/métodos , Anciano , Contraindicaciones , Interacciones de Drogas , Humanos , Ohio
8.
J Am Geriatr Soc ; 51(11): 1660-7, 2003 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-14687400

RESUMEN

The Acute Care for Elders (ACE) model of care is a multicomponent intervention that improves outcomes for older patients hospitalized for acute medical illnesses. Likewise, stroke units improve outcomes for patients with acute stroke, yet the descriptions of their structure and approach to stroke management are heterogeneous. The purpose of this article is to describe how implementing the ACE model of care, using a continuous quality-improvement process, can serve as a foundation for a successful stroke unit aimed at improving stroke care. The ACE intervention (a prepared environment, interdisciplinary team management, patient-centered nursing care plans, early discharge planning, and review of medical care) was amplified in a community teaching hospital for stroke-specific care by creating a stroke interdisciplinary team, evidence-based stroke orders and protocols, and a redesigned environment. Administrative data show that the ACE model can be successfully adapted to create a disease-specific program for stroke patients, having the potential to improve the process of care and clinical stroke outcomes.


Asunto(s)
Unidades Hospitalarias/organización & administración , Accidente Cerebrovascular/terapia , Anciano , Femenino , Unidades Hospitalarias/normas , Humanos , Masculino , Ensayos Clínicos Controlados Aleatorios como Asunto , Accidente Cerebrovascular/mortalidad , Resultado del Tratamiento
9.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 11(2): 88-98, 2002.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-17903862

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: This randomized controlled trial tested the effectiveness of comprehensive, interdisciplinary postdischarge care management in improving a profile of indicators of health recovery and secondary prevention (profile of health and prevention) in stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) patients. METHODS: Ninety-six stroke/TIA patients were randomized to usual care or intervention at discharge from our acute stroke unit. The intervention group received an in-home biopsychosocial assessment by an advanced practice nurse at 1 month. A care plan was developed by an interdisciplinary team and implemented in collaboration with the patient's primary care physician. The profile of health and prevention, measured at 3 months, was comprised of 5 domains: (1) Neuromotor Function, (2) Severe Complications, (3) Quality of Life, (4) Management of Risk for common poststroke complications and recurrent stroke, and (5) Stroke Knowledge. A single global hypothesis test across multiple end points was used to compare the 2 groups. RESULTS: The intervention significantly improved the profile of health and prevention (P < .0001). In addition, each domain showed a positive effect of the intervention. Effect sizes (in standard deviation units) of the intervention on domains were .1 for Neuromotor Function (90% confidence interval [CI] = -.3 to .5); .4 for Severe Complications (90% CI = .1 to .8); .5 for Quality of Life (90% CI = .1 to .9); .6 for Management of Risk for common poststroke complications and recurrent stroke (90% CI = .3 to 1.); and 1.0 for Stroke Knowledge (90% CI = .6 to 1.4). CONCLUSIONS: This model of care management resulted in a significantly better profile of health and prevention for stroke/TIA patients 3 months postdischarge.

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